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Eric Y Tenkorang, Adobea Y Owusu
Previous studies demonstrate the long term effects of childhood violence on future victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). With a few exceptions from Asia, however, this literature is largely limited to North America and Europe. To date, contributions from sub-Saharan Africa remain scant. We began to fill this gap by applying the life course theory to retrospective data collected from 2289 women in Ghana. Specifically, we examined if women's childhood experiences of family violence were associated with their later victimization and/or their perpetration of IPV...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anthony A Peguero, Egbert Zavala, Zahra Shekarkhar, Moneque Walker-Pickett
The children of immigrants face a number of educational hurdles, such as disparate rates of victimization and increased risk of dropping out of high school. Few studies have explored how school victimization can explain the relationship between immigrant generation status and the likelihood of dropping out. The current study explores if, and how, the associations between school victimization, feeling unsafe at school, and dropping out vary across immigration generations andgender. Data are drawn from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Cary L Klemmer, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
Psychological processes may mediate the relationship between minority stress and mental health though limited data exist showing this pathway among trans women. Trans women's degree of satisfaction with their body is associated with mental health outcomes. This study used a model of minority stress to explore for indirect effects on the association between transphobia-based victimization and anxiety and depression through one's degree of body satisfaction. Analysis also explored for racial differences. Transgender women ( N = 233) were recruited in 2013 using respondent-driven sampling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lorraine T Benuto, Yueran Yang, Andrew Ahrendt, Caroline Cummings
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a pattern of psychological symptoms that approximates the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and occurs in professionals who are exposed to individuals who have experienced trauma. While victim advocates are frontline health professionals who are trained to support victims of crime and interpersonal violence and are at risk for developing STS, they have been largely neglected in the extant literature on STS. The STS Scale (STSS) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire utilized to assess frequency of symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal, specifically related to providing services to victims of trauma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
María-Jesús Cava, Sofía Buelga, Inés Tomás
Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Asghar Ghasemi, Morteza Seifi, Bahram Samadi Rad
AIM: Several studies have assessed a relationship between 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene polymorphisms with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. However, there has been no study about the association between 5-HTR2A gene polymorphisms, suicidal behavior, stressful life and loss events in a same time. METHODS: 5-HTR2A polymorphisms in a total of 191 suicide victims and 218 healthy controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
March 8, 2018: Gene
Alessio Fornasin, Marco Breschi, Matteo Manfredini
This paper proposes a new estimate for the number of victims of Spanish flu in Italy and highlights some aspects of mortality closely linked to the First World War. The sources used are official death statistics and the Albo d'oro, a roll of honor of the Italians fallen in the First World War. The new estimate of deaths from the flu is 410,000 for 1918, which should be raised to 466,000 when the numbers are taken up to 1920. Deaths from Spanish flu among the military were about 70,000. The time sequence of deaths recognizes two distinct peaks, one in October and one in November 1918...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Antonios Paraschakis, Ioannis Michopoulos, Vasiliki Efstathiou, Christos Christodoulou, Ilias Boyokas, Athanassios Douzenis
We investigated all cases of completed suicide in the city area of Piraeus -the largest port in Greece- for the years 2006 up to 2015. We searched, among others, parameters regarding the victims' psychiatric medication intake and drug and alcohol use that -to the best of our knowledge- had never been investigated before by a study on suicides in Greece within the crisis' years. We documented variations before (2006-2010) and during (2011-2015) crisis. Information was provided by the victims' forensic records at the Piraeus Department of Forensic Medicine...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Yin-Hui Leong, Adilah Mohamed Ariff, Halilol Rahman Mohamed Khan, Noor Afiza Abdul Rani, Mohamed Isa Abdul Majid
This study analyses the incidences and patterns of paraquat poisoning from calls received at the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) since 2004 following the ban of the herbicide (2004-2006) and subsequent restriction up to year 2015. Related reported cases to the centre over twelve years (2004-2015) were retrieved and studied in respect to socio-demographic characteristics, mode and type of poisonings, exposure routes and location of incident. Ages of poisoned victims range from 10 months old to 98 years with males being intoxicated more frequently than females (ratio male to female = 2...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Hyun-Jin Jun, Boyoung Nam, Lisa Fedina, Melissa Edmondson Smith, Jason Schiffman, Bruce Link, Jordan E DeVylder
BACKGROUND: The anticipation of threat or victimization is a core feature of paranoia. Cognitive theories of paranoia suggest that paranoid thoughts may arise as a psychological response to trauma exposure, which likewise may lead to greater anticipation of subsequent victimization. Little is known, however, about the relation between paranoid beliefs and anticipated victimization when accounting for past victimization experience. The present study aimed to address whether the experiences of past victimization contribute to the link between paranoid beliefs and the anticipation of threat or victimization, with a particular focus on exposure to police violence...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Johan Vanderfaeillie, Karolien De Ruyck, Johan Galle, Erik Van Dooren, Chris Schotte
In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
T J Beyene, M C M Mourits, C W Revie, H Hogeveen
The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine medical treatment seeking behaviour following potential rabies exposure after being bitten by a suspected dog and the likelihood of compliance to receive sufficient doses of post-exposure prophylaxis after the visit to a health centre visit. A detailed survey based on case investigation was conducted on suspected rabid dog bite cases in three areas of Ethiopia. Two multivariable logistic regression models were created with a set of putative variables to explain treatment seeking and compliance outcomes...
March 10, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Sumaya Mall, Philippe Mortier, Lian Taljaard, Janine Roos, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner
BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood...
March 9, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Maria Dolors Burjalés-Martí, Maria Assumpta Rigol-Cuadra, Cristina Anguiano-Carrasco, Antonia Martorell-Poveda, Maria Francisca Jiménez-Herrera, Concepció Fuentes-Pumarola, Dolors Rodríguez-Martín, Paola Galbany-Estragués, David Ballester-Ferrando
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most important challenges facing today's society. Health professionals, and nurses in particular, play a leading role in addressing this problem. Having an instrument to study Nursing students' perception of this type of violence may enable appropriate and necessary educational strategies for their pre-service training and help them identify and address IPV in their future careers. OBJECTIVES: To adapt and validate the IPV scale of Beccaria et al...
February 27, 2018: Nurse Education Today
María de Los Ángeles Quiroga
This study addresses the epidemiology of risk factors and personality traits in adolescents of 16 and 17 years of age, charged with homicide, with a focus on analyzing psychic functioning, socio-demographic variables and family constitution. This is a longitudinal, retrospective and inferential study of the psychiatric assessments of several subjects who were interviewed in the Family Courts of the province of Mendoza. The hypothesis states that adolescents who have violent behavior, impulsivity and diffculty in complying with rules, do so as a result of having been victims of violence in an inadequate family environment...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Claire Ferguson, Tiffany Sutherland
The difficulty in classifying manner of death in falls from a height provides offenders an opportunity to avoid detection by having a homicide appear otherwise. Twelve fall homicides were qualitatively examined. Results showed that most homicidal falls occurred at remote outdoor locations, were planned by offenders who were in controlling intimate relationships with the victim, and were motivated by gain. Homicide was established using inconsistencies in offender's statements and the physical evidence, inappropriate postoffense behavior, evidence of planning, and improbable alleged victim behavior...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Peng-Wei Wang, Nai-Ying Ko, Ray C Hsiao, Mu-Hong Chen, Huang-Chi Lin, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study aimed to examine the associations of suicidality in emerging adulthood with time of coming out, gender role nonconformity, sexual orientation, traditional and cyber homophobic bullying victimization, and family and peer support during childhood in gay and bisexual men in Taiwan. The frequency of "experiencing suicide ideation" and "attempting suicide" in the past year among 500 gay or bisexual men was examined. The participants' time of coming out, level of subjective masculinity, sexual orientation, experiences of traditional and cyber homophobic bullying victimization, and levels of family and peer support during childhood were also evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Nina C Donner, Kenneth H Kubala, James E Hassell, Margaret W Lieb, Kadi T Nguyen, Jared D Heinze, Robert C Drugan, Steven F Maier, Christopher A Lowry
Expression of TPH2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin synthesis, is elevated in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of depressed suicide victims. One hypothesis is that this increase in TPH2 expression is stress-induced. Here, we used an established animal model to address whether exposure to an acute stressor, inescapable tail shock (IS), increases tph2 mRNA and Tph2 protein expression, and if IS sensitizes the DR to a subsequent, heterotypic stressor. In Experiment 1 , we measured tph2 mRNA expression 4 h after IS or home cage (HC) control conditions in male rats, using in situ hybridization histochemistry...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Brandon J Hill, Richard Crosby, Alida Bouris, Rayna Brown, Trevor Bak, Kris Rosentel, Alicia VandeVusse, Michael Silverman, Laura Salazar
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effects of legal name change on socioeconomic factors, general and transgender-related healthcare access and utilization, and transgender-related victimization in a sample of young transgender women (transwomen) of color. A cross-sectional group comparison approach was used to assess the potential effects of legal name change. A convenience sample of young transwomen enrolled in a no-cost legal name change clinic were recruited to complete a 30-minute interviewer-guided telephone survey including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health and well-being, health care utilization, transgender transition-related health care, and transgender-related victimization...
March 2018: Sexuality Research & Social Policy
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