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Juan F Sotos, Naomi J Tokar
The determination of the testicular volume is of considerable importance to assess the onset, progression and disorders of puberty, abnormal testicular development, and a number of other conditions; and in adults, assessment of fertility. A number of clinical methods have been used for the measurement of testicular volumes in the scrotum: a centimeter ruler, sliding calipers, and orchidometers. All the clinical methods calculate the volumes by the ellipsoid equation, grossly overestimate ultrasound (US) volumes by 70 to 80% for adults, to 150 to 250% for prepubertal subjects, mainly because the inclusion of the scrotal skin and epididymis and may not be accurate of reproducible...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
Juan F Sotos, Naomi J Tokar
BACKGROUND: Testicular volumes obtained with orchidometers or external linear measurements in the scrotum (centimeter ruler or calipers) grossly over-estimate ultrasound volumes, have much variability and may not be accurate or reproducible. The reference of the values obtained by orchidometers or US, to age or Tanner stages is not useful to determine the normal values for stages of puberty, because overlapping of ages and values. Pubertal development is determined by two events, genital and pubic hair development, that should be analyzed independently because one could be out of step with the other...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
Onung Samuel Inih, Young Ekenechukwu Esther, Fasanmade Olufemi Adetola, Anyanwu Anthony Chinedu, Nwatu Chidinma Brenda, Ohwovoriole Augustine Efedaye
BACKGROUND: Hypogonadism in male patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with older age, obesity and poor glycaemic control. The patterns of sperm count, testicular volume, sperm motility and morphology have also been reported to be abnormal in these patients, though reports are conflicting. The objectives of this study were to assess gonadal function and sperm parameters in Nigerian males with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A study sample of 150 males consisting of 108 patients and 56 age-matched controls were recruited...
April 25, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
Luca Boeri, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Paolo Capogrosso, Silvia Ippolito, Angela Pecoraro, Marco Paciotti, Roberta Scano, Alessandro Galdini, Luca Valsecchi, Enrico Papaleo, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) risk cardiometabolic complications later in life. However the impact of LBW on general health status and male reproductive function has been scantly analysed. We investigated the clinical and seminal impact of different birth weights (BW) in white-European men presenting for primary couple's infertility. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 827 primary infertile men were compared with those of 373 consecutive fertile men. Patients with BW ≤2500, 2500-4200, and ≥4200gr were classified as having LBW, normal (NBW), and high BW (HBW), respectively...
2016: PloS One
Eugenio Ventimiglia, Paolo Capogrosso, Luca Boeri, Silvia Ippolito, Roberta Scano, Marco Moschini, Giorgio Gandaglia, Enrico Papaleo, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively validate the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines/recommendations concerning endocrine evaluation in a cohort of white European men presenting for couple's infertility. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S): Cohort of 1,056 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). INTERVENTION(S): Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer...
October 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Rakesh Mondal, Somosri Ray, Kaushani Chatterjee, Tapas Kumar Sabui, Avijit Hazra, Suman Das, Jasodhara Chaudhuri, Archan Sil, Moumita Samanta
OBJECTIVES: To measure Penile length (PL) and Testicular volume (TV) in newborn boys for assessing genital abnormalities. METHODS: In a tertiary care setting, measurements of PL and TV were recorded from 480 babies born on alternate days except the weekend, at 24 to 72 h of life by one investigator with the same set of instruments. The penis was stretched to the point of increased resistance and the distance from the tip of the glans penis to the pubic ramus was measured as the stretched PL...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Adel A Hagag, Ibrahim M Badraia, Mohamed S Elfarargy, Amany M Abo El-Enein
BACKGROUND: Beta thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in chronic hemolytic anemia. RBCs hemolysis and repeated blood transfusions are the major causes of secondary iron overload which leads to deposition of iron in different endocrine glands. Delayed puberty and hypogonadism are the most obvious clinical consequences of iron overload. The aim of this study was to evaluate male sex hormone levels in male children with β- thalassemia major in correlation with iron overload...
2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Sergey Sadov, Jaakko J Koskenniemi, Helena E Virtanen, Antti Perheentupa, Jørgen H Petersen, Niels E Skakkebaek, Katharina M Main, Jorma Toppari
CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case-control study. SETTING: Andrological Research Center, University of Turku. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether, 119 boys participated: 51 cases with a history of congenital cryptorchidism and 65 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Annette Mouritsen, Casper P Hagen, Jeanette Tinggaard, Mikkel Grunnet Mieritz, Malene Boas, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Niels E Skakkebæk, Katharina M Main
CONTEXT: Epidemiological evidence on maternal and paternal heritability of the wide normal variation within pubertal timing is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the impact of parental pubertal timing on the onset of puberty in boys and girls. DESIGN: Annual pubertal examinations of healthy children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kristiina Tertti, Jorma Toppari, Helena E Virtanen, Sergey Sadov, Tapani Rönnemaa
OBJECTIVES: Studies in rodents suggest that metformin treatment during pregnancy may have harmful effects on testicular development in offspring. Our aim was to determine whether metformin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects testicular size in male offspring. METHODS: We compared the testicular size in prepubertal boys born to mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing metformin with insulin in the treatment of GDM...
2016: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Bertrand S Y Lian, Caroline C P Ong, Li Wei Chiang, Rambha Rai, Shireen Anne Nah
INTRODUCTION: Testicular atrophy (TA) is a significant complication in patients who undergo salvage procedures for testicular torsion. Studies on outcome focus on factors predicting testicular viability during scrotal exploration but few assess factors predicting TA in patients who undergo salvage procedures. We assess the incidence of TA after salvage and identify associated factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With ethical approval, we reviewed patients who underwent salvage for testicular torsion in our institution from 2001 to 2013...
February 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
A Hodhod, J P Capolicchio, R Jednak, M El-Sherbiny
OBJECTIVES: Testicular hypertrophy has previously been evaluated as a predictor of monorchism. However, its implication in clinical practice is not well evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine its value in planning the operative time. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical charts of prospectively recorded data of 76 consecutive patients with unilateral impalpable testis from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed at the present institute. Inclusion criteria included prepubertal patients with non-palpable testes by examination under anesthesia...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Thomas F Kolon
PURPOSE: Varicocele is one of the most common genital conditions referred to pediatric urologists. Most adolescents with varicocele are asymptomatic and their fertility future (and surgery benefit) is largely unknown. This review assesses varicocele evaluation, management and indications for repair, as well as types and success of varicocelectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed on Embase™, PubMed® and Google Scholar™ for adolescent varicocele...
November 2015: Journal of Urology
Chunxiu Gong, Ying Liu, Miao Qin, Di Wu, Xiaoling Wang
CONTEXT: We investigated the efficacy and safety of two different treatments that have not been evaluated in peripuberty boys with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment in adolescent boys with HH. DESIGN: Twelve patients received 8-10 μg of GnRH, sc injected every 90 minutes using a pump. Another 22 patients received hCG, injected im as follows: for the first 3 months, 1000 IU of hCG was injected two times per week and then once every other day for the next 3 months...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
S Khasnavis, B A Kogan
INTRODUCTION: Testicular size is commonly used as a proxy for future fertility in adolescent boys diagnosed with varicoceles. Surgery is often performed based on a 15-20% reduction in volume of the ipsilateral testicle when compared to the unaffected side. Recent European Association of Urology guidelines, however, have highlighted the risk of overtreatment. Data on the natural progression of testicular size discrepancy are limited in this population. To evaluate the role of a non-surgical approach, the present study reports on testicular size progression in 35 boys with left-sided varicoceles managed with observation alone...
June 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Sjoerd D Joustra, Evelyn M van der Plas, Joery Goede, Wilma Oostdijk, Henriette A Delemarre-van de Waal, Wilfried W M Hack, Stef van Buuren, Jan M Wit
AIM: Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. METHODS: The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonography and Prader orchidometer of 769 healthy Dutch boys aged 6 months to 19 years. We also explored the association between testicular growth and pubic hair development, and data were compared to orchidometric testicular volumes from the 1997 Dutch nationwide growth study...
June 2015: Acta Paediatrica
Alexander E Omu, Majedah K Al-Azemi, May Al-Maghrebi, Chacko T Mathew, Florence E Omu, Elijah O Kehinde, Jehoram T Anim, Mabayoje A Oriowo, Anjum Memon
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a) Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and cadmium (Cd), (b) serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), (c) interleukin-4 (IL-4), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d) assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e) testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Francesco Lotti, Mario Maggi
BACKGROUND: Infertility affects ∼7% of all men. Despite much progress, mainly in genetics, its etiology remains obscure in ∼50% of cases. To fill this gap, imaging of the male genital tract (MGT) has progressively expanded, providing useful information in the assessment of MGT abnormalities. METHODS: A critical, systematic review of the available literature was performed using Medline, with no restrictions regarding date of publication (i.e. from inception date until March 2014), along with analysis of previous reports in color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) atlas textbooks...
January 2015: Human Reproduction Update
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Maria Marsella, Ashraf Soliman, Mohamed Yassin
In the last 30 years, scientific literature has been enriched with studies which demonstrate the importance of evaluating testis volume to recognize certain genetic and endocrine diseases. Macroorchidism is defined as an increase of testicular volume at least twice the norm for age. In clinical practice, when macroorchidism is suspected, the testicular volume may be evaluated with the Prader orchidometer and/or US, calculated by this formula: L x W x H x 0.71 and the resulting value should be compared with a table of percentiles for each age...
February 2014: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
A H Haliloglu, S Tangal, O Gulpinar, K Onal, R Pabuccu
The main goal of this study was to evaluate the success rate of repeated Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) in Klinefelter Syndrome (KS). Eighteen patients with the diagnosis of KS who had undergone micro TESE previously were re-evaluated between May 2007 and May 2012. Testes were measured and testicular volume was calculated by orchidometer and by scrotal ultrasonography in all patients All patients underwent repeated micro TESE. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone levels and testicular volume of the patients with and without successful sperm retrieval were compared statistically...
January 2014: Andrology
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