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Cefepime

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217952/monitoring-of-cefepime-in-human-serum-and-plasma-by-micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography-improvement-of-sample-preparation-and-validation-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#1
Nela Šestáková, Regula Theurillat, Parham Sendi, Wolfgang Thormann
Cefepime monitoring in deproteinized human serum and plasma by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in presence of other drugs is reported. For micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, sample preparation comprised dodecylsulfate protein precipitation at pH 4.5 using an increased buffer concentration compared to that of a previous assay and removal of hydrophobic compounds with dichloromethane. This provided robust conditions for cefepime analysis in the presence of sulfamethoxazole and thus enabled its determination in samples of patients that receive co-trimoxazole...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207768/prevalence-of-mdr-pathogens-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-egypt-and-new-synergistic-antibiotic-combinations
#2
Mona M Abdelkader, Khaled M Aboshanab, Marwa A El-Ashry, Mohammad M Aboulwafa
The aim of this study was identifying bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis, studying their antibiotic resistance profiles, investigating the antibiotic resistance genes as well as evaluating the use of various antibiotic combinations. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were evaluated according to CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic combinations were evaluated by calculating the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index. A total of 71 bacterial isolates were recovered from 68 culture positive CSF specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203427/potency-of-parenteral-antimicrobials-including-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-nosocomial-respiratory-tract-pathogens-considerations-for-empiric-and-directed-therapy
#3
Christina A Sutherland, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Empiric therapy decisions are predicated on knowledge of both the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the probable infecting pathogen(s). The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial distribution and phenotypic profiles of nosocomial respiratory isolates collected from multiple US hospitals and assess the clinical utility of various monotherapy and combination regimens. METHODS: Hospitals provided consecutive non-duplicate adult inpatients Gram-negative nosocomial respiratory isolates from cultures received ≥48 h after hospital admission...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167857/high-frequency-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-children-an-alarming-concern
#4
F Sabouni, Z Movahedi, S Mahmoudi, B Pourakbari, S Keshavarz Valian, S Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus spp. is considered as important etiological agents of nosocomial infections. However, a little is known about the epidemiology of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of VREF and detecting of two prevalent resistance genes (vanA, vanB) at Children Medical Center Hospital, an Iranian referral pediatric Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During January 2013 to December 2013, 180 E...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165890/enterobacteriaceae-harboring-ampc-blacmy-and-esbl-blactx-m-in-migratory-and-nonmigratory-wild-songbird-populations-on-ohio-dairies
#5
Dimitria A Mathys, Blake A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer bacterial resistance to critically important antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Livestock are important reservoirs for the zoonotic food-borne transmission of ESC-resistant enteric bacteria. Our aim is to describe the potential role of migratory and resident wild birds in the epidemiology of ESBL-mediated bacterial resistance on dairy farms. Using mist nets, we sampled wild migratory and resident birds either immediately adjacent to or 600 ft away from free-stall barns on three Ohio dairy farms during the 2014 and 2015 spring migrations...
February 6, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158732/in-vitro-activity-of-cefepime-zidebactam-wck-5222-against-gram-negative-bacteria
#6
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Marina Warner, Anna Vickers, Neil Woodford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151042/occurrence-of-blandm-1-and-blandm-5-in-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-of-north-india
#7
Deepjyoti Paul, Atul Garg, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Antimicrobial resistance poses a great challenge to clinicians leaving very limited treatment options available. A panel of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates was selected based on Rapidec Carba NP test from a total of 900 samples, which were collected from different specialities hospitals of Kanpur, India. Carba NP-positive isolates were screened for carbapenemases, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), quinolone resistance, and 16s methyltransferase genes. Presence of diverse blaNDM (blaNDM-1 and blaNDM-5) were detected and horizontal transferability was determined by transformation and conjugation assay...
February 2, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139739/combination-of-cephalosporins-with-vancomycin-or-teicoplanin-enhances-antibacterial-effect-of-glycopeptides-against-heterogeneous-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus-hvisa-and-visa
#8
Chih-Cheng Lai, Chi-Chung Chen, Yin-Ching Chuang, Hung-Jen Tang
Eight heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (h-VISA) and seven VISA clinical isolates confirmed by the population analysis profile/area under the curve ratio (PAP/AUC) were collected. We further performed the PAP/AUC, time-killing methods and MIC tests using vancomycin/teicoplanin alone or combination with susceptible breakpoint concentrations of cefazolin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, and cefepime for these isolates. The PAP/AUC MIC curve shifted left after addition of cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin for both h-VISA and VISA isolates...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138370/carbapenem-susceptibility-and-multidrug-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-egypt
#9
Hany Hashem, Amro Hanora, Salah Abdalla, Alaa Shawky, Alaa Saad
BACKGROUND: Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern for antimicrobial therapy, as the common isolates exhibit variable grades of resistance, involving beta-lactamase enzymes, beside native defense mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to determine the occurrence of Metallo-β- Lactamases (MBL) and Amp C harboring P. aeruginosa isolates from Suez Canal university hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. METHODS: A total of 147 P...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137811/antimicrobial-activity-of-high-proportion-cefepime-tazobactam-wck-4282-when-tested-against-a-large-worldwide-collection-of-gram-negative-organisms-2014
#10
Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones
Cefepime-tazobactam (WCK 4282) is currently under clinical development at 2 gram/2 gram q8h dosaging. A total of 7,981 isolates were collected from 146 medical centers (39 countries) in 2014 as a part of SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, and were susceptibility tested by a reference broth microdilution method against cefepime-tazobactam (tazobactam at fixed 4 and 8 μg/mL). Isolates were mainly from pneumonia (29.5%) and bloodstream infections (26.9%). Cefepime-tazobactam (fixed 8 μg/mL) and cefepime inhibited 96...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124968/-accurate-diagnosis-of-pseudomonas-luteola-in-routine-microbiology-laboratory-on-the-occasion-of-two-isolates
#11
Muharrem Çiçek, Gülşen Hasçelik, H Kaan Müştak, K Serdar Diker, Burçin Şener
Pseudomonas luteola which was previously known as Chryseomonas luteola; is a gram-negative, non-fermentative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is frequently found as a saprophyte in soil, water and other damp environments and is an opportunistic pathogen in patients with underlying medical disorders or with indwelling catheters. It has been reported as an uncommon cause of bacteremia, sepsis, septic arthritis, meningitis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Thus, early and accurate identification of this rare species is important for the treatment and also to provide information about the epidemiology of P...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124956/-investigation-of-the-frequency-and-distribution-of-beta-lactamase-genes-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-collected-from-different-regions-of-turkey-a-multicenter-study
#12
Fatih Şaban Beriş, Emine Esra Budak, Duygu Gülek, Aytül Uzun, Zeynep Çizmeci, Fırat Zafer Mengeloğlu, Şahin Direkel, Yeliz Çetinkol, Yasemin Ay Altıntop, Meryem Iraz, Tuba Dal, Safiye Umut Say Coşkun, Pervin Özlem Balcı, Tuba Kayman, Ahmet Çalışkan, Yelda Yazıcı, İsmail Tosun, Ayşe Ertürk, Ayşegül Çopur Çiçek
The diversity and distribution of TEM, SHV and CTX-M type of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are important for the treatment and control of infections. Determination of ESBL genes in clinical isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing can obtain useful data for their molecular epidemiology and risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of beta-lactamase genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from different regions of Turkey. A total of 519 A.baumannii strains collected from hospitals located at 12 different provinces of Turkey (Bolu (n= 67), Tokat (n= 47), Trabzon (n= 25), Ordu (n= 27), Diyarbakır (n= 47), Niğde (n=31), Kayseri (n= 36), Ankara (n= 41), Kirikkale (n= 26), Kahramanmaraş (n= 25), Mersin (n= 40), Istanbul (n= 107)] between 2011-2012 period were included in the study...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115350/antimicrobial-activities-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-and-comparator-agents-against-clinical-bacteria-isolated-from-patients-with-cancer
#13
Ray Hachem, Ruth Reitzel, Kenneth Rolston, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Issam Raad
A total of 521 unique clinical isolates from cancer patients, primarily (>90 %) with bloodstream infections were tested for susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators using broth microdilution methods. Ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 97.8 % of all Enterobacteriaceae (N=321) at the susceptibility breakpoint of ≤8/4 μg/ml (there were 7 non-susceptible strains). It was also active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (91.7 % isolates susceptible, N=121) including many isolates not susceptible to meropenem, cefepime, ceftazidime, piperacillin/tazobactam and other comparators...
January 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111294/cefepime-plasma-concentrations-and-clinical-toxicity-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Tibor Huwyler, Lauriane Lenggenhager, Mohamed Abbas, Kuntheavy Ing Lorenzini, Séverine Hughes, Benedikt Huttner, Abderrahim Karmime, Ilker Uçkay, Elodie von Dach, Pierre Lescuyer, Stephan Harbarth, Angela Huttner
OBJECTIVES: Cefepime remains an important antibiotic for severe bacterial infections, yet some meta-analyses have shown elevated mortality among patients randomised to it. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of β-lactam antibiotics is increasing, but optimal plasma concentrations remain unknown. We examined clinical outcomes of patients undergoing cefepime TDM in an initial effort to define the drug's toxicity threshold. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we enrolled all adult hospitalised patients receiving cefepime and undergoing TDM from January 2013 through July 2016...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multicenter-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in children after alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age, 9.4 years) with at least 1 BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101482/cefepime-induced-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-patient-with-normal-renal-function
#16
Hyeon-Mi Park, Young Noh, Ji Won Yang, Dong Hoon Shin, Yeong-Bae Lee
Cefepime-induced encephalopathy including nonconvulsive status epilepticus has been known to develop in the patients with renal impairment. However, we report a 74-year-old woman with normal renal function who developed stuporous mental status during cefepime administration. Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed 2 Hz rhythmic sharp-and-waves continuously, which suggested nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). After cefepime discontinuation, clinical symptoms recovered gradually and EEG findings showed only background slowing without epileptiform discharges...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099001/conformational-dynamics-in-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-allosteric-communication-network-and-enablement-of-catalysis
#17
Kiran V Mahasenan, Rafael Molina, Renee Bouley, María T Batuecas, Jed F Fisher, Juan A Hermoso, Mayland Chang, Shahriar Mobashery
The mechanism of the β-lactam antibacterials is the functionally irreversible acylation of the enzymes that catalyze the cross-linking steps in the biosynthesis of their peptidoglycan cell wall. The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus uses one primary resistance mechanism. An enzyme, called penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), is brought into this biosynthetic pathway to complete the cross-linking. PBP2a effectively discriminates against the β-lactam antibiotics as potential inhibitors, and in favor of the peptidoglycan substrate...
January 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095794/development-of-an-algorithm-for-phenotypic-screening-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-routine-laboratory
#18
Jérôme Robert, Alix Pantel, Audrey Merens, Elodie Meiller, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Nicolas-Chanoine
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are difficult to identify among carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (NSE). We designed phenotypic strategies giving priority to high sensitivity for screening putative CPE before further testing. METHODS: Presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes in ertapenem NSE (MIC > 0.5 mg/l) consecutively isolated in 80 French laboratories between November 2011 and April 2012 was determined by the Check-MDR-CT103 array method...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095290/study-of-the-microbiological-quality-of-bulgarian-bottled-water-in-terms-of-its-contamination-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Vesela Georgieva, Yulia Dimitrova
BACKGROUND: Due to the widespread use of bottled water, it is important from a hygienic point of view to ensure that these products have good quality and meet the requirements set out in regulations. METHODS: In the period 2000-2013, a large-scale study (2,500 samples) was carried out on the quality of Bulgarian bottled water as per the microbiological parameters laid down in the European and Bulgarian legislation. Standard microbiological methods were applied. RESULTS: There is strong evidence that the most frequently isolated contaminant in these products was Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#20
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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