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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630197/pharmacodynamics-of-cefepime-combined-with-tazobactam-against-clinically-relevant-enterobactereaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#1
Maria J Melchers, Anita C van Mil, Claudia Lagarde, Jan den Hartigh, Johan W Mouton
The lack of new antibiotics prompted the investigation of the combination of two existing agents cefepime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin and tazobactam to broaden its efficacy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. We determined the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the combination in a murine neutropenic thigh model in order to establishing its exposure- response relationships (ERR). The PK of cefepime was determined for five doses; that of tazobactam was determined in earlier studies (Melchers et al Antimicrob...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619105/patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-study-in-vietnam
#2
Giang M Tran, Thao P Ho-Le, Duc T Ha, Chau H Tran-Nguyen, Tuyet S M Nguyen, Thao T N Pham, Tuyet A Nguyen, Dung A Nguyen, Hoa Q Hoang, Ngoc V Tran, Tuan V Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major concern in developing countries. The present study sought to define the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: Between November 2014 and September 2015, we enrolled 220 patients (average age ~ 71 yr) who were admitted to ICU in a major tertiary hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Data concerning demographic characteristics and clinical history were collected from each patient...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592240/randomized-controlled-trial-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-cefepime-and-ertapenem-for-the-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#3
Yu Bin Seo, Jacob Lee, Young Keun Kim, Seung Soon Lee, Jeong-A Lee, Hyo Youl Kim, Young Uh, Han-Sung Kim, Wonkeun Song
BACKGROUND: Due to limited therapeutic options, the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become a major public health concern. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), cefepime, and ertapenem in febrile nosocomial urinary tract infection with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). METHODS: This study was conducted at three university hospitals between January 2013 and August 2015...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584156/the-role-of-axyz-transcriptional-regulator-in-the-overproduction-of-axyxy-oprz-multidrug-efflux-system-in-achromobacter-spp-mutants-selected-by-tobramycin
#4
Julien Bador, Catherine Neuwirth, Nadège Grangier, Marie Muniz, Leslie Germé, Jérémy Bonnet, Vignesh-Guru Pillay, Catherine Llanes, Claire de Curraize, Lucie Amoureux
AxyXY-OprZ is an RND-type efflux system that confers innate aminoglycoside resistance to Achromobacter spp. We investigated here about a putative TetR family transcriptional regulator encoded by the axyZ gene located upstream of axyXY-oprZ In-frame axyZ gene deletion assay led to increased MICs of antibiotic substrates of the efflux system: aminoglycosides, cefepime, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and erythromycin, indicating that the product of axyZ negatively regulates expression of axyXY-oprZ Moreover we identified an amino-acid substitution at position 29 of AxyZ (V29G) in a clinical Achromobacter strain that occurred during the course of chronic respiratory tract colonization in a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572795/cephalosporin-glycopeptide-combinations-for-use-against-clinical-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-enhanced-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity
#5
Hung-Jen Tang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Chun-Cheng Zhang, Tzu-Chieh Weng, Wen-Liang Yu, Hung-Jui Chen, Yu-Hsin Chiu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yin-Ching Chuang
The empirical combination of both a beta-lactam and glycopeptide to counter potential staphylococcal pathogens may improve the clinical outcomes for cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We reported comparative in vitro studies of combination effects of different cephalosporins (i.e., cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime) combined with glycopeptides for 34 randomly selected methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates by three methods, including the checkerboard, time-killing, and combination MIC measurement methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570326/renal-disease-and-neurology
#6
Sara E Hocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic dysfunction is prevalent in patients with acute and chronic renal disease and may affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may result directly from the uremic state or as a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of neurologic dysfunction may provide opportunities for intervention and reduced morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in the understanding of neurologic complications of renal disease and its treatments have led to more widespread recognition and earlier identification of encephalopathy syndromes such as cefepime neurotoxicity and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), dramatic reductions in the incidence of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and dialysis dementia, and improved survival in disorders such as von Hippel-Lindau disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559885/occurrence-and-variety-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-among-aeromonas-spp-isolated-from-urban-wastewater-treatment-plant
#7
Marta Piotrowska, Dominika Przygodzińska, Klaudia Matyjewicz, Magdalena Popowska
Members of the genus Aeromonas that commonly occur in various aquatic ecosystems are taken into account as vectors spreading antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In our study strains of Aeromonas spp. (n = 104) not susceptible to ampicillin were isolated from municipal sewage of different levels of purification - raw sewage, activated sludge and treated wastewater. The crucial step of the study was the identification of β-lactamase resistance genes. The identified genes encode β-lactamases from 14 families - blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaMOX, blaACC, blaFOX, blaGES, blaPER, blaV EB, blaKPC, cphA, imiH, and cepH...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559001/characterizing-non-linear-effects-of-hospitalization-duration-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-isolates-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-prospective-nationwide-surveillance-system
#8
Rami Sommerstein, Andrew Atkinson, Elia F Lo Priore, Andreas O Kronenberg, Jonas Marschall
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically study the influence of length of hospital stay on bacterial resistance in relevant respiratory tract isolates. METHODS: Using prospective epidemiological data from the National Swiss Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System, susceptibility testing results of respiratory isolates retrospectively retrieved from patients hospitalized between 2008-2014 were compiled. Generalized additive models were used to illustrate resistance rates relative to hospitalization duration and to adjust for co-variables...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554735/correlation-between-phenotypic-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-the-resistome-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Magali Jaillard, Alex van Belkum, Kyle C Cady, David Creely, Dee Shortridge, Bernadette Blanc, E Magda Barbu, W Michael Dunne, Gilles Zambardi, Mark Enright, Nathalie Mugnier, Christophe Le Priol, Stéphane Schicklin, Ghislaine Guigon, Jean-Baptiste Veyrieras
Genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance (AR) have been extensively investigated. High-throughput sequencing allows for the assessment of the relationship between genotype and phenotype. A panel of 672 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was analysed, including representatives of globally disseminated multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant clones; genomes and multiple antibiograms were available. This panel was annotated for AR gene presence and polymorphism, defining a resistome in which integrons were included...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550633/the-efficiency-of-the-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-used-for-antibiotics-removal-from-wastewaters-generated-by-animal-farms
#10
Maria-Loredana Soran, Ocsana Opriş, Ildikó Lung, Irina Kacso, Alin S Porav, Manuela Stan
In the recent years, residual antibiotics are considered to be emerging environmental pollutants due to their continuous input and persistence into the aquatic ecosystem even at low concentrations. Therefore, these are necessary to develop efficient methods for the wastewater treatment. The present paper describes the efficiency of several types of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the retention of the selected antibiotics (ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, piperacillin, tazobactam, tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, vancomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and thrimetoprim) from aqueous (synthetic) solutions and wastewater samples...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540747/in-vitro-susceptibility-and-resistance-phenotypes-in-contemporary-enterobacter-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-crete-greece
#11
Sofia Maraki, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, George Samonis, Dimitrios Perdikis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, Matthew E Falagas
AIM: To study the evolution in the susceptibility of Enterobacter spp. in Crete, Greece from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Non-duplicate isolates were studied using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. RESULTS: A total of 939 Enterobacter isolates were included. Colistin was the most active antibiotic (97.9%) followed by imipenem (96.1%), gentamicin (95.7%), tigecycline (91.8%), cefepime (89.4%), chloramphenicol (85.8%), fosfomycin (85...
May 25, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535790/clonal-replacement-of-epidemic-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-hospital-in-china
#12
Yuying Liang, Xiuyun Yin, Lijun Zeng, Shuiping Chen
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent nosocomial pathogen causing difficult-to-treat infections worldwide. The prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) is increasing in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of KPC-KP in a nosocomial outbreak. METHODS: Fifty-four KPC-KP isolates were consecutively collected between November 2013 and August 2014 during a KPC-KP outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China...
May 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#13
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522340/acute-kidney-injury-risk-associated-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-compared-with-cefepime-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-hospitalised-patients-a-cohort-study-stratified-by-baseline-kidney-function
#14
Nakyung Jeon, Ben Staley, Kenneth P Klinker, Juan Hincapie Castillo, Almut G Winterstein
Recent studies have found an association between piperacillin/tazobactam when added to vancomycin and acute kidney injury (AKI) risk. However, studies were limited by the small sample size and residual confounding. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of AKI with vancomycin plus piperacillin/tazobactam (VPT) versus vancomycin plus cefepime (VC) and to examine whether pre-existing renal impairment mediates the risk. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records for patients admitted to two hospitals in 2012-2013...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512635/drug-susceptibility-of-33-reference-strains-of-slowly-growing-mycobacteria-to-19-antimicrobial-agents
#15
Hui Pang, Yi Jiang, Kanglin Wan
Objectives. Slowly growing mycobacteria (SGM) are prevalent worldwide and cause an extensive spectrum of diseases. Methods. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 33 reference strains of SGM to 19 antimicrobial agents was tested using a modified microdilution method. Results. Cefmetazole (32/33) and azithromycin (32/33) exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity, and dapsone (9/33) exhibited the lowest activity against the tested strains. Cefoxitin (30/33), cefoperazone (28/33), and cefepime (28/33) were effective against a high proportion of strains, and macrolides were also highly effective as well as offering the benefit of convenient oral administration to patients...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507106/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-the-combination-of-op0595-and-cefepime-in-a-mouse-model-of-pneumonia-caused-by-esbl-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Kazuaki Takeda, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
Background: OP0595 (RG6080) is a novel diazobicyclooctane that inhibits class A and C serine beta-lactamases. Although the combination of OP0595 and cefepime (FEP) showed good in vitro activity against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens, the effect of the combination therapy against severe infections, such as pneumonia or bacteraemia, remains unknown in vivo.Objectives: In this study, we investigated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the combination therapy of OP0595 and FEP in a mouse model of pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring SHV and CTX-M-9-type ESBLs...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496482/evaluation-of-the-synergistic-effect-of-tomatidine-with-several-antibiotics-against-standard-and-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus-enterococcus-faecalis-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-escherichia-coli
#17
Rasool Soltani, Hossein Fazeli, Rahim Bahri Najafi, Alireza Jelokhanian
Antibiotic resistance is an important problem in antibiotic treatment of infections, particularly in hospitals. Tomatidine is a plant secondary metabolite with antimicrobial and antifungal effects. This study examined the possible synergistic effect tomatidine with several antibiotics against standard and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. After determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and tomatidine against the bacterial isolates using broth microdilution method, the synergistic effect between tomatidine and antibiotics was evaluated by checkerboard method and calculation of FIC indices...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483953/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-from-us-hospitals-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-pacts-2012-2015
#18
Dee Shortridge, Mariana Castanheira, Michael A Pfaller, Robert K Flamm
The activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam was compared to the activity of 7 antimicrobials against 3,851 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from 32 US hospitals in the Program to Assess Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Susceptibility from 2012-2015. Ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator susceptibilities were determined using the CLSI broth microdilution method at a central monitoring laboratory. For ceftolozane-tazobactam, 97.0% of the isolates were susceptible. Susceptibilities of the other antibacterials tested were: amikacin, 96...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465811/frequency-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-esbls-in-strains-of-klebsiella-and-e-coli-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-in-yazd
#19
Hengameh Zandi, Seyed Mostafa Tabatabaei, Fatemeh Ehsani, Mojtaba Babaei Zarch, Samira Doosthosseini
INTRODUCTION: Frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and its variants may vary in different geographical areas, as reports indicate their spread in some certain communities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of ESBLs in strains of Klebsiella and E. coli, isolated from patients hospitalized in teaching hospitals of Yazd. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on samples including E. coli and Klebsiella strains collected from laboratories of Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoun hospitals in Yazd, Iran in the period of 2011-2012...
February 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457572/analytical-interference-during-cefepime-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-intensive-care-patient-about-a-case-report
#20
Laurie Toullec, Julien Dupouey, Coralie Vigne, Amélie Marsot, Laurent Allanioux, Olivier Blin, Marc Leone, Romain Guilhaumou
β-lactams therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) appears as an essential tool to ensure the achievement of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic targets and prevent induced toxicity in intensive care unit patients. Indeed, those patients exhibit important pharmacokinetic variabilities that could lead to unpredictable plasma concentrations, potentially associated with poor clinical outcome, development of antibiotic resistance or increased side effects. Here, we report the case of a 48-year-old-patient admitted to intensive care unit and treated by cefepime using TDM...
March 30, 2017: Thérapie
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