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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040115/keratitis-after-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#1
Aditya Pradhan, Samar Basak, Tuhin Chowdhury, Ayan Mohanta, Ananya Chatterjee
PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of keratitis occurring after post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in immunocompetent patients. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: Two male patients presented with a dense stromal infiltrate in the temporal and superior aspects of the cornea, respectively. Microbiological workup in both patients did not show any offending organism. Both patients were undergoing treatment for PKDL in the form of oral miltefosine...
October 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035064/two-subtypes-of-psychopathic-criminals-differ-in-negative-affect-and-history-of-childhood-abuse
#2
Monika Dargis, Michael Koenigs
OBJECTIVE: Specification of the etiological mechanisms underlying psychopathy is a key step in developing more effective methods for preventing and remediating the callous and impulsive behavior that characterizes the disorder. Theoretical conceptualizations of psychopathic subtypes propose that a primary variant largely stems from impoverished affect, whereas a secondary variant is hypothesized to develop subsequent to adverse environmental experiences (e.g., childhood maltreatment)...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033487/gingival-hyperplasia-should-drug-interaction-be-blamed-for
#3
Pramod Kumar Sharma, Arup Kumar Misra, Ankita Chugh, Vinay Kumar Chugh, Nitesh Gonnade, Surjit Singh
Gingival overgrowth (GO) is one of the common findings in clinical practice. There could be several causes including drugs associated with the GO. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and amlodipine are the drugs which are infrequently documented as a cause in inducing the gingival hyperplasia. Certain drugs in the body fluid might limit the population of plaque bacteria and alter their metabolism that in turn induce the inflammatory mediators and also activate the genetic and biochemical factors responsible for gingival fibroblast growth...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033200/validation-of-a-spanish-version-of-the-europrevall-food-allergy-quality-of-life-questionnaire-parental-form
#4
E Bartoll, M Nieto, B Selva, R Badillo, G Pereira, S Uixera, A Nieto, Á Mazón
BACKGROUND: Food allergy can have a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Questionnaires have been developed to measure the impact of this disorder. We aimed to validate the EuroPrevall questionnaire on Food Allergy-Quality of Life Questionnaire, Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), translated into Spanish. METHODS: The internal consistency of the FAQLQ-PF and the FAIM, translated into Spanish (Spain) and completed by the parents of 74 children with IgE-mediated food allergy, were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha...
October 12, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027128/continuous-infusion-versus-intermittent-bolus-of-beta-lactams-in-critically-ill-patients-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Young R Lee, Pamela D Miller, Saeed K Alzghari, Delilah D Blanco, Jackson D Hager, Kailey S Kuntz
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients display altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and are more likely to be infected with more resistant pathogens. Beta-lactam antibiotics exhibit time-dependent pharmacodynamics; therefore, it is postulated that continuous infusion (CI) may optimize these parameters. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature comparing CI versus intermittent bolus (IB) of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill adult patients with respiratory infections to determine if clinical benefits exist...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026579/amlodipine-induced-gingival-enlargement
#6
Abhilash Koratala, Indirakshi Jamalpur, Harikrishna Reddy Mogili
The three most common classes of medications implicated in drug-induced gum enlargement are anticonvulsives, calcineurin inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Treatment primarily consists of withdrawing the offending agent whenever possible, in addition to maintaining good oral hygiene. Gingivectomy or flap surgery may be needed in resistant cases.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024771/development-of-dot-elisa-for-the-detection-of-venoms-of-major-indian-venomous-snakes
#7
Innus K Shaikh, Prashant P Dixit, Balasaheb S Pawade, Indrasen G Waykar
India remained an epicenter for the snakebite-related mortality and morbidities due to widespread agricultural activities across the country and a considerable number of snakebites offended by Indian cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). Presently, there is no selective test available for the detection of snake envenomation in India before the administration of snake antivenin. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop rapid, sensitive assay for the management of snakebite, which can detect venom, responsible snake species and serve as a tool for the reasonable administration of snake antivenin, which have scarcity across the world...
October 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024062/why-run-the-risk-motivation-for-offences-by-patients-with-substance-use-and-antisocial-personality-disorders-which-they-rated-as-most-risky-to-their-own-well-being
#8
Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse
BACKGROUND: Understanding motives for offending is important for the development and delivery of effective interventions. AIMS: To explore associations between variables with motivational implications and the offence committed in the past year rated by people with antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder as putting them and their status at most risk. METHODS: Participants were 127 outpatients from a sample recruited for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an intervention for adults attending substance abuse treatment clinics in 13 municipalities in Denmark...
October 10, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023672/expecting-the-unexpected-expectations-for-future-success-among-adolescent-first-time-offenders
#9
Alissa Mahler, Adam Fine, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Adolescent first-time offenders demonstrate greater risk of continued offending, justice system contact, and high school dropout. The current study evaluates if optimistic expectations protect youth by reducing offending and improving school grades for 3 years following a first arrest (N = 1,165, Mage  = 15.29). This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within-person cross-lagged associations between expectations and behavior...
October 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022739/the-offender-job-search-self-efficacy-scale-development-and-initial-validation
#10
Femina P Varghese, Kendra M Anderson, Devon L Cummings, Erica Fitzgerald
The purpose of this study was to develop the Offender Job Search Self-Efficacy Scale (OFJSSE) for the specific job search needs of the criminal justice population. Participants were 249 male inmates within 2 years of release from a state correctional facility in the southern region of the United States who identified mostly as Caucasian (56.2%), single (62.2%), working-class (45.4%) men with a mean age of 36.27 years (SD = 10.38). Initial validation data are described, including results of an exploratory factor analysis...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022738/an-exploration-of-the-symmetry-between-crime-causing-and-crime-reducing-factors-implications-for-delivery-of-offender-services
#11
Daryl G Kroner, Devon L L Polaschek, Ralph C Serin, Jennifer L Skeem
Both the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) and Structured Professional Judgment (SPJ) risk assessment approaches assume that a strong relationship exists between crime-causing and crime reducing factors. Using a probation sample, the present article examines whether crime-causing and crime-reducing factors correspond. Probationers completed questionnaires where they were asked what factors were crime-causing and what factors were crime-reducing. Overall, the relationship between the crime-causing and crime-reducing factors was very weak-even after ruling out potential measurement and methodological artifacts (i...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020863/examining-employment-outcomes-of-offender-and-nonoffender-vocational-program-graduates
#12
Dana L Formon, Adam T Schmidt, Craig Henderson
Researchers have found providing employment opportunities for ex-offenders through job training programs to be effective at reducing recidivism. Examining various community-based programs for ex-offenders can be beneficial as they may be able to provide more stable and consistent programming without relying on the justice system. This study examined employment outcomes of graduates with and without criminal histories ( n = 617) from a community-based vocational training program. Results showed that ex-offender graduates obtained employment at equal rates to nonoffender graduates and received equal pay to their nonoffender counterparts...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020862/moving-home-examining-the-independent-effects-of-individual-and-neighborhood-level-residential-mobility-on-recidivism-in-high-risk-parolees
#13
Gregory Breetzke, Devon Polaschek
A number of studies have shown that the residential mobility of an offender postrelease can significantly influence recidivism. Research has also shown how the mobility of neighborhoods into which offenders are released is an important contextual factor that predicts recidivism. Within the social disorganization framework, this study combines these lines of research by examining the effect of both individual- and neighborhood-level residential mobility on recidivism for a cohort of high-risk prisoners released on parole in New Zealand...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016259/assessing-dangerousness-domestic-violence-offenders-and-child-abusers-3-rd-ed
#14
Crystal D Lane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992741/neuropsychology-and-emotion-processing-in-violent-individuals-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-or-schizophrenia-the-same-or-different-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Ottilie Sedgwick, Susan Young, David Baumeister, Ben Greer, Mrigendra Das, Veena Kumari
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets...
October 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992273/neural-correlates-of-moral-judgment-in-pedophilia
#16
Claudia Massau, Christian Kärgel, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Tillmann Hc Krueger, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992269/white-matter-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-female-community-sample
#17
Philip Lindner, Meenal Budhiraja, Johan Westerman, Ivanka Savic, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Psychopathy comprises interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial facets that vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with criminal offending and adverse psychosocial outcomes. Evidence associating these facets with white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum tracts is inconsistent and derives principally from studies of male offenders. In a sample of 99 young women presenting a range of scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging, tractography and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to investigate microstructure across the brain and of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989326/developmental-trajectories-of-offenders-convicted-of-fraud-a-follow-up-to-age-50-in-a-dutch-conviction-cohort
#18
Victor R van der Geest, David Weisburd, Arjan A J Blokland
This study describes the criminal careers of offenders convicted of fraud, distinguishing different career dimensions such as intermittency, versatility and specialization. Results indicate that most fraud offenders are versatile in the sense that they also have significant criminal records for other serious offending (that is, not fraud). At the same time they are also specialized in fraud. When we examine developmental trajectories of serious offending and next explore patterns of fraud for the groups identified, we find that offenders in our sample represent a heterogeneous group and that the classic divide between typical financial (for example, white-collar) offenders and common criminals does not apply to the majority of our sample...
September 2017: Eur J Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989325/contrast-between-spain-and-the-netherlands-in-the-hidden-obstacles-to-re-entry-into-the-labour-market-due-to-a-criminal-record
#19
Elina Kurtovic, Marti Rovira
This article aims at analysing the differences between European countries in the obstacles ex-offenders face due to having a criminal record. First, a comparative analytical framework is introduced that takes into account all the different elements that can lead to exclusion from the labour market by the dissemination of criminal record information. This model brings together social norms (macro level), social actors (meso level) and individual choices (micro level) in the same framework. Secondly, this model is used to compare the different impact of having a criminal record in Spain and the Netherlands...
September 2017: Eur J Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987068/associations-between-methadone-maintenance-treatment-and-crime-a-17-year-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-canadian-provincial-offenders
#20
Angela Russolillo, Akm Moniruzzaman, Lawrence C McCandless, Michelle Patterson, Julian M Somers
AIMS: To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n=14,530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history of conviction and who filled a methadone prescription between January 1, 1998 and March 31, 2015. Methadone maintenance treatment was the primary independent variable and was treated as a time-varying exposure...
October 7, 2017: Addiction
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