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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708426/phenotypic-characteristics-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-derby-isolated-from-human-patients-and-foods-of-animal-origin
#1
Chenggang Xu, Xingxing Ren, Zhou Feng, Ying Fu, Yanfen Hong, Zujie Shen, Lina Zhang, Ming Liao, Xuebin Xu, Jianmin Zhang
Salmonella enterica serotype Derby is among the three most common serotypes of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from patients with diarrhea in China. In this study, 133 Salmonella Derby isolates from human patients (n = 74) and foods of animal origin (n = 59) in Shanghai, China, between September 2013 and December 2014, were selected to study its phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid replicon typing, virulence profile determination, and molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
July 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706882/distribution-of-the-strains-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-pandrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-burn-patients
#2
Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Isfahani, Hossein Fazeli, Farkhondeh Poursina, Sima Yadegari, Pourya Nasirmoghadas, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseininassab Nodoushan
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic and Gram-negative pathogen that is used as the most important factor in burn wound infections, and due to the rapid acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR), it causes high mortality rates in these sectors. Thus, diagnosis and assessment of antibiotic resistance patterns are very important in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic resistance pattern and determining P. aeruginosa MDR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, phenotypic, biochemical, and polymerase chain reaction tests were used to identify P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706393/cotrimoxazole-a-wonder-drug-in-the-era-of-multiresistance-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#3
Priyam Batra, Vishant Deo, Purva Mathur, Amit Kumar Gupta
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The rate of development of newer antibiotics is much slower than the rate of development of antibiotic resistance. A survey reported that it takes 15 years and US$800 million (including preclinical and clinical costs) to bring a single drug to the market, whereas the reuse of the older drugs for antimicrobial use takes $17 million, thereby circumventing 40% of the overall cost. The first case is a patient with nosocomial pyrexia of unknown origin who was given treatment with tigecycline and cefepime/tazobactam but failed to respond to the same...
July 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705666/in-vitro-activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-recovered-from-hospitalized-patients-in-germany
#4
Harald Seifert, Barbara Körber-Irrgang, Michael Kresken
To evaluate the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam in comparison with other broad-spectrum antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae, 497 non-duplicate P. aeruginosa and 802 Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates were consecutively collected during the period from September 2014 to April 2015 from patients in Germany with bloodstream, lower respiratory tract, intraabdominal or urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST criteria...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696232/community-composition-determines-activity-of-antibiotics-against-multispecies-biofilms
#5
Sarah Tavernier, Aurélie Crabbé, Mayram Tuysuz, Liesbeth Stuer, Silke Henry, Petra Rigole, Inne Dhondt, Tom Coenye
In young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, Staphylococcus aureus is typically the most prevalent organism, while in adults, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen. More recently, it was observed that also Streptococcus anginosus plays an important role in exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. These species are often co-isolated from CF lungs, yet little is known about whether antibiotic killing of one species is influenced by the presence of others. In the present study, we compared the activity of various antibiotics against S...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693691/prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-crkp-and-the-distribution-of-class-1-integron-in-their-strains-isolated-from-a-hospital-in-central-china
#6
Ou Qin, Li Wenfang, Li Bei, Yu Chunfang
Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the genetic characteristics of the class 1 integron in CRKP on multi-drug resistance.Methods Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were collected from multiple departments of a hospital in central China. CRKP strains were identified among the isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility of CRKP strains was analyzed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was adopted to amplify the class 1 integron variable area...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692440/cefepime-associated-with-phenytoin-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome
#7
José Marco-Del Río, Esther Domingo-Chiva, Pablo Cuesta-Montero, Ana Valladolid-Walsh, Eva María García-Martínez
We describe a recent case of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. A 49-year-old man was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of an Anaesthesia and Resuscitation Department because of a Fournier gangrene that derived in a sepsis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal failure. He was under treatment with cefepime and suffered a generalized status epilepticus, so started treatment with phenytoin. The next day he developed a "maculous cutaneous eruption in trunk and lower limbs" compatible with a Stevens-Johnson Syndrome...
July 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683724/first-report-of-cavitary-pneumonia-due-to-community-acquired-acinetobacter-pittii-study-of-virulence-and-overview-of-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#8
Romaric Larcher, Alix Pantel, Erik Arnaud, Albert Sotto, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter pittii is a nosocomial pathogen rarely involved in community-acquired infections. We report for the first time that A. pittii can be responsible for cavitary community-acquired pneumonia and study its virulence, and discuss its pathogenesis and treatment options. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman with a history of smoking and systemic lupus was admitted to Nimes University Hospital (France) with coughing and sputum lasting for three weeks...
July 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671807/valvular-heart-disease-in-adults-infective-endocarditis
#9
Zubair A Khan, Steven M Hollenberg
A variety of microorganisms can cause infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with native valves. Staphylococci and streptococci are most common in community-acquired IE; staphylococci are most common in nosocomial IE. Microbiology of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) depends on timing. Early-onset PVE (ie, 60 days or fewer postsurgery) typically is nosocomial, with Staphylococcus aureus infection being most common. Intermediate-onset PVE (ie, 60 to 365 days postsurgery) typically involves a mix of nosocomial and non-nosocomial organisms...
June 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671150/emerging-trends-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-unit-of-a-tertiary-care-public-teaching-hospital-in-western-india
#10
Rakesh Bhadade, Minal Harde, Rosemarie deSouza, Ashwini More, Ramesh Bharmal
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia poses great challenge to an intensivist. Detailed information about hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) is crucial for prevention and optimal management, thus improving quality Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care. Hence, we aimed to study the current trend of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a prospective observational cohort study, conducted in the ICU of a tertiary care teaching public hospital over a period of 18 months...
July 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670346/molecular-characterization-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-stool-specimens-of-outpatients-in-sentinel-hospitals-beijing-china-2010-2015
#11
Bing Lu, Haijian Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mei Qu, Ying Huang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with community-acquired infections and nosocomial infections. From 2010 to 2015, K. pneumoniae testing was included into the exiting diarrhea-syndrome surveillance with objective to estimate the prevalence of K. pneumoniae in diarrhea-syndrome patients, test antibiotics susceptibility and investigate molecular characteristics. METHODS: Stool specimens from diarrhea-syndrome outpatients were cultured and identified the pathogens by the Vitek2 Compact instrument...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668694/population-pharmacokinetics-of-cefepime-in-febrile-neutropenia-implications-for-dose-dependent-susceptibility-and-contemporary-dosing-regimens
#12
Nathaniel J Rhodes, Meagan E Grove, Patrick J Kiel, J Nicholas O'Donnell, Laura K Whited, Dusten T Rose, David R Jones, Marc H Scheetz
Alterations in cefepime pharmacokinetic (PK) exposure and decreases in bacterial susceptibility increase the risk of treatment failure. The impact of susceptible-dose-dependent (SDD) MICs (i.e., MICs 4-8 µg/mL) on target attainment rates for cefepime in febrile neutropenia (FN) is unclear. We sought to identify optimal cefepime regimens against SDD cefepime MICs in the setting of FN using a modeling and simulation approach. Creatinine clearance (CrCL) and body surface area (BSA) covariate-adjusted models of clearance were evaluated...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668683/defining-the-impact-of-severity-of-illness-on-time-above-the-mic-threshold-for-cefepime-in-gram-negative-bacteremia-a-goldilocks-window
#13
Cristina Miglis, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau, Scott A Van Wart, Marc H Scheetz
The quantitative impact of severity of illness on pharmacodynamic thresholds is poorly defined. We used a robust cefepime outcomes cohort and previously identified pharmacodynamic breakpoints of 68% (PK model 1) and 74% (PK model 2) to probe interactions and relationships with modified APACHE II scores. When fT/MIC was optimized, mortality was improved between mAPACHE II scores of 9 to 23 and 9 to 22 in models 1 and 2, respectively. No significant interactions were identified. Our results suggest that APACHE II scores of 9 to 22 may fall within a 'Goldilocks' window in which hospital survival is improved among patients achieving goal fT>MIC thresholds...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660129/haemophilus-influenzae-peritonitis-in-a-girl-on-automated-peritoneal-dialysis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Taketo Otsuka, Hiroya Hasegawa, Takeshi Yamada, Utako Kaneko, Akihiko Saitoh
Haemophilus influenzae is a rare cause of peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). We report a case of peritonitis due to non-typeable H. influenzae in a 5-year-old girl on automated PD. The patient was successfully treated with intraperitoneal cefepime and cefazolin. The isolate was multilocus sequence type 3 and contained the hmw and hia genes but was IS1016-negative. Seven of the eight reported cases were female, indicating that sex-associated factors may be important in H. influenzae peritonitis in patients on PD...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630197/pharmacodynamics-of-cefepime-combined-with-tazobactam-against-clinically-relevant-enterobactereaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#15
Maria J Melchers, Anita C van Mil, Claudia Lagarde, Jan den Hartigh, Johan W Mouton
The lack of new antibiotics prompted the investigation of the combination of two existing agents cefepime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin and tazobactam to broaden its efficacy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. We determined the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the combination in a murine neutropenic thigh model in order to establishing its exposure- response relationships (ERR). The PK of cefepime was determined for five doses; that of tazobactam was determined in earlier studies (Melchers et al Antimicrob...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619105/patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-a-study-in-vietnam
#16
Giang M Tran, Thao P Ho-Le, Duc T Ha, Chau H Tran-Nguyen, Tuyet S M Nguyen, Thao T N Pham, Tuyet A Nguyen, Dung A Nguyen, Hoa Q Hoang, Ngoc V Tran, Tuan V Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major concern in developing countries. The present study sought to define the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: Between November 2014 and September 2015, we enrolled 220 patients (average age ~ 71 yr) who were admitted to ICU in a major tertiary hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Data concerning demographic characteristics and clinical history were collected from each patient...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592240/randomized-controlled-trial-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-cefepime-and-ertapenem-for-the-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#17
Yu Bin Seo, Jacob Lee, Young Keun Kim, Seung Soon Lee, Jeong-A Lee, Hyo Youl Kim, Young Uh, Han-Sung Kim, Wonkeun Song
BACKGROUND: Due to limited therapeutic options, the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have become a major public health concern. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), cefepime, and ertapenem in febrile nosocomial urinary tract infection with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC). METHODS: This study was conducted at three university hospitals between January 2013 and August 2015...
June 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584156/the-role-of-axyz-transcriptional-regulator-in-the-overproduction-of-axyxy-oprz-multidrug-efflux-system-in-achromobacter-spp-mutants-selected-by-tobramycin
#18
Julien Bador, Catherine Neuwirth, Nadège Grangier, Marie Muniz, Leslie Germé, Jérémy Bonnet, Vignesh-Guru Pillay, Catherine Llanes, Claire de Curraize, Lucie Amoureux
AxyXY-OprZ is an RND-type efflux system that confers innate aminoglycoside resistance to Achromobacter spp. We investigated here about a putative TetR family transcriptional regulator encoded by the axyZ gene located upstream of axyXY-oprZ In-frame axyZ gene deletion assay led to increased MICs of antibiotic substrates of the efflux system: aminoglycosides, cefepime, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and erythromycin, indicating that the product of axyZ negatively regulates expression of axyXY-oprZ Moreover we identified an amino-acid substitution at position 29 of AxyZ (V29G) in a clinical Achromobacter strain that occurred during the course of chronic respiratory tract colonization in a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572795/cephalosporin-glycopeptide-combinations-for-use-against-clinical-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-enhanced-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity
#19
Hung-Jen Tang, Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Chun-Cheng Zhang, Tzu-Chieh Weng, Wen-Liang Yu, Hung-Jui Chen, Yu-Hsin Chiu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yin-Ching Chuang
The empirical combination of both a beta-lactam and glycopeptide to counter potential staphylococcal pathogens may improve the clinical outcomes for cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We reported comparative in vitro studies of combination effects of different cephalosporins (i.e., cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime) combined with glycopeptides for 34 randomly selected methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates by three methods, including the checkerboard, time-killing, and combination MIC measurement methods...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570326/renal-disease-and-neurology
#20
Sara E Hocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic dysfunction is prevalent in patients with acute and chronic renal disease and may affect the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, or both. Neurologic manifestations may result directly from the uremic state or as a consequence of renal replacement therapy. Early recognition of neurologic dysfunction may provide opportunities for intervention and reduced morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in the understanding of neurologic complications of renal disease and its treatments have led to more widespread recognition and earlier identification of encephalopathy syndromes such as cefepime neurotoxicity and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), dramatic reductions in the incidence of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and dialysis dementia, and improved survival in disorders such as von Hippel-Lindau disease and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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