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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778595/the-history-of-antivenoms-development-beyond-calmette-and-vital-brazil
#1
Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão, Osvaldo Augusto Sant'Anna, José Roberto Marcelino, Denise V Tambourgi
This review presents the main contributions to our knowledge regarding the development of antivenoms for therapeutic use in victims of venomous animal bites. We cover the progress of serum therapy since tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins in Germany and France until the current scenario of antivenom production worldwide. During these more than 120 years of antivenom development, many researchers contributed to establish what are nowadays the antivenoms used for therapeutic purpose. The history of antivenoms development is fascinating! This review aims to recognize all those who contributed to the establishment of new sera, new methodologies and saving lives: much more than Calmette and Vital Brazil...
May 17, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778296/the-utility-of-twitter-as-a-tool-for-increasing-reach-of-research-on-sexual-violence
#2
Christine Wekerle, Negar Vakili, Sherry H Stewart, Tara Black
Researchers in violence prevention areas seek to disseminate work for impact to practice and policy. Knowledge transfer, exchange, and mobilization are common terms for research knowledge utilization where public communication platforms are playing an increasing role, having unique capacity to connect stakeholders in advocacy and lived experience, academia, non-governmental organizations, government-supported organizations, such as child welfare, and research funding bodies. Social networking platforms provide a communication intervention opportunity to test the effectiveness of the research reach...
May 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777976/exploration-of-the-effect-of-violent-crime-on-recreational-and-transportation-walking-by-path-and-structural-equation-models
#3
Devajyoti Deka, Charles T Brown, James Sinclair
To examine how violent crime affects people's recreational and transportation walking duration in daytime and after dark on a typical day, this study undertakes associative and causal analyses with geo-referenced crime data, street-audit data, and data collected through an intercept survey in a three-municipality region of New Jersey that is predominantly inhabited by low-income and minority populations. Survey data was collected from 1173 respondents at 87 intersections selected by stratified random sampling...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777546/evaluating-links-among-shyness-peer-relations-and-internalizing-problems-in-chinese-young-adolescents
#4
Junsheng Liu, Julie C Bowker, Robert J Coplan, Panpan Yang, Dan Li, Xinyin Chen
This study evaluates a model linking shyness, aspects of peer relations, and internalizing problems among young adolescents in the People's Republic of China. Participants were 547 young adolescents from Shanghai, China (46% boys; Mage  = 10.35 years, SD = 0.77 years) who completed peer nominations of shyness, rejection, and victimization, and self-report measures of loneliness, depression, and friendship support. Analyses demonstrated that peer difficulties (rejection, victimization) mediated the associations between shyness and internalizing problems...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777425/the-use-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-forensic-medicine-following-incidents-of-sexual-violence-in-hamburg-germany-a-retrospective-study
#5
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776836/analysis-of-incidence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-blunt-trauma-patients-with-glasgow-coma-scale-of-12-or-less
#6
Alexander Becker, Kobi Peleg, Oded Olsha, Adi Givon, Boris Kessel
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important for improving survival and neurologic outcome in trauma victims. The purpose of this study was to assess whether Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 12 or less can predict the presence of TBI and the severity of associated injuries in blunt trauma patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including 303,435 blunt trauma patients who were transferred from the scene to hospital from 1998 to 2013. The data was obtained from the records of the National Trauma Registry maintained by Israel's National Center for Trauma and Emergency Medicine Research, in the Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research...
April 16, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776796/-stalking-from-romantic-pursuit-to-sexual-predation
#7
Virginie Cailleau, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Alexia Delbreil, Nematollah Jaafari
Deriving from the English verb "to stalk", stalking denotes an unwelcome, repetitive, and intrusive harassing and/or threatening behavior directed toward a specific individual, and can result in physical and/or sexual offending - even leading to homicide. French harassment legislation has evolved over the years, and the last law closest to the international anti-stalking laws had been promulgated in 2014. According to a review, up to 16% of women and 7% of men are stalked in their life, and 80% of the stalkers are known to their victims...
May 15, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776781/short-term-lost-productivity-per-victim-intimate-partner-violence-sexual-violence-or-stalking
#8
Cora Peterson, Yang Liu, Marcie-Jo Kresnow, Curtis Florence, Melissa T Merrick, Sarah DeGue, Colby N Lokey
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. METHODS: U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776555/sudden-coronary-death-in-the-young-evidence-of-contractile-phenotype-of-smooth-muscle-cells-in-the-culprit-atherosclerotic-plaque
#9
Stefania Rizzo, Matteo Coen, Antonija Sakic, Monica De Gaspari, Gaetano Thiene, Giulio Gabbiani, Cristina Basso, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat
BACKGROUND: Culprit coronary atherosclerotic plaques (APs) from young sudden cardiac death (SCD) victims are mostly non-atheromatous, i.e., consisting of proliferative smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Coronary vasospasm has been advocated to explain plaque instability in the absence of thrombosis. Our aim was to characterize the SMC phenotype in the intima and media of coronary arteries from young SCD victims. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 38 coronary artery segments were studied: (a) 18 APs from young (≤40 years old) SCD patients, (b) 9 APs from old (>40 years old) SCD patients, (c) 11 non-atherosclerotic coronary arteries from young patients (≤40 years old)...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776518/factors-associated-with-life-jacket-use-among-cabin-sailboat-and-day-sailor-boaters-in-the-united-states
#10
Natalie Spitzer, Maile T Phillips, Wendy Chow, Thomas W Mangione
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, drowning accounted for 68% of the 626 recreational boating related deaths in the United States. Although life jackets are estimated to prevent between 50% to 80% of boating deaths, approximately 83% of sailboat-related drowning victims were reported to not be wearing life jackets. Life jacket use among adult boaters has remained consistently low across most boat types and may vary by boater, boating, and environmental conditions. Although many risky environmental and boating factors may be associated with a higher risk of boating death, drowning occurs in all situations and it is useful to understand adult life jacket wearing behaviors in differing boating situations...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776445/community-based-audits-of-snake-envenomations-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-of-cameroon-case-series
#11
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Armand Seraphin Nkwescheu
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the highest mortality burden in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate surveillance systems result in loss of morbidity and mortality data in these settings. Although rarely reported in these resource-constraint environments, community-based audits are recognised pivotal tools which could help update existing data and indicate key public health interventions to curb snakebite-related mortality...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775463/defending-one-s-friends-not-one-s-enemies-a-social-network-analysis-of-children-s-defending-friendship-and-dislike-relationships-using-xpnet
#12
Beau Oldenburg, Marijtje Van Duijn, René Veenstra
Previous studies investigating to what extent students in elementary schools defend their victimized classmates typically treated defending as an individual characteristic. Defending should, however, be seen as a directed dyadic relationship between a victim and a defender, who are embedded multiple positive and negative relationships with each other and their classmates. Accordingly, in the present study defending was investigated using social network analysis. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent defending relationships co-occurred with friendship and dislike relationships involving not only the victim and the defender but also other classmates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773997/first-and-subsequent-lifetime-alcoholism-and-mental-disorders-in-suicide-victims-with-reference-to-a-community-sample-the-lundby-study-1947-1997
#13
Cecilia Holmstrand, Mats Bogren, Cecilia Mattisson, Louise Brådvik
Background: Suicide victims have been found to frequently suffer from mental disorders, often more than one, and comorbidity has also been found to be a risk factor for suicide. The aim of the present study was to determine the first disorder and possible subsequent disorders in suicide victims during their lifetimes and to compare their development with the development of mental and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample. Methods: The Lundby Study is a prospective longitudinal study of mental health in a general population comprising 3,563 subjects, including 68 suicide victims, followed by four field investigations from 1947 to 1997; mortality was monitored up to 2011...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773263/-the-father-of-europe-charlemagne-c-742-814-victim-of-fatal-pneumonia
#14
M Karamanou, K Laios, G Androutsos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773075/does-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-of-tortured-refugees-represent-value-for-money-a-follow-up-of-a-danish-case-study
#15
Line Bager, Kristian Schultz Hansen, Carit Jacques Andersen, Shr-Jie Sharlenna Wang
BACKGROUND: The recent surge of asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) is raising questions about the EU's ability to integrate newcomers into the economy and into society; particularly those who need specialized services for the treatment of severe trauma. This study investigated whether rehabilitating traumatised refugees represents 'value-for-money' (VfM) in terms of intervention cost per health gain and in a long-term and societal perspective. METHODS: The economic evaluation comprised a cost-utility analysis (CUA) and a partial cost-benefit analysis (CBA)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772772/multiplicative-effects-of-social-and-psychological-risk-factors-on-college-students-suicidal-behaviors
#16
Shervin Assari
Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity) and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use) and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016⁻2017), is a national online survey of college students in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772425/an-innovative-expression-model-of-human-health-risk-based-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-soil-metals-sources-contribution-in-different-spatial-scales
#17
Yimei Zhang, Shuai Li, Fei Wang, Zhuang Chen, Jie Chen, Liqun Wang
Toxicity of heavy metals from industrialization poses critical concern, and analysis of sources associated with potential human health risks is of unique significance. Assessing human health risk of pollution sources (factored health risk) concurrently in the whole and the sub region can provide more instructive information to protect specific potential victims. In this research, we establish a new expression model of human health risk based on quantitative analysis of sources contribution in different spatial scales...
April 30, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772076/victims-and-victimisation
#18
Matthew Cauldwell, Susan Bewley
We congratulate McNamara et al. on their work examining the impact that intrapartum stillbirth has on obstetricians (1). The findings from their qualitative study highlight and reinforce themes others have identified. We conducted a similar study interviewing maternity staff (consultant obstetricians, trainees and midwives) about the impact of their involvement in rarer maternal death cases (2). We reported similar themes particularly around the fear of blame. This was perceived as coming not only from the media but also from professional colleagues...
May 17, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#19
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771705/the-causality-nexus-between-the-tako-tsubo-syndrome-and-an-assault-a-forensic-case-report
#20
Malek Zribi, Syrine Azza Manoubi, Narjes Karray, Salma Charfeddine, Wiem Benamar, Zouhir Hammami, Samir Kammoun, Samir Maatoug
"Tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome," is one of the rarest types of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. It frequently mimics acute coronary syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes, and release of myocardial enzymes. After treatment, the patients are cured in most cases without sequelae. Tako-tsubo syndrome is rarely considered as a reason for consultation in the forensic department.Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old woman who was assaulted by her police officer neighbor...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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