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Andre Arizpe, Kelly R Reveles, Shrina D Patel, Samuel L Aitken
Resistance to cephalosporins is now common among Gram-negative bacterial infections, including those caused by the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, posing a major threat to public health. As resistance to the traditional drugs of choice for these infections, carbapenems, has also become increasingly common, interest in cefepime and piperacillin-tazobactam as carbapenem-sparing alternatives has increased. Additionally, the availability of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam has added to the antimicrobial armamentarium available to treat these multidrug-resistant infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Megha Shah, Hetalkumar Shah, Atul Maslekar
We present here a case of 58-year-old male operated for coronary artery bypass graft surgery with four grafts. He developed neurologic symptoms with injection cefepime which recovered after withdrawal of the drug.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Zhenbao Liu, Chunyan Wang, Yanfei Liu, Dongming Peng
Cefepime (CFP) is a frequently used antibiotic for prevention of post-surgery infection. Systemic delivery of CFP in a bulk dose usually shows effective therapeutic effects, while cytotoxicity can also be generated. To avoid the drawback of systemic delivery of antibiotic, local and controlled administration of drug is being employed to prolong therapeutic effects and reduce cytotoxicity by sustaining drug release and minimizing drug exposure. In this work, CFP loaded polymer O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMC) microspheres (CFP-OCMC-MPs) were fabricated and their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Emily Johnson, Yousef Hannawi, Nirma Carballido Martinez, Eva K Ritzl
Cefepime has been associated with encephalopathy and with nonconvulsive seizure activity, primarily in patients with renal impairment. Here, we report a case of cefepime-associated encephalopathy in a patient with normal renal function with stimulus-induced rhythmic activity seen on electroencephalogram, which resolved on discontinuation of cefepime. We bring this to the attention of the neurohospitalist community, as cefepime is widely used in the hospital setting, and cefepime-related neurotoxicity may go overlooked, especially in patients with normal renal function...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Eyitayo O Adenipekun, Charlene R Jackson, Hazem Ramadan, Bamidele A Iwalokun, Kolawole S Oyedeji, Jonathan G Frye, John B Barrett, Lari M Hiott, Tiffanie A Woodley, Afolabi Oluwadun
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR; resistance to ≥ 2 more antimicrobials) in Escherichia coli is of concern due to complications encountered in treatment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic characteristics of MDR community isolates of E. coli from Lagos, Nigeria were determined. Urine and stool samples were obtained from outpatients attending Lagos State hospitals and from animal handlers in abattoirs, poultries, and open markets, from December 2012 to July 2013...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Manuel Kussmann, Linda Schuster, Sarah Wrenger, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
♦ Background: Peritonitis is a major problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The influence of diverse PD fluids on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the impact of different PD fluids on the activity of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, meropenem, and tobramycin against Escherichia coli. ♦ Methods: Time-kill curves in 4 different PD fluids (Dianeal PDG4, Extraneal, Nutrineal PD4 and Physioneal 40, all Baxter Healthcare Corp...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Yusuke Toda, Mineo Yamazaki, Tomohiro Ota, Yosuke Fujisawa, Kazumi Kimura
A 64-year-old man with fever, appetite loss, and pain in the back of the neck visited our hospital. We diagnosed him as having bacterial meningitis because of pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and started treatment with antibiotics. Multiple cerebral infarcts were found on brain MRI. We suspected that the origin of the bacterial meningitis was infective endocarditis, and administered Cefepime and Gentamicin according to the guidelines for treatment of infective endocarditis. Three days later, he became drowsy and had myoclonus and flapping of the extremities...
September 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Edward Alexeev, Gary N Inwald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Baharak Babouee Flury, Matthew J Ellington, Katie L Hopkins, Jane F Turton, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford
Mechanisms leading to carbapenem and cephalosporin resistance were sought in Enterobacter aerogenes isolates that were highly resistant to carbapenems but had no known carbapenemase. Results were compared with recent work examining carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Eighteen carbapenem-resistant E. aerogenes were screened for known β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes, and novel carbapenemases were sought in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the three most resistant isolates. For all isolates, ampC, ampR, ampD and the porin genes omp35 and omp36 were investigated by Sanger sequencing or from available WGS data...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Sofia Maraki, Elpis Mantadakis, Viktoria Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, George Samonis
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010-2014) in A...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
Y L Gong, Z C Yang, S P Yin, M X Liu, C Zhang, X Q Luo, Y Z Peng
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogen isolated from severely burned patients with bloodstream infection, so as to provide reference for the clinical treatment of these patients. Methods: Blood samples of 162 severely burned patients (including 120 patients with extremely severe burn) with bloodstream infection admitted into our burn ICU from January 2011 to December 2014 were collected. Pathogens were cultured by fully automatic blood culture system, and API bacteria identification panels were used to identify pathogen...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Etsuko Sugawara, Seiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nikaido
: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, is becoming a major problem in health care because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics including cephalosporins of the latest generation and more recently even carbapenems. This is largely due to the spread of plasmid-coded extended spectrum β-lactamases. However, antimicrobial agents must first penetrate through the outer membrane barrier in order to reach their targets, and hydrophilic and charged β-lactams presumably diffuse through the porin channels...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Morteza Kavan Talkhabi, Leyla Aghaiyan, Zohre Salehipour
BACKGROUND: Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. METHODS: A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014...
September 2016: Germs
Douglas J Biedenbach, Phan Trong Giao, Pham Hung Van, Nguyen Su Minh Tuyet, Tran Thi Thanh Nga, Doan Mai Phuong, Nguyen Vu Trung, Robert E Badal
PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens are becoming a significant problem worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are problematic multidrug-resistant pathogens. This multicenter study in Vietnam determined the level of resistance to antimicrobial agents used to treat A baumannii and P aeruginosa infections in this country. METHODS: Five medical centers in Vietnam provided 529 P aeruginosa and 971 Acinetobacter species (904 A baumannii) isolates from patients with hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia from 2012 to 2014...
September 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Tugce Tural Kara, Songul Yilmaz, Halil Ozdemir, Zeynep Birsin Ozcakar, Ahmet Derya Aysev, Ergin Ciftci, Erdal Ince
UNLABELLED: Peritonitis is a serious problem in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of peritonitis. A 10-year-old boy who had end stage renal failure due to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and fever. Peritoneal dialysis fluid was cloudy and microscopic examination showed abundant leukocytes. Intraperitoneal cefepime treatment was started. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from peritoneal dialysis fluid culture and oral clarithromycin was added to the treatment...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Changsheng Kong, Jun Chen, Xiaoyan Zou, Yi Zhang, Lingna Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance of Comamonas testosteroni (C. testosteroni) by the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) method without Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) explanation or the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method with the standard CLSI explanation to evaluate the sensitivity of K-B method in detection of C. testosteroni.
 METHODS: K-B method and MIC method was used to determine the sensitivity of C. testosteroni to Piperacillin, Cefepime, Piperacillin/tazobactam, Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin...
August 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Haruka Miyabe, Atsuhiko Uno, Takahiro Nakajima, Natsue Morizane, Keisuke Enomoto, Masayuki Hirose, Toshinori Hazama, Yukinori Takenaka
Skull base osteomyelitis is classically documented as an extension of malignant otitis externa. Initial presentation commonly includes aural symptoms and cranial nerve dysfunctions. Here we present a case that emerged with multiple infarctions in the right cerebrum. A male in his 70s with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure presented with left hemiparesis. Imaging studies showed that blood flow in the carotid artery remained at the day of onset but was totally occluded 7 days later. However, collateral blood supply prevented severe infarction...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
Femke J Taverne, Ingeborg M van Geijlswijk, Dick J J Heederik, Jaap A Wagenaar, Johan W Mouton
BACKGROUND: To optimize antimicrobial dosing in different animal species, pharmacokinetic information is necessary. Due to the plethora of cephalosporin antimicrobials and animal species in which they are used, assessment of pharmacokinetics in all species is unfeasible. In this study we aimed to describe pharmacokinetic data of cephalosporins by reviewing the available literature for food producing and companion animal species. We assessed the accuracy of interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling techniques to determine pharmacokinetic characteristics of cephalosporins in animal species for which literature data is unavailable...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Chanwit Tribuddharat, Pintip Pongpech, Angkana Charoenwatanachokchai, Somchai Lokpichart, Somporn Srifuengfung, Suthatta Sonprasert
We studied antimicrobial susceptibility and the current rates of blaTEM-1 and blaTEM-135. Neisseria gonorrhoeae 370 isolates were tested by using disk diffusion method and found 100% susceptible to cefixime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. They were resistant to penicillin (85.7%), ciprofloxacin (88.0%), ofloxacin (97.4%), and tetracycline (89.1%). Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) was 83.8% which 70.0% was further identified as PPNG plus tetracycline resistant N...
August 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
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