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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461443/recomposing-consumption-defining-necessities-for-sustainable-and-equitable-well-being
#1
Ian Gough
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451368/a-tendril-perversion-in-a-helical-oligomer-trapping-and-characterizing-a-mobile-screw-sense-reversal
#2
Michael Tomsett, Irene Maffucci, Bryden A F Le Bailly, Liam Byrne, Stefan M Bijvoets, M Giovanna Lizio, James Raftery, Craig P Butts, Simon J Webb, Alessandro Contini, Jonathan Clayden
Helical oligomers of achiral monomers adopt domains of uniform screw sense, which are occasionally interrupted by screw-sense reversals. These rare, elusive, and fast-moving features have eluded detailed characterization. We now describe the structure and habits of a screw-sense reversal trapped within a fragment of a helical oligoamide foldamer of the achiral quaternary amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib). The reversal was enforced by compelling the amide oligomer to adopt a right-handed screw sense at one end and a left-handed screw sense at the other...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376464/measuring-outcomes-lessons-from-the-world-of-public-education
#3
Andrew Saultz, John W Saultz
The quality and efficiency of American health care are increasingly measured using clinical and financial data with a goal of improving clinical practice. Proponents believe such efforts can improve outcomes, motivate clinicians, and inform the public about quality. Detractors point to problems with the accuracy of these measures and the risk of creating perverse incentives for both physicians and patients. Drawing on lessons from similar performance management policies in public education, we provide guidance about this trend for primary care physicians and health care policy makers...
January 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362567/psychologically-informed-implementations-of-sugary-drink-portion-limits
#4
Leslie K John, Grant E Donnelly, Christina A Roberto
In 2012, the New York City Board of Health prohibited restaurants from selling sugary drinks in containers that would hold more than 16 oz. Although a state court ruled that the Board of Health did not have the authority to implement such a policy, it remains a legally viable option for governments and a voluntary option for restaurants. However, there is very limited empirical data on how such a policy might affect the purchasing and consumption of sugary drinks. We report four well-powered, incentive-compatible experiments in which we evaluated two possible ways that restaurants might comply with such a policy: bundling (i...
March 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320325/-was-that-a-success-or-not-a-success-a-qualitative-study-of-health-professionals-perspectives-on-support-for-people-with-long-term-conditions
#5
John Owens, Vikki A Entwistle, Alan Cribb, Zoë C Skea, Simon Christmas, Heather Morgan, Ian S Watt
BACKGROUND: Support for self-management (SSM) is a prominent strand of health policy internationally, particularly for primary care. It is often discussed and evaluated in terms of patients' knowledge, skills and confidence, health-related behaviours, disease control or risk reduction, and service use and costs. However, these goals are limited, both as guides to professional practice and as indicators of its quality. In order to better understand what it means to support self-management well, we examined health professionals' views of success in their work with people with long-term conditions...
March 20, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315158/childhood-family-structure-and-intergenerational-income-mobility-in-the-united-states
#6
Deirdre Bloome
The declining prevalence of two-parent families helped increase income inequality over recent decades. Does family structure also condition how economic (dis)advantages pass from parents to children? If so, shifts in the organization of family life may contribute to enduring inequality between groups defined by childhood family structure. Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, I combine parametric and nonparametric methods to reveal how family structure moderates intergenerational income mobility in the United States...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278058/the-queerness-of-the-drive
#7
Teresa de Lauretis
The view of sexuality Freud first proposed in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality contains a discrepancy between the sexuality perverse and polymorphous described in the first two essays and the biologically directed, reproductive sexuality of the third essay. According to Jean Laplanche, the theorist of psychoanalysis who is Freud's closest reader and translator, the discrepancy is due to two contradictory opinions Freud apparently held at different moments of his writing: one, that sexuality is exogenous, an effect of seduction by adults; two, that sexuality is endogenous, innate in the human biological organism...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161558/neutrophil-perversion-in-demyelinating-autoimmune-diseases-mechanisms-to-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Courtney S Casserly, Julia C Nantes, Ryder F Whittaker Hawkins, Luc Vallières
Neutrophils are essential to a healthy life, yet pose a threat if improperly controlled. Neutrophil perversion is well documented in a variety of inflammatory disorders (e.g. arthritis, lupus, psoriasis), but is only beginning to be demystified in autoimmune demyelination, the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. Using the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), several molecules that help neutrophils invade the central nervous system (CNS) have been identified...
March 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156188/funding-models-in-palliative-care-lessons-from-international-experience
#9
E Iris Groeneveld, J Brian Cassel, Claudia Bausewein, Ágnes Csikós, Malgorzata Krajnik, Karen Ryan, Dagny Faksvåg Haugen, Steffen Eychmueller, Heike Gudat Keller, Simon Allan, Jeroen Hasselaar, Teresa García-Baquero Merino, Kate Swetenham, Kym Piper, Carl Johan Fürst, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Funding models influence provision and development of palliative care services. As palliative care integrates into mainstream health care provision, opportunities to develop funding mechanisms arise. However, little has been reported on what funding models exist or how we can learn from them. AIM: To assess national models and methods for financing and reimbursing palliative care. DESIGN: Initial literature scoping yielded limited evidence on the subject as national policy documents are difficult to identify, access and interpret...
April 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135152/agents-of-law-psychoanalytic-perspective-on-parenthood-practices-as-socially-accepted-violence
#10
Efrat Even-Tzur, Uri Hadar
This paper presents a theoretical model of parental authority from the vantage point of parental subjecthood, using a roughly Lacanian formulation of what it means to take a (parental) subject position. For Freud, the parental role involves the acceptance of social rules that may, at times, involve a socially acceptable degree of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic discussions have disregarded the parents' subjective experience as agents of the Law and purveyors of threatening authority. The authors elaborate on Freud's and Lacan's ideas and delineate several prime types of parental identifications as agents of Law...
February 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131615/the-deterrent-effects-of-australian-street-level-drug-law-enforcement-on-illicit-drug-offending-at-outdoor-music-festivals
#11
Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Vivienne Moxham-Hall, Alison Ritter, Don Weatherburn, Robert MacCoun
BACKGROUND: Australian and international street-level drug law enforcement deploy many strategies in efforts to prevent or deter illicit drug offending. Limited evidence of deterrence exists. This study assessed the likely impacts of four Australian policing strategies on the incidence and nature of drug use and supply at a common policing target: outdoor music festivals. METHODS: A purpose-built national online survey (the Drug Policing Survey) was constructed using five hypothetical experimental vignettes that took into account four policing strategies (High Visibility Policing, Riot Policing, Collaborative Policing, and policing with Drug Detection Dogs) and a counter-factual (no police presence)...
January 25, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131024/-too-much-medicine-insights-and-explanations-from-economic-theory-and-research
#12
Martin Hensher, John Tisdell, Craig Zimitat
Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the problem of "too much medicine", whereby patients receive unnecessary investigations and treatments providing them with little or no benefit, but which expose them to risks of harm. Despite this phenomenon potentially constituting an inefficient use of health care resources, it has received limited direct attention from health economists. This paper considers "too much medicine" as a form of overconsumption, drawing on research from health economics, behavioural economics and ecological economics to identify possible explanations for and drivers of overconsumption...
January 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115824/academic-research-in-the-21st-century-maintaining-scientific-integrity-in-a-climate-of-perverse-incentives-and-hypercompetition
#13
Marc A Edwards, Siddhartha Roy
Over the last 50 years, we argue that incentives for academic scientists have become increasingly perverse in terms of competition for research funding, development of quantitative metrics to measure performance, and a changing business model for higher education itself. Furthermore, decreased discretionary funding at the federal and state level is creating a hypercompetitive environment between government agencies (e.g., EPA, NIH, CDC), for scientists in these agencies, and for academics seeking funding from all sources-the combination of perverse incentives and decreased funding increases pressures that can lead to unethical behavior...
January 1, 2017: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025323/role-of-emerging-private-hospitals-in-a-post-soviet-mixed-health-system-a-mixed-methods-comparative-study-of-private-and-public-hospital-inpatient-care-in-mongolia
#14
Uranchimeg Tsevelvaanchig, Hebe Gouda, Peter Baker, Peter S Hill
Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 severely impacted the health sector in Mongolia. Limited public funding for the post-Soviet model public system and a rapid growth of poorly regulated private providers have been pressing issues for a government seeking to re-establish universal health coverage. However, the evidence available on the role of private providers that would inform sector management is very limited. This study analyses the current contribution of private hospitals in Mongolia for the improvement of accessibility of health care and efficiency...
May 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977655/financing-the-canterbury-health-system-post-disaster
#15
REVIEW
Matthew Reid, Ramon Pink
The Canterbury Health System has invested substantially in its transformation to a patient-centred, integrated system, enabling improved performance despite the significant and long-term impacts of the Christchurch earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. Questions have been raised about whether this transformation is sustainable and affordable. We argue that there is a need for a post-disaster health funding strategy that takes into account the challenge of following population movements after a large natural disaster, and higher costs resulting from the disruption and the effect on the population...
December 16, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931842/quality-end-of-life-cancer-care-an-overdue-imperative
#16
REVIEW
Guy B Faguet
This review assesses the current status of end-of-life care based on large-scale, multiyear nationwide surveys of treatment modality, setting, and cost of care during terminal patients' last months of life. It shows that end-of-life care goals often remain suboptimal. Contributing factors include prioritized life preservation, uneven commitment to palliative care, few palliative care specialists, and perverse financial incentives that encourage costly interventions. Although not determinant per se, these factors coupled to doubts about what constitutes end-of-life can lead to overextended disease treatment and a late implementation of palliative care...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#17
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893346/the-preoedipal-and-oedipal-structure-of-termination-an-in-depth-case-study
#18
Trevor Lubbe
Much has been written about the Oedipus complex as a central organizing focus for the understanding of early developmental attainments as well as for the structuring of the personality, but nowhere are triangular forces more vitally active, clinically, than in the termination phase. The decision to end, once agreed upon, typically sets in motion a symmetrical process in which two dynamics occur concurrently. First, what drives the termination is a mourning process in which the primary task is to relinquish the analyst as a transference object and to establish the analyst as an internal object...
December 2016: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885750/they-re-nice-and-neat-but-are-they-useful-a-grounded-theory-of-clinical-psychologists-beliefs-about-and-use-of-nice-guidelines
#19
Alex John Court, Anne Cooke, Amanda Scrivener
Guidelines are ubiquitous but inconsistently used in UK mental health services. Clinical psychologists are often influential in guideline development and implementation, but opinion within the profession is divided. This study utilized grounded theory methodology to examine clinical psychologists' beliefs about and use of NICE guidelines. Eleven clinical psychologists working in the NHS were interviewed. The overall emerging theme was; NICE guidelines are considered to have benefits but to be fraught with dangers...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870854/quantity-and-or-quality-the-importance-of-publishing-many-papers
#20
Ulf Sandström, Peter van den Besselaar
Do highly productive researchers have significantly higher probability to produce top cited papers? Or do high productive researchers mainly produce a sea of irrelevant papers-in other words do we find a diminishing marginal result from productivity? The answer on these questions is important, as it may help to answer the question of whether the increased competition and increased use of indicators for research evaluation and accountability focus has perverse effects or not. We use a Swedish author disambiguated dataset consisting of 48...
2016: PloS One
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