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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527578/tr2-and-tr4-orphan-nuclear-receptors-an-overview
#1
Shin-Jen Lin, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Chang-Yi Lin, Hong-Chiang Chang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), also known as NR1C3 nuclear receptor...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521812/radiotherapy-improves-serum-fatty-acids-and-lipid-profile-in-breast-cancer
#2
Sana Shaikh, Naseem Aslam Channa, Farha Naz Talpur, Muhammad Younis, Naila Tabassum
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a disease with diverse clinical symptoms, molecular profiles, and its nature to response its therapeutic treatments. Radiotherapy (RT), along with surgery and chemotherapy is a part of treatment in breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate pre and post treatment effects of radiotherapy in serum fatty acids and its lipids profile in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: In this comparative as well as follow up study, Serum fatty acids were performed by gas chromatography to investigate fatty acids and Microlab for analysis of lipid profile...
May 18, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521474/an-%C3%AE-3-fatty-acid-desaturase-expressing-gene-attenuates-prostate-cancer-proliferation-by-cell-cycle-regulation
#3
Jinshun Pan, Sujin Zhou, Rong Xiang, Zhenggang Zhao, Shanshan Liu, Ning Ding, Sijia Gong, Yan Lin, Xiaoxi Li, Xiaoming Bai, Fanghong Li, Allan Z Zhao
Previous studies have reported that Ω-6 and Ω-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on cancer development. Consuming high levels of long-chain Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been shown to reduce prostate cancer risk and increase chemotherapy sensitivity. The sdd17 gene encodes an Ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, which converts arachidonic acid into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, little is known regarding the function of the sdd17 gene in tumor cells in vitro. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were infected with the msdd17 gene, which allowed the endogenous production of Ω-3 PUFAs...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515019/serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolites-as-useful-tool-for-screening-potential-biomarker-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Li-Jian Zhang, Bin Chen, Jun-Jie Zhang, Jian Li, Qingjing Yang, Qi-Sheng Zhong, Song Zhan, Huwei Liu, Chun Cai
The biomarker identification of cancer is benefit for early detection and less invasion. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolite as inflammatory mediators can affect progression and treatment of cancer. In this work, the serum was collected from colorectal cancer patients and healthy volunteers, and then we tested the change of serum PUFA metabolites in both of them by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 158 PUFA and their metabolites, we found that abnormal change of 2, 3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2α, 19-HETE and 12-keto-LTB4 from arachidonic acid were observed in colorectal cancer patients...
May 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507800/formyl-peptide-receptor-1-suppresses-gastric-cancer-angiogenesis-and-growth-by-exploiting-inflammation-resolution-pathways
#5
Nella Prevete, Federica Liotti, Anna Illiano, Angela Amoresano, Piero Pucci, Amato de Paulis, Rosa Marina Melillo
Chronic inflammation can result from inadequate engagement of resolution mechanisms, mainly accomplished by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) arising from the metabolic activity of lipoxygenases (ALOX5/15) on ω-6 or ω-3 essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We previously demonstrated that formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) suppresses gastric cancer (GC) by inhibiting its inflammatory/angiogenic potential. In this study, we asked whether FPR1 exploits inflammation resolution pathways to suppress GC angiogenesis and growth...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501579/eicosapentaenoic-acid-monoglyceride-resolves-inflammation-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell
#6
Caroline Morin, Léane Charbonneau, Nicole Ouellet, Hélène Ouellet, Pierre U Blier, France Dufresne, Samuel Fortin
Phosphorylation and activation of p38 MAPK and NFκB pathways, along with the resulting overproduction of interleukin IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) is a hallmark of inflammatory disorders. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementations are known to exert anti-inflammatory properties by reduction of keys cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory pathways and mediators modulated by eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and stimulated, ex vivo, with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494529/nash-therapy-omega-3-supplementation-vitamin-e-insulin-sensitizers-and-statin-drugs
#7
Stephen Caldwell
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the more aggressive form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NASH can progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, portal hypertension and primary liver cancer. Therapy is evolving with a substantial number of trials of promising new agents now in progress. In this article however, we will examine data for several older forms of therapy which have been fairly extensively studied over the years: Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) supplements, vitamin E, insulin sensitizing agents with a focus on pioglitazone and statin agents...
May 10, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#8
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410575/effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Jing Yu, Lian Liu, Yue Zhang, Jia Wei, Fan Yang
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy including early-stage cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in the prognosis of GI cancer patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, EBSCO-Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CNKI and Wanfang to identify primary research reporting the effects of n-3 PUFAs compared with isocaloric nutrition on GI cancer patients who underwent surgery up to the end of June 30, 2016...
April 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356276/dietary-intake-and-adipose-tissue-content-of-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-subsequent-5-y-change-in-body-weight-and-waist-circumference
#10
Marianne U Jakobsen, Lise Madsen, Flemming Skjøth, Tina L Berentzen, Jytte Halkjær, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Karsten Kristiansen, Kim Overvad
Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated.Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343014/natural-lipids-enriched-self-nano-emulsifying-systems-for-effective-co-delivery-of-tamoxifen-and-naringenin-systematic-approach-for-improved-breast-cancer-therapeutics
#11
Premjeet Singh Sandhu, Rajendra Kumar, Sarwar Beg, Sanyog Jain, Varun Kushwah, O P Katare, Bhupinder Singh
The nano-miceller drug delivery carriers of tamoxifen (TMX) having natural ingredients like polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with self-nano-emulsifying properties was developed with naringenin (NG) in a synergistic manner i.e. TMX-NG-SNEDDS. The optimized nano-formulation revealed complete drug release in 30 min and >80% permeation in 45 min. Superior cellular uptake potential (4.6-6.5-fold) of the TMX-NG-SNEDDS using Caco-2 cells while cytotoxicity study on MCF-7 cells indicated significant results (P<0...
March 23, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337841/yeast-aquaporin-regulation-by-4-hydroxynonenal-is-implicated-in-oxidative-stress-response
#12
Claudia Rodrigues, Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Branka Mihaljević, Graça Soveral, Ana Cipak Gasparovic
Reactive oxygen species, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), contribute to functional molecular impairment and cellular damage, but also are necessary in normal cellular metabolism, and in low doses play stimulatory role in cell proliferation and stress resistance. In parallel, reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), are lipid peroxidation breakdown products which also contribute to regulation of numerous cellular processes. Recently, channeling of H2 O2 by some mammalian aquaporin isoforms has been reported and suggested to contribute to aquaporin involvement in cancer malignancies, although the mechanism by which these membrane water channels are implicated in oxidative stress is not clear...
March 24, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334272/17%C3%AE-estradiol-induced-acsl4-protein-expression-promotes-an-invasive-phenotype-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-mammary-carcinoma-cells
#13
Anissa Belkaid, Rodney J Ouellette, Marc E Surette
Long chain acyl-CoA synthase-4 (ACSL4) expression has been associated with an aggressive phenotype in breast carcinoma cells, whereas its role in ERα-positive breast cancer has not been studied. ACSL4 prefers 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrates, and along with other ACSLs has been associated with cellular uptake of exogenous fatty acids. 17β-estradiol induces proliferation and invasive capacities in ERα+ve breast carcinoma that is associated with modifications of cellular lipid metabolism...
April 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330470/involvement-of-apoptotic-pathways-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-induced-benefit-in-prostate-cancer-pathway-focused-gene-expression-analysis-using-rt-2-profile-pcr-array-system
#14
Yanan Sun, Xiaopeng Jia, Lianguo Hou, Xing Liu, Qiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Present study aimed to better understand the potential apoptotic pathways that involved in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. METHODS: Human prostate cancer DU145 cells were treated with different concentrations of fish oil, omega-3 PUFA (DHA, and Eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), or omega-6 PUFA (Arachidonic acid, AA). Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and Hoechst staining. Pathway-focused gene expression profiling of DU145 cells was analyzed with the RT(2) Profile PCR Array System...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301979/short-time-uva-exposure-to-human-keratinocytes-instigated-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-without-inducing-lipid-peroxidation
#15
Kin Sum Leung, Hok Fung Chan, Ho Hang Leung, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
Short-term exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation can directly injure our skin through inflammatory response and indirectly through oxidative stress, triggering polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation in skin cell membrane and formation of DNA adduct, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). It is known that UVA exposure leads to photoaging, immunosuppression and skin cancer. However, the changes in PUFA and its oxidized metabolites, and cell cycle after short UVA exposure, are debatable. In this study, human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to low dose (5 J/cm(2)) and high dose (20 J/cm(2)) of UVA and assessed immediately, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-treatment...
March 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264783/dietary-lipids-differentially-modulate-the-initiation-of-experimental-breast-carcinogenesis-through-their-influence-on-hepatic-xenobiotic-metabolism-and-dna-damage-in-the-mammary-gland
#16
Miguel Ángel Manzanares, Cristina de Miguel, M Carme Ruiz de Villa, Regina M Santella, Eduard Escrich, Montserrat Solanas
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. In addition to reproductive factors, environmental factors such as nutrition and xenobiotic exposure have a role in the etiology of this malignancy. A stimulating and a potentially protective effect on experimental breast cancer has been previously described for high corn oil and high extra-virgin olive oil diets, respectively. This work investigates the effect of these lipids on the metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that can initiate carcinogenesis and its consequences in an experimental rat breast cancer model...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245562/dietary-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-transgenic-apc-min-mice-correlating-with-cb1-receptor-up-regulation
#17
Maria Notarnicola, Valeria Tutino, Valentina De Nunzio, Francesco Dituri, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Gianluigi Giannelli
Mediterranean diet components, such as olive oil and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), can arrest cell growth and promote cell apoptosis. Recently, olive oil has been demonstrated to modulate type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor gene expression in both human colon cancer cells and rat colon. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between olive oil and ω-3 PUFAs effects and CB1 receptor expression in both intestinal and adipose tissue of Apc(Min/+) mice. To confirm the role for the CB1 receptor as a negative modulator of cell proliferation in human colon cancer, CB1 receptor gene expression was also detected in tumor tissue and in surrounding normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC)...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241486/modulation-of-ras-erk-and-phosphoinositide-signaling-by-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-breast-cancer-and-their-potential-complementary-role-in-combination-with-targeted-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Simona Serini, Gabriella Calviello
A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. We hereinafter critically analyze the reports investigating the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to modulate the Ras/ERK and the phosphoinositide survival signaling pathways often aberrantly activated in breast cancer and representing the main targets of innovative therapies...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239063/fatty-acid-and-lipid-class-composition-of-the-microalga-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#19
Yu-Hong Yang, Lei Du, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita, Yume Kokubun, Hisayoshi Arai, Hiroyuki Taroda
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for the prevention and/or risk reduction of some diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Therefore, PUFAs-rich marine microalgae have received considerable research attention. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a rich source of lipids and fucoxanthin, has commercial applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the lipid class composition and fatty acid distribution in P. tricornutum under high-density and scale-up cultivation were investigated by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236708/comparative-study-on-the-occurrence-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-breast-milk-and-infant-formula-and-risk-assessment
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Serena Santonicola, Alessandra De Felice, Luigi Cobellis, Nicola Passariello, Angela Peluso, Nicoletta Murru, Maria Carmela Ferrante, Raffaelina Mercogliano
The study compared the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) profile of human milk collected from Italian mothers and different brands of infant formula available on Italian market. Levels of 14 PAHs most frequently occurred in food, PAH markers listed by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, and carcinogenic PAHs classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. The average concentrations of total PAHs were 114...
May 2017: Chemosphere
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