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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811684/lead-as-a-risk-factor-for-osteoporosis-in-post-menopausal-women
#1
REVIEW
Anjali Manocha, L M Srivastava, Seema Bhargava
Lead exposure is increasingly becoming an important risk factor for osteoporosis. In adults, approximately 80-90 % of absorbed lead is stored in the bones. These bone lead deposits are released into the blood during periods of enhanced bone resorption like menopause, forming a potential endogenous source of lead exposure. Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk for bone lead release because of hormonal and age related changes in bone metabolism. Estrogen deficiency is associated with increase in osteoclasts number and activity leading to both the early and late form of osteoporosis...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810648/combination-of-alendronate-and-genistein-synergistically-suppresses-osteoclastic-differentiation-of-raw267-4-cells-in-vitro
#2
Masayoshi Yamaguchi, Robert M Levy
Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling, with removal by osteoclastic bone resorption and replacement via osteoblastic bone formation and mineralization. Deterioration of bone mass with aging leads to osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption. Genistein, an isoflavone, exerts a bone anabolic effect by suppressing osteoclastic bone resorption and stimulating osteoblastic bone formation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anabolic effects of a combination of alendronate and genistein on osteoclastic differentiation...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810612/effect-of-opg-gene-mutation-on-protein-expression-and-biological-activity-in-osteoporosis
#3
Shuhui Qin, Qiuping Zhang, Li Zhang
The effect of an osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene mutation was investigated on its protein expression and biological activity in osteoporosis. The pcDNA3.0-OPG plasmid or wild-type plasmid were transfected into HEK293 cells. Osteoclast tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and counting were then performed, and the expression of genes related to osteoclast differentiation and activation were measured by RT-PCR. The wild-type or mutant-type OPG at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ng/ml were added respectively to RAW264...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808893/epigenetics-and-bone-remodeling
#4
REVIEW
Ali Husain, Matlock A Jeffries
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone remodeling is a diverse field of study with many direct clinical applications; past studies have implicated epigenetic alterations as key factors of both normal bone tissue development and function and diseases of pathologic bone remodeling. The purpose of this article is to review the most important recent advances that link epigenetic changes to the bone remodeling field. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetics describes three major phenomena: DNA modification via methylation, histone side chain modifications, and short non-coding RNA sequences which work in concert to regulate gene transcription in a heritable fashion...
August 14, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807800/the-synergistic-effects-of-sr-and-si-bioactive-ions-on-osteogenesis-osteoclastogenesis-and-angiogenesis-for-osteoporotic-bone-regeneration
#5
Lixia Mao, Lunguo Xia, Jiang Chang, Jiaqiang Liu, Lingyong Jiang, Chengtie Wu, Bing Fang
Bioactive ions released from bioceramics play important roles in bone regeneration; however, it is unclear how each ionic composition in complex bioceramics exerts its specific effect on bone regeneration. The aim of this study is to elucidate the functional effects of Sr and Si ions in bioceramics on the regeneration of osteoporotic bone. A model bioceramic with Sr- and Si-containing components (SMS) was successfully fabricated and the effects of ionic products from SMS bioceramics on the osteogenic, osteoclastic and angiogenic differentiation of rBMSCs-OVX and RANKL-induced osteoclasts were investigated...
August 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802681/activated-fgfr3-promotes-bone-formation-via-accelerating-endochondral-ossification-in-mouse-model-of-distraction-osteogenesis
#6
Yusuke Osawa, Masaki Matsushita, Sachi Hasegawa, Ryusaku Esaki, Masahito Fujio, Bisei Ohgawara, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasias caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors 3 (FGFR3) gene. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for short stature in ACH in some countries. Although the patients with ACH usually show faster healing in DO, details of the newly formed bone have not been examined. We have developed a mouse model of DO and analyzed new bone regenerates of the transgenic mice with ACH (Fgfr3(ach) mice) histologically and morphologically...
August 9, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802000/pmepa1-induced-by-rankl-p38-mapk-pathway-has-a-novel-role-in-osteoclastogenesis
#7
Noboru Funakubo, Xianghe Xu, Toshio Kukita, Seiji Nakamura, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Akiko Kukita
Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells formed by fusion of preosteoclasts (POCs) derived from cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We have reported a culture system that supports the formation of POCs from stroma-depleted rat bone marrow cells. Global gene expression analysis of this culture system identified genes highly expressed in POCs. Here, we have analyzed the expression and function of one of these highly expressed genes, prostate transmembrane protein androgen induced 1 (Pmepa1), a target of TGF-β and binds Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase, which plays a role in intracellular trafficking...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801687/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-sheet-enhances-allograft-repair-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Xifu Shang, Bing Shu, Yongjun Wang, Zhengliang Luo, Guangxi Wang, Shane Barton, Massimo Max Morandi, Christopher Kevil, Yufeng Dong
To determine whether cell sheets generated with long-term passaged (P10) aging human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could be used for bone tissue regeneration as tissue engineered periosteum in a femoral allograft mouse model similar to fresh passaged (P3) young MSCs. At 3 weeks after transplantation of MSC sheets, results showed more bony callus formed between allograft and host bone ends in both young P3 MSC and aged P10 MSC sheet-wrapped groups when compared to allograft alone. At 6 weeks, while both MSC sheet-wrapped allografts showed more bony callus formation when compared to allograft alone groups, the bony callus size in aged P10 MSC sheet groups was significantly less than young P3 MSC sheet groups...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798870/histopathological-and-imageological-studies-on-clinical-outcomes-of-mineralized-collagen-reconstruction-rod-for-femoral-head-necrosis-with-one-case-report
#9
Baogang Xie, Hao Wang, Jianhua Hao, Ping Wang, Na Zhang, Jingjing Wu, Zhiye Qiu, Fuzhai Cui
In this article, the biodegradation process and bone formation of a mineralized collagen reconstruction rod embedding in necrosis of human femoral head were investigated by imageological and histological methods. Computed radiography (CR) computerized tomography (CT), common pathological section and hard tissue section analysis were used to evaluated the dynamics of imageological and histopathological changes of femoral head, interface between the host bone and implant and the bone reconstruction process. The results showed that the density of rods increased closed to that of host bones after 1 year implanting, and the interface between them turns to blurring...
August 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797502/giant-cell-containing-tumors-of-bone
#10
REVIEW
Zsolt Orosz, Nicholas A Athanasou
Giant cell-containing tumors of bone are characterized morphologically by the presence of numerous osteoclastic giant cells. Correlation of clinical, radiologic, and laboratory findings is required for accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment of a giant cell-containing tumor of bone. In differential diagnosis, it is particularly important to note the age of the patient and the skeletal location of the lesion. This article considers the range of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions, which histologically contain numerous osteoclastic giant cells, and focuses on several lesions that frequently enter into the differential diagnosis...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795526/coupling-factors-and-exosomal-packaging-micrornas-involved-in-the-regulation-of-bone-remodelling
#11
Sipin Zhu, Felix Yao, Heng Qiu, Ge Zhang, Huazi Xu, Jiake Xu
Bone remodelling is a continuous process by which bone resorption by osteoclasts is followed by bone formation by osteoblasts to maintain skeletal homeostasis. These two forces must be tightly coordinated not only quantitatively, but also in time and space, and its malfunction leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent research focusing on the cross-talk and coupling mechanisms associated with the sequential recruitment of osteoblasts to areas where osteoclasts have removed bone matrix have identified a number of osteogenic factors produced by the osteoclasts themselves...
August 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795282/microscale-poroelastic-metamodel-for-efficient-mesoscale-bone-remodelling-simulations
#12
C C Villette, A T M Phillips
Bone functional tissue adaptation is a multiaspect physiological process driven by interrelated mechanical and biological stimuli which requires the combined activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In previous work, the authors developed a phenomenological mesoscale structural modelling approach capable of predicting internal structure of the femur based on daily activity loading, which relied on the iterative update of the cross-sectional areas of truss and shell elements representative of trabecular and cortical bones, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794630/probiotics-protect-mice-from-cocrmo-particles-induced-osteolysis
#13
Zhenheng Wang, Kaiwen Xue, Maosheng Bai, Zhantao Deng, Jingjing Gan, Gang Zhou, Hongbo Qian, Nirong Bao, Jianning Zhao
Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis is the primary cause of aseptic loosening, which is the most common reason for total hip arthroplasty (THA) failure in the med- and long term. Recent studies have suggested an important role of gut microbiota (GM) in modulating the host metabolism and immune system, leading to alterations in bone mass. Probiotic bacteria administered in adequate amounts can alter the composition of GM and confer health benefits to the host. Given the inflammatory osteolysis that occurs in wear debris-induced prosthesis loosening, we examined whether the probiotic Lactobacillus casei could reduce osteolysis in a mouse calvarial resorption model...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793923/concurrent-antitumor-and-bone-protective-effects-of-everolimus-in-osteotropic-breast-cancer
#14
Andrew J Browne, Marie L Kubasch, Andy Göbel, Peyman Hadji, David Chen, Martina Rauner, Friedrich Stölzel, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Tilman D Rachner
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus is approved as an antitumor agent in advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Surrogate bone marker data from clinical trials suggest effects on bone metabolism, but the mode of action of everolimus in bone biology remains unclear. In this study, we assessed potential bone-protective effects of everolimus in the context of osteotropic tumors. METHODS: The effects of everolimus on cancer cell viability in vitro and on tumor growth in vivo were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792533/increased-amount-of-phosphorylated-proinflammatory-osteopontin-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-synovia-is-associated-to-decreased-tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-5b-5a-ratio
#15
Jani Luukkonen, Laia Mira Pascual, Christina Patlaka, Pernilla Lång, Sanna Turunen, Jussi Halleen, Tomi Nousiainen, Maarit Valkealahti, Juha Tuukkanen, Göran Andersson, Petri Lehenkari
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN) is an immunoregulatory protein which production increases in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Phosphorylated osteopontin (Phospho-OPN) is known to increase macrophage and osteoclast activation, this process is controlled by extracellular tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP), also a biomarker for RA. Here, we evaluated the phosphorylation status of OPN in RA and OA synovia, as well as its correlation with TRAcP isoforms. METHODS: Synovial tissue and fluid were obtained from 24 RA (14 seropositive and 10 seronegative) and 24 OA patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791997/-eosinophilic-granuloma-of-the-parietal-bone-of-an-adult-patient-with-braf-mutation
#16
O V Dolzhansky, E M Paltseva, A A Bukaeva, E V Zaklyazminskaya, I A Spivak, D N Fedorov
The paper describes a case of eosinophilic granuloma of the parietal bone in a 32-year-old man. Histological examination revealed a large number of bean-shaped Langerhans cell histiocytes with lobed nuclei and nuclear grooves. The histiocytes alternated with the foci of obvious eosinophilic infiltration and with eosinophilic microabscesses. There were osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells, bone resorption, and numerous bone rods covered with osteoblast chains. The histiocytes expressed CD1α, langerin, CD68, S100, and p53 (in 90...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791425/rab44-a-novel-large-rab-gtpase-negatively-regulates-osteoclast-differentiation-by-modulating-intracellular-calcium-levels-followed-by-nfatc1-activation
#17
Yu Yamaguchi, Eiko Sakai, Kuniaki Okamoto, Hiroshi Kajiya, Koji Okabe, Mariko Naito, Tomoko Kadowaki, Takayuki Tsukuba
Rab44 is an atypical Rab GTPase that contains some additional domains such as the EF-hand and coiled-coil domains as well as Rab-GTPase domain. Although Rab44 genes have been found in mammalian genomes, no studies concerning Rab44 have been reported yet. Here, we identified Rab44 as an upregulated protein during osteoclast differentiation. Knockdown of Rab44 by small interfering RNA promotes RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of the murine monocytic cell line, RAW-D or of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs)...
August 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791343/breast-cancer-associated-gene-3-interacts-with-rac1-and-augments-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-vitro-but-has-no-effect-on-rankl-induced-bone-resorption-in-vivo
#18
Chen Yao, Kuan-Ping Yu, William Philbrick, Ben-Hua Sun, Christine Simpson, Changqing Zhang, Karl Insogna
Breast cancer-associated gene 3 (BCA3) is a recently identified adaptor protein whose functions are still being defined. BCA3 has been reported to be an important regulator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. It has also been reported to interact with the small GTPase, Rac1. Consistent with that observation, in the present study, BCA3 was found to interact with nuclear Rac1 in 293 cells and influence NF-κB signaling. Additional experiments revealed that depending on cell type, BCA3 augmented, attenuated or had no effect on NF-κB signaling in vitro...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791026/decrease-of-markers-related-to-bone-erosion-in-serum-of-patients-with-musculoskeletal-disorders-after-serial-low-dose-radon-spa-therapy
#19
Aljona Cucu, Kateryna Shreder, Daniela Kraft, Paul Friedrich Rühle, Gerhart Klein, Gerhard Thiel, Benjamin Frey, Udo S Gaipl, Claudia Fournier
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A) the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B) an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium) with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C) release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790485/bone-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-destruction-and-formation-of-bone-in-the-rheumatic-diseases
#20
Ellen M Gravallese
The hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis is synovitis, or inflammation of synovial tissues lining joints. Synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis promotes destruction of articular bone by inducing the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, leading to significant patient morbidity. The cell types and pathways mediating articular bone destruction have now been elucidated and the critical role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand has been recognized, leading to the identification of new targets for the protection of articular bone...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
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