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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913716/single-and-multiple-clinical-syndromes-in-incarcerated-offenders-associations-with-dissociative-experiences-and-emotionality
#1
Carlo Garofalo, Patrizia Velotti, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Carrà
The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of clinical syndromes in a large group (N = 438) of incarcerated violent offenders, looking at differences between inmates with one and those with more than one clinical syndromes. More than a half of the sample (57%) reported clinically relevant symptoms for at least one clinical syndrome (n = 252), and the majority of them (38%) reported more syndromes in comorbidity (n = 169). Increased severity of clinical conditions (none, one, more than one syndrome) corresponded with significantly greater levels of personality disorder traits, psychological symptoms, dissociation, and negative emotionality, with large effect sizes...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913714/measuring-offenders-belief-in-the-possibility-of-desistance
#2
Kevin O'Sullivan, Rochelle Williams, Xiang Yan Hong, David Bright, Richard Kemp
This article describes the use of a questionnaire to measure offenders' belief in the likelihood of their making a successful re-entry into society after having committed crime, a "belief in redeemability" (BIR) as described by Maruna and King. The 37 items for the scale were taken from statements by offenders about their prospects of making good. This set of items was tested with a pilot group of offenders recruited from clients on parole or on supervised bonds at community corrections offices in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, and their responses were coded to yield a score we called the "BIR" score...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913712/money-now-money-later-linking-time-discounting-and-criminal-convictions-in-the-cambridge-study-in-delinquent-development
#3
Alex R Piquero, David P Farrington, Wesley G Jennings
Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911089/don-t-say-that-to-me-opposition-to-targeting-in-weight-centric-intervention-messages
#4
Becky Robinson, Samantha Coveleski
Obesity is a global health issue. Despite well-intentioned efforts by public institutions, traditional health promotion techniques often lead to offending those most in need of weight loss. For example, when Bryn Mawr College targeted overweight students to offer a free fitness and nutrition program, it was met with accusations of fat-shaming, indicating that weight-centric messages operate in a more complex sociocultural system than many public health concerns. To better understand reactions to weight-centric health messages, college-aged women evaluated the Bryn Mawr College e-mail...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907244/analyzing-the-dynamics-and-morphology-of-cast-off-pattern-at-different-speed-levels-using-high-speed-digital-video-imaging
#5
Sebastian Niko Kunz, Jiri Adamec, Christina Grove
During a bloodstain pattern analysis, one of the essential tasks is to distinguish between different kinds of applied forces as well as to estimate their level of intensity. In this study, high-speed digital imaging has been used to analyze the formation of cast-off patterns generated by a simulated backswing with a blood-bearing object. For this purpose, 0.5 mL blood was applied evenly over the last 5 cm of a blade simulant. Bloodstains were created through the controlled acceleration of a backswing at different speed levels between 1...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905227/a-practical-guide-to-forensic-nursing-amar-angela-f-and-sekula-l-kathleen-a-practical-guide-to-forensic-nursing-392pp-%C3%A2-38-85-sigma-theta-tau-international-kindle-edition-9781940446349-1940446341-formula-see-text
#6
(no author information available yet)
This fascinating publication describes in depth the roles and responsibilities of forensic nurses in the US, who are often involved in the scientific investigation of violent and sexual crimes. However, these duties differ from those of nurses in forensic or secure settings in the UK, who work primarily with offenders who have mental health problems and who are in hospital, prison or police cells.
December 1, 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904791/current-concepts-in-biomechanical-interventions-for-patellofemoral-pain
#7
Richard W Willy, Erik P Meira
: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) has historically been a complex and enigmatic issue. Many of the factors thought to relate to PFP remain after patients' symptoms have resolved making their clinical importance difficult to determine. The tissue homeostasis model proposed by Dye in 2005 can assist with understanding and implementing biomechanical interventions for PFP. Under this model, the goal of interventions for PFP should be to re-establish patellofemoral joint (PFJ) homeostasis through a temporary alteration of load to the offended tissue, followed by incrementally restoring the envelope of function to the baseline level or higher...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900940/acute-kidney-injury-in-allopurinol-induced-dress-syndrome-a-case-report-of-concurrent-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-kidney-limited-necrotizing-vasculitis%C3%A2
#8
Anthony J Esposito, Ryan C Murphy, Mirna N Toukatly, Osama W Amro, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Behzad Najafian
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reaction with variable renal involvement. We report the case of a man who presented with allopurinol-induced DRESS and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis. Kidney biopsy revealed eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing vasculitis of the intralobular arteries without systemic markers of vasculitis. After cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids, his symptoms and AKI resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of kidney-limited necrotizing vasculitis, questioning whether a biopsy should be routinely performed in patients with DRESS accompanied by severe AKI...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900492/evidence-of-construct-validity-in-the-assessment-of-hebephilia
#9
Skye Stephens, Michael C Seto, Alasdair M Goodwill, James M Cantor
Hebephilia refers to a persistent intense sexual interest in pubescent children. Although not as widely studied as pedophilia, studies of hebephilia have indicated convergence in self-report and sexual arousal. The present study expanded on previous work by examining convergent and divergent validity across indicators of hebephilia that included self-report, sexual behavior, and sexual arousal in a sample of 2238 men who had sexually offended. We included men who denied such interest and specifically examined the overlap between hebephilia and pedophilia and examined pedohebephilia (i...
November 29, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899902/aggressive-antisocial-behaviors-are-related-to-character-maturity-in-young-swedish-violent-offenders-independent-of-adhd
#10
Thomas Nilsson, Örjan Falk, Eva Billstedt, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899178/choice-of-a-hemodynamic-model-for-occlusive-thrombosis-in-arteries
#11
David N Ku, Lauren D C Casa, Susan M Hastings
Intravascular thrombosis can lead to heart attacks and strokes that together are the leading causes of death in the US (Kochanek, K.D., Murphy, S.L., Xu, J.Q., 2014). The ability to identify the offending biofluid mechanical conditions and predict the timescale of thrombotic occlusion in vessels and devices may improve patient outcomes. A computational model was developed to describe the growth of thrombus based on the local hemodynamic shear rate. The model predicts thrombus deposition based on initial geometric and fluid mechanical conditions, which are updated throughout the simulation to reflect the changing lumen dimensions...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898475/pulmonary-signet-ring-cell-adenocarcinoma-metastatic-to-the-skin
#12
Alan S Boyd
Internal malignancies occasionally metastasize to the skin, usually imparting a poor prognosis. In men, pulmonary malignancies are the second most common offending tumor. Roughly, half such lesions are adenocarcinomas. A small subset of pulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibits signet-ring morphology. To date, a cutaneous metastasis arising from a pulmonary signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma has not been reported.
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896601/how-are-editors-selected-recruited-and-approved
#13
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib
The editors of scholarly journals have a duty to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct of research. They also have a responsibility to maintain the integrity of the literature, and to promote transparency and honesty in reporting research findings. In the process of screening manuscripts they receive for possible publication, editors have the obligation to report infractions to the institutions of offending authors, and request an investigation. Since editors can reject a paper on ethical grounds, they can be considered to be the guardians of ethics who should express high ethical standards in conducting and publishing their own research...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894943/acquired-chiari-malformation-and-syringomyelia-secondary-to-space-occupying-lesions-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Justin Wang, Naif M Alotaibi, Nardin Samuel, George M Ibrahim, Aria Fallah, Michael D Cusimano
BACKGROUND: Acquired Chiari malformations (ACM) and associated syringomyelia secondary to space-occupying lesions can cause neurological deficits independent of or in combination with the offending mass. Although type I CM are traditionally treated with posterior fossa decompression, optimal surgical management of ACM and associated syringomyelia remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature surrounding the management of ACM. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894463/what-should-we-say-to-patients-with-unexplained-neurological-symptoms-how-explanation-affects-offence
#15
Juen Mei Ding, Richard A A Kanaan
OBJECTIVES: Unexplained neurological symptoms (UNS) are common presentations in neurology but there is no consensus as to what they should be called. This is important, as patient acceptance is a predictor of outcome and there is evidence that patients are unhappy with the terms used. Patient understanding of these terms may be limited, however, and, once explained, the terms may seem more or less offensive. We sought to elicit patients' views of 7 frequently used terms for UNS, and whether these changed once definitions were provided...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894371/pervasive-influence-of-maternal-and-paternal-criminal-offending-on-early-childhood-development-a-population-data-linkage-study
#16
K R Laurens, S Tzoumakis, M Kariuki, M J Green, M Hamde, F Harris, V J Carr, K Dean
BACKGROUND: Parental criminal offending is an established risk factor for offending among offspring, but little evidence is available indicating the impact of offending on early childhood functioning. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine associations between exposure to parental offending and a range of developmental outcomes at age 5 years. METHOD: Multi-generation data in 66 477 children and their parents from the New South Wales Child Development Study were combined using data linkage...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893239/face-blind-for-other-race-faces-individual-differences-in-other-race-recognition-impairments
#17
Lulu Wan, Kate Crookes, Amy Dawel, Madeleine Pidcock, Ashleigh Hall, Elinor McKone
We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891723/the-structured-assessment-of-violence-risk-in-adults-with-intellectual-disability-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
J Hounsome, R Whittington, A Brown, B Greenhill, J McGuire
BACKGROUND: While structured professional judgement approaches to assessing and managing the risk of violence have been extensively examined in mental health/forensic settings, the application of the findings to people with an intellectual disability is less extensively researched and reviewed. This review aimed to assess whether risk assessment tools have adequate predictive validity for violence in adults with an intellectual disability. METHODS: Standard systematic review methodology was used to identify and synthesize appropriate studies...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890048/cultural-hegemony-educators-perspectives-on-facilitating-cross-cultural-dialogue
#19
Zareen Zaidi, Daniëlle Verstegen, Rashmi Vyas, Omayma Hamed, Tim Dornan, Page Morahan
BACKGROUND: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with 'cultural hegemony' that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is 'critical consciousness'. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future...
2016: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884933/using-the-personality-assessment-inventory-antisocial-and-borderline-features-scales-to-predict-behavior-change-a-multisite-longitudinal-study-of-youthful-offenders
#20
Brittany N Penson, Jared R Ruchensky, Leslie C Morey, John F Edens
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
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