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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#1
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442542/comparison-of-the-nephrotoxicity-of-vancomycin-in-combination-with-cefepime-meropenem-or-piperacillin-tazobactam-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#2
Brandon P Mullins, C Joseph Kramer, Billie J Bartel, Jennifer S Catlin, Richard E Gilder
BACKGROUND: Patients often receive broad-spectrum antibiotics for nosocomial infections commonly with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Previous retrospective and/or single-center studies have suggested that the combination of vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam might be associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving intravenous vancomycin in combination with cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin/tazobactam...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414000/simultaneous-quantification-of-cefepime-meropenem-ciprofloxacin-moxifloxacin-linezolid-and-piperacillin-in-human-serum-using-an-isotope-dilution-hplc-ms-ms-method
#3
M Paal, M Zoller, C Schuster, M Vogeser, G Schütze
The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a robust multi-analyte high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of cefepime, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid and piperacillin, which are the most commonly used antibiotics in intensive care units. Sample clean-up included a protein precipitation protocol, followed by chromatographic separation on a C8 reverse phase HPLC column within 4 min, using a formic acid-ammonium formiate methanol step-elution gradient...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408440/cross-reactivity-and-tolerability-of-cephalosporins-in-patients-with-ige-mediated-hypersensitivity-to-penicillins
#4
Antonino Romano, Rocco Luigi Valluzzi, Cristiano Caruso, Michela Maggioletti, Donato Quaratino, Francesco Gaeta
BACKGROUND: Studies performed since 1990 on samples of at least 30 subjects with a documented IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to penicillins have found a rate of positive responses to allergy tests with cephalosporins ranging from 0% to 27%. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the cross-reactivity with cephalosporins and evaluate the possibility of using cephalosporins in penicillin-allergic subjects. METHOD: We conducted a prospective study of 252 consecutive subjects who had suffered 319 immediate reactions (mostly anaphylaxis) to penicillins and had positive skin tests to at least one penicillin reagent...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402125/management-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-current-evidence-and-future-prospects
#5
Chau-Chyun Sheu, Shang-Yi Lin, Ya-Ting Chang, Chun-Yuan Lee, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh
The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a major public health threat worldwide. Area covered: A thorough systematic literature review describing the current evidence and future prospects of therapeutic options for infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Expert commentary: The methods of detecting ESBLs have been evolving. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing lowered the MIC breakpoints of cephalosporins against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in 2010...
February 6, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387342/efficacy-of-intravenous-plus-intrathecal-intracerebral-ventricle-injection-of-polymyxin-b-for-post-neurosurgical-intracranial-infections-due-to-mdr-xdr-acinectobacter-baumannii-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Sijun Pan, Xiaofang Huang, Yesong Wang, Li Li, Changyun Zhao, Zhongxiang Yao, Wei Cui, Gensheng Zhang
Background: Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China) and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367518/molecular-characteristics-and-virulence-analysis-of-eight-aeromonas-hydrophila-isolates-obtained-from-diseased-amur-sturgeon-acipenser-schrenckii-brandt-1869
#8
Yong Zhou, Yuding Fan, Nan Jiang, Wenzhi Liu, Yuheng Shi, Jianqing Zhao, Lingbing Zeng
Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic pathogen of a variety of aquatic animals that displays extreme diversity in drug resistance, phenotypes, virulence genes, and virulence. In this study, eight pathogenic A. hydrophila strains were isolated from diseased Amur sturgeons and investigated for their sensitivity to select antibiotics, their phenotype, virulence genes, and virulence. According to the phylogenetic analysis of the DNA gyrase subunit B protein, the eight isolates formed a single branch in the A...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357220/allostery-recognition-of-nascent-peptidoglycan-and-crosslinking-of-the-cell-wall-by-the-essential-penicillin-binding-protein-2x-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
Noelia Bernardo-Garcia, Kiran V Mahasenan, Maria T Batuecas, Mijoon Lee, Dusan Hesek, Denisa Petráčková, Linda Doubravová, Pavel Branny, Shahriar Mobashery, Juan A Hermoso
Transpeptidases, members of the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) families, catalyze crosslinking of the bacterial cell wall. This transformation is critical for the survival of bacteria and it is the target of inhibition by -lactam antibiotics. We report herein our structural insights into catalysis by the essential PBP2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae by disclosing a total of four X-ray structures, two computational models based on the crystal structures and molecular-dynamics simulations. The X-ray structures are for the apo PBP2x, the enzyme modified covalently in the active site by oxacillin (a penicillin antibiotic), the enzyme modified by oxacillin in the presence of a synthetic tetrasaccharide surrogate for the cell-wall peptidoglycan and a non-covalent complex of cefepime (a cephalosporin antibiotic) bound to the active site...
January 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302147/current-trends-of-drug-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-in-blood-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-patients
#10
Suhail Ahmed Almani, Ali Naseer, Sanjay Kumar Maheshwari, Pir Maroof, Raza Naseer, Haji Khan Khoharo
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Subjects and Methods: Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298481/modeling-the-transient-kinetics-of-the-l1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase
#11
Maria G Khrenova, Alexander V Nemukhin
The transient absorption spectroscopy of hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate nitrocefin by the L1 metallo-β-lactamase (MβL), a bacterial enzyme responsible for destruction of β-lactam antibiotics molecules, showed formation and decay of a plausible red-shifted reaction intermediate. We propose a mechanism of this important reaction consistent with the transient kinetic data. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations of the reaction pathway revealed occurrence of two reaction intermediates (I1, I2) between the enzyme-substrate (ES) and enzyme-product (EP) complexes...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278990/clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-gram-negative-infections-treated-with-optimized-dosing-cefepime-over-various-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations
#12
Jerry Altshuler, David J Guervil, Charles D Ericsson, Audrey Wanger, Samuel L Aitken, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
BACKGROUND: The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) revised cefepime interpretive criteria, introducing the susceptible dose-dependent category for Enterobacteriaceae with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 to 8 μg/mL in 2014. Limited clinical data support these new categories. This study compares outcomes of patients treated with standard and high-dose cefepime across various MICs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of pneumonia or bacteremia caused by gram-negative organisms treated with adequate doses of cefepime for ≥48 hours...
February 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276241/development-of-institutional-guidelines-for-management-of-gram-negative-bloodstream-infections-incorporating-local-evidence
#13
Elizabeth B Nimmich, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, Julie Ann Justo, Katie L Hammer, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi N Al-Hasan
Background: Appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy is associated with improved outcomes of patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI). Objective: Development of evidence-based institutional management guidelines for empirical antimicrobial therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Methods: Hospitalized adults with Gram-negative BSI in 2011-2012 at Palmetto Health hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA, were identified. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between site of infection acquisition and BSI due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa or chromosomally mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CAE)...
November 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260037/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Cigdem Isitan, Andrew Ferree, Anna DePold Hohler
Cefepime is a fourth generation cephalosporin which is bactericidal for broad spectrum of organisms. This is a case-series of three patients who presented to our hospital with confusion secondary to cefepime use to treat urinary tract infection (UTI) and health care associated pneumonia (HCAP), after excluding other common etiologies of altered mental status (AMS). Of these three patients, one had progressive expressive aphasia and the other two demonstrated asynchronous myoclonic activity of the limbs. The symptoms were seen within four to five days of initiating the treatment and resolved within three days of discontinuation of cefepime...
September 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239220/is-it-time-to-rethink-the-notion-of-carbapenem-sparing-therapy-against-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-a-critical-review
#15
Daniel B Chastain, Bryan P White, David A Cretella, Christopher M Bland
OBJECTIVE: To present systematic recommendations for carbapenem-sparing therapy against extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (BSIs) derived from a critical review of clinical data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search using PubMed and MEDLINE databases (January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2017) was performed using key MESH terms: ESBL or extended-spectrum β-lactamases and bacteremia or bloodstream infection with piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, cefepime, cephamycins, carbapenem, doripenem, meropenem, and ertapenem...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230335/a-case-of-ignatzschineria-indica-bacteremia-following-maggot-colonization
#16
Hugh Muse, Rachel L Jenkins, Meredith B Oliver, Soomin Kim, Richard L Grantier, Bharat K Malhotra, Jason J Parham, Kayla R Stover
Ignatzschineria indica is a Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly associated with the larvae of flesh flies. I. indica is difficult to isolate in routine laboratory procedures but has been associated with neglected wounds infested with maggots, fever, elevated white blood count and C-reactive protein, and polymicrobial culture results. Other specific hematological/immunological changes are not known. We present a case of I. indica bacteremia and polymicrobial osteomyelitis resulting from infected decubitus ulcers...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227741/new-subclass-b1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-gene-from-a-clinical-pathogenic-myroides-odoratus-strain
#17
Su Xu, Yijian Chen, Zhuyingjie Fu, Ying Li, Guixiu Shi, Xiaogang Xu, Yang Liu, Minggui Wang
Myroides odoratus is a low-virulence opportunistic human pathogen. Infections caused by M. odoratus are not common, but reports are increasing in recent years. The biggest challenge for treatment is its resistance to most antibiotics. In 2015, we isolated a pathogenic multidrug-resistant strain of M. odoratus from a urinary tract infection (UTI) patient's urine sample. To report the experience in managing M. odoratus-related UTI and investigate the genetic mechanism of this carbapenem-resistant strain, we conducted a series of microbiological and molecular studies...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225828/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-in-a-pediatric-patient-on-chronic-hemodialysis-a-case-report
#18
Monica Guzman-Limon, Subha Amatya, Joshua Samuels, Rita Swinford, Sonal Bhatnagar, Joyce Samuel
Impaired renal function increases the risk for cefepime-induced neurotoxicity. Symptoms include disorientation, myoclonus, status epilepticus, ataxia, gait disturbance, coma, and death. A high index of suspicion and early recognition of symptoms can minimize the risk of progression of symptoms to permanent neurologic impairment or death.
December 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214986/antibiotic-resistance-in-enterobacter-cloacae-strains-with-derepressed-partly-derepressed-inducible-ampc-and-extendedspectrum-beta-lactamases-in-zenica-doboj-canton-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#19
Selma Uzunović, Amir Ibrahimagić, Branka Bedenić
Aim To investigate the prevalence of derepressed/partly derepressed/inducible and ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae isolates and treatment options for infections associated with those isolates. Methods Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and broth microdilution according to CLSI guidelines. Doubledisk synergy test (DDST) was performed in order to screen for ESBLs and combined disk test with phenylboronic acid to detect AmpC β -lactamases. PCR was used to detect blaESBL/blacarb genes...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205196/speciation-clinical-profile-antibiotic-resistance-in-aeromonas-species-isolated-from-cholera-like-illnesses-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#20
Balvinder Mohan, Nandini Sethuraman, Ritu Verma, Neelam Taneja
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Aeromonas species have been reported to cause various illnesses in humans such as wound infections, septicaemia, peritonitis and pneumonia. Their role in causation of cholera-like illness is also being increasingly recognized. This retrospective study was done to know the presence of Aeromonas as a cause of acute diarrhoea in a tertiary care hospital and to find the common species of Aeromonas causing diarrhoea and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. METHODS: Fifty isolates of Aeromonas were obtained over a period of 15 yr from 2000 to 2014 from patients of suspected acute gastroenteritis resembling cholera...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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