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Posttraumatic assessment

Julia König, Sabine Schmid, Eva Löser, Olaf Neumann, Stefan Buchholz, Ralph Kästner
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following childbirth in the last two decades. The literature on predictors of who develops posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) suggests that both vulnerability and birth factors have an influence, but many studies measure predictors and outcomes simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: In this context, we aimed to examine indirect and direct effects of predictors of PSS, which were measured longitudinally...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Verónica Vitriol, Alfredo Cancino, Marcelo Leiva-Bianchi, Carlos Serrano, Soledad Ballesteros, Andrea Asenjo, Cristian Cáceres, Soledad Potthoff, Carolina Salgado, Francisca Orellana, Marcela Ormazábal
: Childhood trauma is associated with different psychiatric disorders during adulthood. These disorders are often presented in comorbidity with depression. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between psychiatric comorbidities and childhood traumatic events in patients with depression in Chile. METHODS: Three hundred and ninety-four patients with major depression were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a screening for childhood trauma...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Lindi Martin, Candice Simmons, Soraya Seedat
South African adolescents are exposed to high levels of violence and trauma, including community violence, abuse, and neglect. Violence and trauma are associated with negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Demographic characteristics, additional exposure to trauma, community violence, and types of childhood abuse and neglect may place adolescents at greater risk of developing PTSD. This study aimed to first assess the weighted contribution of demographic factors, trauma load, community violence, and types of abuse and neglect in predicting PTSD symptom severity...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Philip Hyland, Erifili Efthymiadou, Danielle Wilson, Neil Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
Among the conditions following exposure to traumatic life events proposed by ICD-11 are Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). The primary aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the reliability and validity of a newly developed self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD: the ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). Participants in this study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Şermin Yalın Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Handan Özek Erkuran, Duygu Karaarslan, Siğnem Öztekin, Bengisu Uzel Tanrıverdi, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
The goal of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale-Child Form. The scale was prepared by translating and then back translating the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale. The study groups included one group of 30 patients diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who were treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a second group of 83 healthy volunteers from middle and high schools in the community. For assessment, the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (ADES) was used in addition to the DSM-5 Dissociative Symptoms Severity Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Catherine E Mosher, Rebecca N Adams, Paul R Helft, Bert H O'Neil, Safi Shahda, Nicholas A Rattray, Victoria L Champion
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed positive changes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and their family caregivers following diagnosis. We compared self-reported positive changes within patient-caregiver dyads as well as self-reports and patient reports of positive changes in caregivers. DESIGN: Individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer and 23 caregivers. A theoretical thematic analysis of interview transcripts was framed by posttraumatic growth theory...
October 24, 2016: Psychology & Health
Ruth Howard, Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Adam Mahoney
PURPOSE: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. METHODS: A cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. History of traumatic events, DSM-5 PTSD, drug use, and offending behaviour were assessed. RESULTS: Traumatic experiences had occurred in 97...
October 21, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Donald J Viglione, Luciano Giromini, Patricia Landis
This article describes the development of the Inventory of Problems-29 (IOP-29), a new, short, paper-and-pencil, self-administered measure of feigned mental and cognitive disorders. Four clinical comparison simulation studies were conducted. Study 1 (n = 451) selected the items and produced an index of potential feigning. Study 2 (n = 331) scaled this index to produce a probability score, and examined its psychometric properties. Study 3 tested the generalizability of Study 2's findings with 2 additional samples (ns = 128 and 90)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Michelle E Roley-Roberts, Melissa J Zielinski, Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Jon D Elhai
Research into factors for suicide has revealed relations between trauma exposure and suicidality (e.g., Bridge, Goldstein, & Brent, ; Joiner, Sachs-Ericson, Wingate, Brown, Anestis, & Selby, ) wherein painful and provocative experiences (e.g., nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) are an important link (e.g., Van Orden, Witte, Cukrowicz, Braithwaite, Selby, & Joiner, ; Smith, ). No prior research has assessed the relationship between functions of NSSI and suicidality among childhood trauma survivors. Participants who endorsed childhood trauma exposure (N = 121; Mage  = 18...
October 21, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Aoife O'Donovan, Ashkan J Ahmadian, Thomas C Neylan, Mark A Pacult, Donald Edmondson, Beth E Cohen
[OBJECTIVE]: Elevated inflammation has been repeatedly observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and it may drive the development of both psychiatric symptoms and physical comorbidities. However, it is not clear if elevated inflammation is a feature of both remitted and current PTSD, and little is known about relationships between specific clusters of PTSD symptoms and inflammation. Exaggerated threat sensitivity, as indexed by threat reactivity and avoidance of perceived threats, may be particularly closely associated with inflammation...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stefanie C Vuotto, Kevin R Krull, Chenghong Li, Kevin C Oeffinger, Daniel M Green, Sunita K Patel, Deokumar Srivastava, Marilyn Stovall, Kirsten K Ness, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Tara M Brinkman
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
R A Bryant, K L Felmingham, B Liddell, P Das, G S Malhi
The FKBP5 polymorphism is a key regulator of the glucocorticoid system underpinning stress responsivity, and risk alleles can increase vulnerability for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. To delineate the specific role of FKBP5 risk alleles unencumbered by the confounds of psychopathology, this study investigated whether high-risk alleles of the FKBP5 polymorphism are characterized by distinctive neural activity during resting state. Thirty-seven healthy participants were selected on the basis of four SNPs in the FKBP5 gene region (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780 and rs9470080) to determine participants who were carriers of the FKBP5 high- and low-risk alleles...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Doyanne Darnell, Stephen O'Connor, Amy Wagner, Joan Russo, Jin Wang, Leah Ingraham, Kirsten Sandgren, Douglas Zatzick
OBJECTIVE: Injured patients presenting to acute care medical settings have high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbidities, such as depression and substance use disorders. Integrating behavioral interventions that target symptoms of PTSD and comorbidities into the acute care setting can overcome common barriers to obtaining mental health care. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of embedding elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the delivery of routine postinjury care management...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Craig S Rosen, Kathryn J Azevedo, Quyen Q Tiet, Carolyn J Greene, Amanda E Wood, Patrick Calhoun, Thomas Bowe, Bruce P Capehart, Eric F Crawford, Mark A Greenbaum, Alex H S Harris, Michael Hertzberg, Steven E Lindley, Brandy N Smith, Paula P Schnurr
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether adding telephone care management to usual outpatient mental health care improved treatment attendance, medication compliance, and clinical outcomes of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In a multisite randomized controlled trial, 358 veterans were assigned to either usual outpatient mental health treatment (N=165) or usual care plus twice-a-month telephone care management (TCM) and support in the first three months of treatment (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Sarah E Martin, Richard T Liu, Lauren R Mernick, Mia DeMarco, Shayna M Cheek, Anthony Spirito, John R Boekamp
Despite increased awareness of the prevalence and seriousness of mental health problems in early childhood, there have been few empirical studies of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in this age group. This study examined suicidal thoughts and behaviors in 360 preschool-aged children (ages 3 to 7 years) presenting to a psychiatric day treatment program. A semi-structured diagnostic interview (conducted with primary caregivers) was used to assess for child suicidal thoughts and behaviors and psychiatric disorders...
September 25, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Lisa Martin, Michelle Byrnes, Sarah McGarry, Suzanne Rea, Fiona Wood
Posttraumatic growth after burn is a relatively new area of study with only a small number of studies that have examined this phenomenon. It is important to understand the presentation of posttraumatic growth and coping in burn survivors, how it changes over time and the components which influence growth so that we can understand how to promote posttraumatic growth in burn survivors. The aim of this review was to assess these three parameters. Studies were identified through multiple databases with specific search terms to identify posttraumatic growth after burn...
October 12, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
James Snyder, Abigail Gewirtz, Lynn Schrepferman, Suzanne R Gird, Jamie Quattlebaum, Michael R Pauldine, Katie Elish, Osnat Zamir, Charles Hayes
Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
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