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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127849/quasi-experimental-evidence-on-tobacco-tax-regressivity
#1
Steven F Koch
Tobacco taxes are known to reduce tobacco consumption and to be regressive, such that tobacco control policy may have the perverse effect of further harming the poor. However, if tobacco consumption falls faster amongst the poor than the rich, tobacco control policy can actually be progressive. We take advantage of persistent and committed tobacco control activities in South Africa to examine the household tobacco expenditure burden. For the analysis, we make use of two South African Income and Expenditure Surveys (2005/06 and 2010/11) that span a series of such tax increases and have been matched across the years, yielding 7806 matched pairs of tobacco consuming households and 4909 matched pairs of cigarette consuming households...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113611/the-added-value-of-integrate-hta-guidance-in-the-work-processes-of-health-technology-assessment-agencies
#2
Gert Jan van der Wilt, Wietske Kievit, Wija Oortwijn
A central idea underlying the INTEGRATE-HTA project is that many of the interventions that are being used in health care are quite complex. By this, we mean that the relation between the delivery of the intervention on the one hand, and the onset of (desired and undesired) changes may be less straightforward than hoped for. There may be all sorts of reasons for this, varying from a lack of resources, lack of skills, perverse incentives, organizational problems, etc. Not identifying such factors and their potential impact may seriously compromise the policy relevance of a health technology assessment (HTA) (1)...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098689/panel%C3%A2-report-ipa-congress-buenos-aires-2017-courage-to-fight-violence-against-women-perversion-of-intimacy-part-ii
#3
Batya R Monder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081920/the-perverse-impact-of-external-reference-pricing-erp-a-comparison-of-orphan-drugs-affordability-in-12-european-countries-a-call-for-policy-change
#4
K E Young, I Soussi, M Toumi
Objective: The study compared the relative cost differences of similar orphan drugs among high and low GDP countries in Europe: Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, UK. Methods: Annual treatment costs per patient were calculated. Relative costs were computed by dividing the costs by each economic parameter: nominal GDP per capita, GDP in PPP per capita, % GDP contributed by the government, government budget per inhabitant, % GDP spent on healthcare, % GDP spent on pharmaceuticals, and average annual salary...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068305/fee-for-service-is-dead-long-live-fee-for-service
#5
Jan Greene
The move to a value-based payment system was supposed to end perverse incentives that pay doctors more for delivering often unnecessary services. But things are changing slowly and the market is still 95% fee for service. There's talk of reworking the Medicare fee schedule so docs are paid more for the things that work, and less for those that don't.
September 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980365/technical-rationality-and-the-decentring-of-patients-and-care-delivery-a-critique-of-unavoidable-in-the-context-of-patient-harm
#6
Marie Hutchinson, Debra Jackson, Stacey Wilson
In recent decades, debate on the quality and safety of healthcare has been dominated by a measure and manage administrative rationality. More recently, this rationality has been overlaid by ideas from human factors, ergonomics and systems engineering. Little critical attention has been given in the nursing literature to how risk of harm is understood and actioned, or how patients can be subjectified and marginalised through these discourses. The problem of assuring safety for particular patient groups, and the dominance of technical forms of rationality, has seen the word 'unavoidable' used in connection with intractable forms of patient harm...
October 4, 2017: Nursing Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979562/critical-care-delayed-discharge-good-or-bad
#7
Stephen Gilligan
NHS England is to introduce a new Commissioning for Quality and Innovation to reduce delayed discharges from adult critical care to ward-level care. A delayed discharge is greater than 4 h, this occurred in 64.2% of patients in the critical care minimum data set database from Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre from the last five years; 46.3% were delayed between 4 and 24 h and 17.9% were delayed more than 24 h. For those who had a delay in their discharge of greater than 24 h, the data suggests that "sicker" patients ultimately do better, since there was a reduction in expected mortality of 5892 patients to an actual mortality of 5201 patients over the five years...
May 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969713/generating-demand-for-and-use-of-evaluation-evidence-in-government-health-ministries-lessons-from-a-pilot-programme-in-uganda-and-zambia
#8
Sophie Witter, Andrew Kardan, Molly Scott, Lucie Moore, Louise Shaxson
BACKGROUND: The Demand-Driven Evaluations for Decisions (3DE) programme was piloted in Zambia and Uganda in 2012-2015. It aimed to answer evaluative questions raised by policymakers in Ministries of Health, rapidly and with limited resources. The aim of our evaluation was to assess whether the 3DE model was successful in supporting and increasing evidence-based policymaking, building capacity and changing behaviour of Ministry staff. METHODS: Using mixed methods, we compared the ex-ante theory of change with what had happened in practice, why and with what results (intended and unintended), including a qualitative assessment of 3DE's contribution...
October 2, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964586/hospital-quality-factors-influencing-the-mobility-of-patients-for-radical-prostate-cancer-radiation-therapy-a-national-population-based-study
#9
Ajay Aggarwal, Daniel Lewis, Arunan Sujenthiran, Susan C Charman, Richard Sullivan, Heather Payne, Malcolm Mason, Jan van der Meulen
PURPOSE: To investigate whether patients requiring radiation treatment are prepared to travel to alternative more distant centers in response to hospital choice policies, and the factors that influence this mobility. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We present the results of a national cohort study using administrative hospital data for all 44,363 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent radical radiation therapy in the English National Health Service between 2010 and 2014...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926027/using-institutional-and-behavioural-economics-to-examine-animal-health-systems
#10
C A Wolf
Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922825/catholic-understandings-of-female-sexuality-in-1960s-britain
#11
David Geiringer
Recent interpretations of religious change in modern Britain have stressed the importance of a sudden and abrupt 'sexual revolution' during the 1960s. The role the Churches played in bringing about their own demise remains a point of debate, particularly in the case of the Catholic Church. This article attempts to move beyond existing historical disputes over a 'religious crisis' and whether it was rooted in 'internal' causes (problems within the Church) or 'external', secular developments. It explores the way sexual knowledge was discussed and disseminated by Catholic authorities during this decade of perceived cultural transition, drawing on the previously unpublished papers of the Papal Commission for Birth Control 1963-5 and the training manuals of the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council (CMAC)...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822499/countervailing-incentives-in-value-based-payment
#12
REVIEW
Daniel R Arnold
Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives...
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811243/preserving-the-commons-addressing-the-sustainable-use-of-antibiotics-through-an-economic-lens
#13
REVIEW
C M Morel, S E Edwards, S Harbarth
BACKGROUND: As the growth of antibiotic resistance has resulted in large part from widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. AIMS: This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. SOURCES: The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. CONTENT: The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could contribute to inappropriate or suboptimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be used to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776652/trauma-innocence-and-the-core-complex-of-dissociation
#14
Donald E Kalsched
Trauma survivors often lament that they have lost their innocence or lost their souls and that something vulnerable and whole about themselves has been 'broken' or annihilated. Yet when the psychotherapeutic relationship begins, and symbolic material from dreams and the transference emerges, discernible patterns become apparent, indicating that a core of innocence and vitality has not been totally lost or annihilated. On the contrary, it has been 'saved' by dissociation and its system of inner objects and their protective and/or persecutory narrative 'scripts' or 'schemas'...
September 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751114/-post-partum-depressive-symptoms-prevalence-risk-factors-and-relationship-with-quality-of-life
#15
R Cherif, I Feki, H Gassara, I Baati, R Sellami, H Feki, K Chaabene, J Masmoudi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the post-partum depressive symptomatology in a sample of Tunisian women, to study associated factors and to assess its relationship to quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study carried out in two stages: during the first week (T1), then between sixth and eighth week post-partum (T2). Depressive symptomatology and quality of life were assessed respectively by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale...
July 24, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700076/why-have-relative-rates-of-class-mobility-become-more-equal-among-women-in-britain
#16
Erzsébet Bukodi, John H Goldthorpe, Heather Joshi, Lorraine Waller
In a previous paper it has been shown that across three cohorts of men and women born in Britain in 1946, 1958 and 1970 a gender difference exists in regard to relative rates of class mobility. For men these rates display an essential stability but for women they become more equal. The aim of the present paper is to shed light on the causes of this trend-or, that is, of increasing social fluidity-among women. We begin by considering a refined version of the perverse fluidity hypothesis: that is, one that proposes that part-time work leads to increasing downward worklife mobility among women that also entails downward intergenerational mobility and thus promotes greater fluidity...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675400/chemical-physics-of-electroactive-materials-concluding-remarks
#17
Mark W Rutland
It is an honour to be charged with providing the concluding remarks for a Faraday Discussion. As many have remarked before, it is nonetheless a prodigious task, and what follows is necessarily a personal, and probably perverse, view of a watershed event in the Chemical Physics of Electroactive materials. The spirit of the conference was captured in a single sentence during the meeting itself."It is the nexus between rheology, electrochemistry, colloid science and energy storage". The current scientific climate is increasingly dominated by a limited number of global challenges, and there is thus a tendency for research to resemble a football match played by 6 year olds, where everyone on the field chases the (funding) ball instead of playing to their "discipline"...
July 1, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672203/-how-complex-and-even-perverse-the-real-world-can-be-w-d-hamilton-s-early-work-on-social-wasps-1964-1968
#18
Guido Caniglia
William D. Hamilton's name is often connected to important theoretical accomplishments, from the theory of inclusive fitness and kin selection to the so-called Hamilton's rule and the haplodiploidy hypothesis. This article asks: How did Hamilton attempt to test his theory and hypothesis against the complexity of the biological world? The article reconstructs Hamilton's empirical work with social wasps between 1963 and 1968, the years before and after the publication of the groundbreaking "The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior" in 1964...
June 30, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588985/how-did-rapid-scale-up-of-hiv-services-impact-on-workplace-and-interpersonal-trust-in-zambian-primary-health-centres-a-case-based-health-systems-analysis
#19
Stephanie M Topp, Julien M Chipukuma
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, large amounts of funding continue to be directed towards HIV-specific care and treatment, often with claims of 'health system strengthening' effect. Such claims rarely account for the impact on human relationships and decisions that are core to functional health systems. This research examined how establishment of externally funded HIV services influenced trusting relationships in Zambian health centres. METHODS: An in-depth, multicase study included four health centres selected for urban, peri-urban and rural characteristics...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558108/association-of-prescription-drug-price-rebates-in-medicare-part-d-with-patient-out-of-pocket-and-federal-spending
#20
Stacie B Dusetzina, Rena M Conti, Nancy L Yu, Peter B Bach
The increasing cost of prescription drugs is a burden for patients and threatens the financial stability of the US health care system. Rebates are a form of price concession paid by a pharmaceutical manufacturer to the health plan sponsor or the pharmacy benefit manager working on the plan's behalf. Proponents argue that rebates result from vigorous negotiations that help lower overall drug costs. Critics argue that rebates have perversely increased the costs patients pay out of pocket, as well as the costs for Medicare as a whole...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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