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Osteoclasts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150298/spontaneous-osteoclastogenesis-hypothesis-for-gender-unrelated-osteoporosis-screening-and-diagnosis
#1
F Salamanna, R Giardino, M Fini
Women are at greater risk of developing osteoporosis (OP). However, in the past few years it has become more widely recognized that OP is a significant problem also in men although OP is frequently under-diagnosed and, consequently, under treated in men. Most guidelines, screening and fracture risk evaluation methods as well as pharmacologic agents have been developed for women and then adapted to men. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) is reported as T score and the capability of DEXA to diagnose OP and predict fracture risk is still debated...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149826/novel-functions-of-microrna-17-92-cluster-in-the-endocrine-system
#2
Shan Wan, Xiang Chen, Yuedong He, Xijie Yu
BACKGROUND: MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149648/dried-plum-alleviates-symptoms-of-inflammatory-arthritis-in-tnf-transgenic-mice
#3
Faryal Mirza, Joseph Lorenzo, Hicham Drissi, Francis Y Lee, Do Y Soung
Dried plum (DP), a rich source of polyphenols has been shown to have bone-preserving properties in both animal models of osteoporosis and postmenopausal women. We evaluated if DP alleviated the destruction of joints in transgenic mice (TG) that overexpress human tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a genetic model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A four-week treatment of 20% DP diet in TG slowed the onset of arthritis and reduced bone erosions in the joints compared to TG on a regular diet. This was associated with fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive cells, suggesting decreased osteoclastogenesis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149622/the-chemokine-receptor-type-4-antagonist-amd3100-interrupts-experimental-tooth-movement-in-rats
#4
Kasumi Hatano, Yuji Ishida, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Jun Hosomichi, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Risa Usumi-Fujita, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Naoki Shibutani, Sawa Kaneko, Takashi Ono
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in osteoclast accumulation, and the influence of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) under mechanical force application to periodontal tissues, by administration of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. DESIGN: The upper right first molar (M1) of rats was moved mesially with a 10-g force titanium-nickel closed coil spring. Rats were treated with phosphate-buffered saline or AMD3100 (5mg/kg), which is a SDF-1 antagonist...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149593/notch2-hajdu-cheney-mutations-escape-scf-fbw7-dependent-proteolysis-to-promote-osteoporosis
#5
Hidefumi Fukushima, Kouhei Shimizu, Asami Watahiki, Seira Hoshikawa, Tomoki Kosho, Daiju Oba, Seiji Sakano, Makiko Arakaki, Aya Yamada, Katsuyuki Nagashima, Koji Okabe, Satoshi Fukumoto, Eijiro Jimi, Anna Bigas, Keiichi I Nakayama, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Wenyi Wei, Hiroyuki Inuzuka
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149533/monocyte-specific-knockout-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-results-in-osteopetrosis-phenotype-blocks-bone-loss-in-ovariectomized-mice-and-reveals-an-important-function-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-osteoclast-differentiation-and-function
#6
Wei Chen, Guochun Zhu, Joel Jules, Diep Nguyen, Yi-Ping Li
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/ebpα) is critical for osteoclastogenesis by regulating osteoclast (OC) lineage commitment and is also important for OC differentiation and function in vitro. However, the role of C/ebpα in postnatal skeletal development has not been reported owing to lethality in C/ebpα(-/-) mice from hypoglycemia within 8 hours after birth. Herein, we generated conditional knockout mice by deleting the C/ebpα gene in monocyte via LysM-Cre to examine its role in OC differentiation and function...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149180/roles-of-vegf-flt-1-signaling-in-malignant-behaviors-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Ajiravudh Subarnbhesaj, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Chea Chanbora, Aki Mikuriya, Phuong Thao Nguyen, Hisako Furusho, Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Minoru Fujita, Shigeaki Toratani, Masaaki Takechi, Shumpei Niida, Takashi Takata
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific signaling protein for vascular endothelial cells that plays a critical role in tumor growth and invasion through angiogenesis, and may contribute to cell migration and activation of pre-osteoclasts, osteoclasts and some tumor cells. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify the detailed roles of VEGF-Flt-1 signaling in bone invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. RESULTS: Forty-two (42) of 54 cases with gingival SCC (77...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148577/mouse-models-to-evaluate-the-role-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-skeletal-maintenance-and-adaptation
#8
REVIEW
Amanda M Rooney, Marjolein C H van der Meulen
Estrogen signaling and mechanical loading have individual and combined effects on skeletal maintenance and adaptation. Previous work investigating estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo using global estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene knockout mouse models has provided information regarding the role of ERα in regulating bone mass and adaptation to mechanical stimulation. However, these models have inherent limitations that confound interpretation of the data. Therefore, recent studies have focused on mice with targeted deletion of ERα from specific bone cells and their precursors...
November 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148561/the-role-of-il-23-receptor-signaling-in-inflammation-mediated-erosive-autoimmune-arthritis-and-bone-remodeling
#9
REVIEW
Wida Razawy, Marjolein van Driel, Erik Lubberts
The IL-23/Th17 axis has been implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). RA and PsA are heterogeneous diseases with substantial burden on patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the IL-23 signaling pathway may be involved in the development of autoimmunity and erosive joint damage. IL-23 can act either directly or indirectly on bone forming osteoblasts as well as on bone resorbing osteoclasts. As IL-23 regulates the activity of cells of the bone, it is conceivable that in addition to inflammation-mediated joint erosion, IL-23 may play a role in physiological bone remodeling...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148078/soluble-tam-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-correlation-with-disease-activity-and-bone-destruction
#10
Liling Xu, Fanlei Hu, Huaqun Zhu, Xu Liu, Lianjie Shi, Yun Li, Hua Zhong, Su Yin
The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (TAM RTK) are a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, the role of which in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus has been well-explored, while their functions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of soluble TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (sAxl/sMer/sTyro3) in the patients with RA. 306 RA patients, 100 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 120 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. The serum concentrations of sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 were measured by ELISA, then the associations between sAxl/sMer/sTyro3 levels and clinical features of RA patients were analyzed...
November 17, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146302/mechanisms-involved-in-bone-resorption-regulated-by-vitamin-d
#11
REVIEW
Yuko Nakamichi, Nobuyuki Udagawa, Tatsuo Suda, Naoyuki Takahashi
Active forms of vitamin D enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in osteoblast-lineage cells consisting of osteoblasts and osteocytes. This pro-resorptive activity was evident basically with higher concentrations of active vitamin D than those expected in physiological conditions. Nevertheless, vitamin D compounds have been used in Japan for treating osteoporosis to increase bone mineral density (BMD). Of note, the increase in BMD by long-term treatment with pharmacological (=near-physiological) doses of vitamin D compounds was caused by the suppression of bone resorption...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146189/oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-promotes-osteoclast-differentiation-from-cd68-positive-mononuclear-cells-by-regulating-hmgb1-release
#12
Chunfeng Hou, Luan Luan, Chunfeng Ren
Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. The circulating ox-LDL/LDL ratio is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study, we found that the ox-LDL/LDL ratio was increased in AS patients. The levels of serum RANKL and HMGB1 were also elevated in AS patients, and the number of CD68(+)/RANK(+) cells was increased in peripheral blood from AS patients. 0.03% ox-LDL in LDL, similar to the ox-LDL/LDL ratio in peripheral blood from AS patients, promoted cytoplasmic translocation and release of HMGB1 as well as RANK expression...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145829/effect-of-a-rare-genetic-variant-of-tm7sf4-gene-on-osteoclasts-of-patients-with-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#13
Emilie Laurier, Nathalie Amiable, Edith Gagnon, Jacques P Brown, Laëtitia Michou
BACKGROUND: Dendritic Cell-Specific Transmembrane Protein (DC-STAMP) is involved in osteoclastogenesis with a key role in mononucleated osteoclasts fusion. We reported in patients with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) a rare variant (rs62620995) in the TM7SF4 gene, encoding for DC-STAMP, which changes a highly conserved amino acid, possibly damaging according to in silico predictions. This study aimed at determining the functional effects of this variant on osteoclast phenotype in PDB. METHODS: Fifty ml of peripheral blood were collected in pagetic patients carrier of this variant (n = 4) or not (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
November 16, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145718/lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-autophagy-is-responsible-for-enhanced-osteoclastogenesis
#14
Ok-Joo Sul, Hyun-Jung Park, Ho-Jung Son, Hye-Seon Choi
We hypothesized that inflammation affects number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs) via enhancing autophagy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced autophagy, osteoclastogenesis, and cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bone marrowderived macrophages that were pre-stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LPS-induced OC formation and bone resorption, indicating that autophagy is responsible for increasing number and activity of OCs upon LPS stimulus...
November 16, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144982/bone-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secretion-of-srankl-opg-m-csf-in-response-to-macrophage-mediated-inflammatory-response-influences-osteogenesis-on-nanostructured-ti-surfaces
#15
Qian-Li Ma, Liang Fang, Nan Jiang, Liang Zhang, Ying Wang, Yu-Mei Zhang, Li-Hua Chen
Although it has been well established that osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) as well as osteoclastic differentiation of macrophages can be manipulated by the nanostructure of biomaterial surfaces, the interactions among the effects of the surface on immune cells and bMSCs remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, the osteogenic behaviors and secretion of osteoclastogenesis-related cytokines of human bMSCs on TiO2 nanotubular (NT) surfaces in conditioned medium (CM) generated by macrophages cultured on the respective NT surfaces (NT-CM) were analyzed...
November 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144803/endocrine-manifestations-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#16
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142196/dj-1-controls-bone-homeostasis-through-the-regulation-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#17
Hyuk Soon Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Se Hwan Mun, Sun-Kyeong Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Bokyung Kim, Kyung-Jong Won, Hae-Rim Kim, Yeong-Min Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Michael A Beaven, Young Mi Kim, Wahn Soo Choi
Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) generates intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which increase RANKL-mediated signaling in osteoclast (OC) precursor bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Here we show that a ROS scavenging protein DJ-1 negatively regulates RANKL-driven OC differentiation, also called osteoclastogenesis. DJ-1 ablation in mice leads to a decreased bone volume and an increase in OC numbers. In vitro, the activation of RANK-dependent signals is enhanced in DJ-1-deficient BMMs as compared to wild-type BMMs...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141864/il-1%C3%AE-induces-pathologically-activated-osteoclasts-bearing-extremely-high-levels-of-resorbing-activity-a-possible-pathological-subpopulation-of-osteoclasts-accompanied-by-suppressed-expression-of-kindlin-3-and-talin-1
#18
Takuma Shiratori, Yukari Kyumoto-Nakamura, Akiko Kukita, Norihisa Uehara, Jingqi Zhang, Kinuko Koda, Mako Kamiya, Tamer Badawy, Erika Tomoda, Xianghe Xu, Takayoshi Yamaza, Yasuteru Urano, Kiyoshi Koyano, Toshio Kukita
As osteoclasts have the central roles in normal bone remodeling, it is ideal to regulate only the osteoclasts performing pathological bone destruction without affecting normal osteoclasts. Based on a hypothesis that pathological osteoclasts form under the pathological microenvironment of the bone tissues, we here set up optimum culture conditions to examine the entity of pathologically activated osteoclasts (PAOCs). Through searching various inflammatory cytokines and their combinations, we found the highest resorbing activity of osteoclasts when osteoclasts were formed in the presence of M-CSF, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, and IL-1β...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138883/hallmarks-of-bone-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Rachelle W Johnson, Larry J Suva
Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades...
November 14, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138859/17%C3%AE-estradiol-attenuates-ovariectomy%C3%A2-induced-bone-deterioration-through-the-suppression-of-the-epha2-ephrina2-signaling-pathway
#20
Lianyong Liu, Lin Zhou, Xiaorong Yang, Qi Liu, Ling Yang, Chao Zheng, Yongling Zhao, Zhenlin Zhang, Xiaohong Luo
The present study aimed to investigate whether 17β‑estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects on bone deterioration induced by ovariectomy (OVX) through the ephA2/ephrinA2 signaling pathway in rats. Female rats were subjected to OVX, sham surgeryor OVX+E2 treatment. Levels of biomarkers were measured in serum and urine. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on paraffin‑embedded bone sections. Expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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