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Controlled release

Dariusz Dziga, Anna Maksylewicz, Magdalena Maroszek, Sylwia Marek
Under some conditions the growth of toxic cyanobacteria must be controlled by treatment with algicidal compounds. Hydrogen peroxide has been proposed as an efficient and relatively safe chemical which can remove cyanobacteria from the environment selectively, without affecting other microorganisms. However, the uncontrolled release of secondary metabolites, including toxins may occur after such a treatment. Our proposal presented in this paper concerns fast biodegradation of microcystin released after cell lysis induced by hydrogen peroxide...
March 15, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Nora Freyer, Selina Greuel, Fanny Knöspel, Florian Gerstmann, Lisa Storch, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Jennifer Foster Harris, Rashi Iyer, Frank Schubert, Katrin Zeilinger
The accurate prediction of hepatotoxicity demands validated human in vitro models that can close the gap between preclinical animal studies and clinical trials. In this study we investigated the response of primary human liver cells to toxic drug exposure in a perfused microscale 3D liver bioreactor. The cellularized bioreactors were treated with 5, 10, or 30 mM acetaminophen (APAP) used as a reference substance. Lactate production significantly decreased upon treatment with 30 mM APAP ( p < 0.05) and ammonia release significantly increased in bioreactors treated with 10 or 30 mM APAP ( p < 0...
March 15, 2018: Bioengineering
Young Hak Roh, Young Do Koh, Jong Oh Kim, Kyu Ho Lee, Hyun Sik Gong, Goo Hyun Baek
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pillar pain (deep-seated wrist pain worsened by leaning on the heel of the hand) sometimes occurs after carpal tunnel release (CTR), leading to weakness in the hand and delayed return to work. Increased pain sensitivity has been found to be associated with worse symptoms and poorer treatment response in a number of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, but few studies have investigated the association of pain sensitization with pillar pain after CTR. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is preoperative pain sensitization in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) associated with increased severity of pillar pain after open CTR? (2) What other demographic, electrophysiological, or preoperative clinical characteristics are associated with pillar pain after CTR? METHODS: Over a 35-month period, one surgeon performed 162 open carpal tunnel releases...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Jong Pil Yoon, Chang-Hwa Lee, Jae Wook Jung, Hyun-Joo Lee, Yong-Soo Lee, Ja-Yeon Kim, Ga Young Park, Jin Hyun Choi, Seok Won Chung
BACKGROUND: The failure rate for healing after rotator cuff repair is relatively high. PURPOSE: To establish a system for sustained release of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) using an alginate scaffold and evaluate the effects of the sustained release of TGF-β1 on rotator cuff healing in a rabbit model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Before the in vivo animal study, a standard MTS assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation and metabolic activity on the alginate scaffold...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Petr Chytil, Milada Sirova, Júlia Kudláčová, Blanka Rihova, Karel Ulbrich, Tomáš Etrych
Herein, the biodegradable micelle-forming amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer conjugates with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) designed for enhanced tumor accumulation were investigated, and the influence of their stability in the blood stream on biodistribution, namely, tumor uptake, and in vivo antitumor efficacy were evaluated in detail. Dox was attached to the polymer carrier by a hydrazone bond enabling pH-controlled drug release. While the polymer-drug conjugates were stable in a buffer at pH 7...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kuikun Yang, Yijing Liu, Yi Liu, Qian Zhang, Chuncai Kong, Chenglin Yi, Zijian Zhou, Zhantong Wang, Guofeng Zhang, Yang Zhang, Niveen M Khashab, Xiaoyuan Chen, Zhihong Nie
This article describes the fabrication of nanosized magneto-vesicles (MVs) comprising tunable layers of densely-packed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in membranes via cooperative assembly of polymer-tethered SPIONs and free poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA). The membrane thickness of MVs could be well controlled from 9.8 to 93.2 nm by varying the weight ratio of PS-b-PAA to SPIONs. The increase in membrane thickness was accompanied with the transition from monolayer MVs, to double-layered MVs and to multilayered MVs (MuMVs)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
E Millart, S Lesieur, V Faivre
Introduction The development of multifunctional drug carriers provides many opportunities in the field of drug delivery. Among them, carriers loaded with both drug and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles would allow the combination of chemotherapy with the possibility of monitoring or controlling the distribution of the nanocarrier in the body, triggering drug release and/or applying a synergistic hyperthermia treatment. Areas covered The present review covers biocompatible lipid-based nanotechnologies that have been employed to co-encapsulate drug and iron oxide...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Haeree Park, Yeongkyu Choi, M T Jeena, Eungjin Ahn, Yuri Choi, Myeong-Gyun Kang, Chae Gyu Lee, Tae-Hyuk Kwon, Hyun-Woo Rhee, Ja-Hyoung Ryu, Byeong-Su Kim
Owing to the unique advantages of combining the characteristics of hydrogels and nanoparticles, nanogels are actively investigated as a promising platform for advanced biomedical applications. In this work, a self-cross-linked hyperbranched polyglycerol nanogel is synthesized using the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction based on a novel disulfide-containing polymer. A series of structural analyses confirm the tunable size and cross-linking density depending on the type of polymer (homo- or copolymer) and the amount of reducing agent, dithiothreitol, used in the preparation of the nanogels...
March 15, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Yong-Jun Li, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Wei Lei, Can Chen, Yang Li, Hong Yu, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Xiao-Long Wang, Neal L Weintraub, Yao-Liang Tang
Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in China, which contains two principal components, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR). Thus far, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of SJP on the cardiac microenvironment are unknown. Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) communicate with cardiomyocytes (CMs) through the release of microvesicles (exosomes) to restore cardiac homeostasis and elicit repair, in part through epigenetic regulatory mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Xiao-Fen Ruan, Cheng-Wei Ju, Yan Shen, Yu-Tao Liu, Il-Man Kim, Hong Yu, Neal Weintraub, Xiao-Long Wang, Yao-Liang Tang
Cardiac mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs) are endogenous cardiac stromal cells that play a role in heart repair after injury. C-MSC-derived exosomes (Exo) have shown protective effects against apoptosis induced by acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Suxiao Jiuxin pill (SJP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula used in China for the treatment of acute myocardial ischemia, which contains tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and borneol (BOR) as major components. In this study, we investigated whether SJP treatment affected exosome release from C-MSCs in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Ling Gui Ning, En-Tang Kang, Yun Bing Wang, Xue Feng Hu, Li Qun Xu
Traditional use of antibiotics through injection or oral ingestion has many disadvantages, such as detrimental side effects in the host, less effectiveness, high and repeated doses, and development of drug resistance. For prevention and treatment of implant-associated infections, the continuous local delivery of antibiotics is required. Thus, there is a strong demand for the development of drug carrier systems to control the release of antibiotics in a moderate manner over an appropriate timescale. This review summarizes the carrier platforms used for the loading of antibiotics, and highlights their drug release behaviors as well as in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties...
March 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Daniel J Ellenberger, Dave A Miller, Sandra U Kucera, Robert O Williams
Vemurafenib is a poorly soluble, low permeability drug that has a demonstrated need for a solubility-enhanced formulation. However, conventional approaches for amorphous solid dispersion production are challenging due to the physiochemical properties of the compound. A suitable and novel method for creating an amorphous solid dispersion, known as solvent-controlled coprecipitation, was developed to make a material known as microprecipitated bulk powder (MBP). However, this approach has limitations in its processing and formulation space...
March 14, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Augusta Pisanu, Laura Boi, Giovanna Mulas, Saturnino Spiga, Sandro Fenu, Anna R Carta
Neuroinflammation is a main component of Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology, where unremitting reactive microglia and microglia-secreted soluble molecules such as cytokines, contribute to the neurodegenerative process as part of an aberrant immune reaction. Besides, pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α, play an important neuromodulatory role in the healthy and diseased brain, being involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, synaptic scaling and brain plasticity. Recent preclinical studies have evidenced an exacerbated neuroinflammatory reaction in the striatum of parkinsonian rats that developed dyskinetic responses following L-DOPA administration...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Haruhiko Tokuda, Gen Kuroyanagi, Takashi Onuma, Yukiko Enomoto, Tomoaki Doi, Hiroki Iida, Takanobu Otsuka, Shinji Ogura, Toru Iwama, Kumi Kojima, Osamu Kozawa
It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Chunqing Dou, Mingming Han, Bao Zhang, Liyuan Sun, Xin Jin, Tao Li
Previous studies have indicated that chrysotoxene may be a potential drug used to treat tumors, however the effect of chrysotoxene on hepatoblastoma remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect and elucidate the potential molecular mechanism of chrysotoxene on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Chrysotoxene (5-40 µg/ml) exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells with inhibitory rates of 24.67-84.06% (half maximal inhibitory concentration, 19.64 µg/ml), observed from a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fei Tao, Junjuan Wang, Zhongfeng Guo, Jingjing Hu, Xiangming Xu, Jiarong Yang, Xianming Chen, Xiaoping Hu
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is a destructive disease of wheat worldwide. The disease is preferably controlled by growing resistant cultivars. Wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 (XY 6) has been resistant to stripe rust since its release. In the previous studies, XY 6 was found to have higher-temperature seedling-plant (HTSP) resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms of HTSP resistance were not clear. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in HTSP resistance, we sequenced 30 cDNA libraries constructed from XY 6 seedlings exposed to several temperature treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Jenna Jones, Emmanuel Donkor, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Farris Pole, Chang-Hao Wu, Claire Vieille, Michael W W Adams, Bertrand B Hankoua
To address national and global low-carbon fuel targets, there is great interest in alternative plant species such as cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), which are high-yielding, resilient, and are easily converted to fuels using the existing technology. In this study the genes encoding hyperthermophilic archaeal starch-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and glucoamylase from Sulfolobus solfataricus , together with the gene encoding a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ( glgC ) from Escherichia coli , were simultaneously expressed in cassava roots to enhance starch accumulation and its subsequent hydrolysis to sugar...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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