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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914515/measurement-of-red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-levels-in-a-randomised-trial-of-epa-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#1
Henry Watson, Andrew J Cockbain, Jade Spencer, Amanda Race, Milene Volpato, Paul M Loadman, Giles J Toogood, Mark A Hull
We investigated red blood cell (RBC) PUFA profiles, and the predictive value of RBC EPA content for tumour EPA exposure and clinical outcomes, in the EMT study, a randomised trial of EPA in patients awaiting colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis surgery (Cockbain et al., 2014) [8]. There was a significant increase in RBC EPA in the EPA group (n=43; median intervention 30 days; mean absolute 1.26[±0.14]% increase; P<0.001), but not in the placebo arm (n=45). EPA incorporation varied widely in EPA users and was not explained by treatment duration or compliance...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904556/the-effect-of-%C3%AF-fatty-acids-on-the-expression-of-phospholipase-a2-group-2a-in-human-gastric-cancer-patients
#2
Mahboube Shariati, Mahmoud Aghaei, Ahmad Movahedian, Mohammad Hosein Somi, Homayun Dolatkhah, Ahmad Mirza Aghazade
BACKGROUND: Studies show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis. It was previously shown that PLA2 group 2A (PLA2G2A) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is associated with less frequent metastasis and longer survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study intends to investigate the effect of PUFAs on the expression of PLA2G2A in patients with gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer (GC) were randomly divided into two groups...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895640/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-as-immunomodulators-in-colorectal-cancer-new-potential-role-in-adjuvant-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Stefania Miccadei, Roberta Masella, Anna Maria Mileo, Sandra Gessani
Diet composition may affect the onset and progression of chronic degenerative diseases, including cancer, whose pathogenesis relies on inflammatory processes. Growing evidence indicates that diet and its components critically contribute to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipokines, and metabolic pathways. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Antineoplastic drugs are widely used for CRC treatment, but drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity limit their efficacy...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831561/rapidly-cycling-lgr5-stem-cells-are-exquisitely-sensitive-to-extrinsic-dietary-factors-that-modulate-colon-cancer-risk
#4
Eunjoo Kim, Laurie A Davidson, Roger S Zoh, Martha E Hensel, Michael L Salinas, Bhimanagouda S Patil, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Evelyn S Callaway, Clinton D Allred, Nancy D Turner, Brad R Weeks, Robert S Chapkin
The majority of colon tumors are driven by aberrant Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cells, which mediates an efficient route toward initiating intestinal cancer. Natural lipophilic polyphenols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generally suppress Wnt- and NF-κB- (nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B-cell) related pathways. However, the effects of these extrinsic agents on colonic leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells, the cells of origin of colon cancer, have not been documented to date...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812288/role-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-exercise-in-breast-cancer-prevention-identifying-common-targets
#5
REVIEW
Salma A Abdelmagid, Jessica L MacKinnon, Sarah M Janssen, David W L Ma
Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise...
2016: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794582/plasma-phosphatidylcholines-fatty-acids-in-men-with-squamous-cell-esophageal-cancer-chemoradiotherapy-improves-abnormal-profile
#6
Milada Zemanova, Marek Vecka, Luboš Petruželka, Barbora Staňková, Aleš Žák, Miroslav Zeman
BACKGROUND Abnormal metabolism of fatty acids (FA) is considered to play a role in human cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). Nevertheless, there have been only a few studies dealing with the influence of the chemotherapy or radiotherapy on the plasma FA profiles. In this work we compared FA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) of the patients with squamous EC and healthy subjects and investigated changes in the FA spectrum during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-two men with squamous EC were compared with age-matched healthy controls...
October 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785012/docosahexaenoic-acid-liposomes-for-targeting-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-and-cancer-an-in-vitro-assessment
#7
Amr Alaarg, Nan Yeun Jordan, Johan Jf Verhoef, Josbert M Metselaar, Gert Storm, Robbert J Kok
Inflammation, oxidative stress, and uncontrolled cell proliferation are common key features of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and cancer. ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; also known as omega3 fatty acids or fish oil) have beneficial effects against inflammation upon dietary consumption. However, these effects cannot be fully exploited unless diets are enriched with high concentrations of fish oil supplements over long periods of time. Here, a nanomedicine-based approach is presented for delivering effective levels of PUFAs to inflammatory cells...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769783/dietary-fat-composition-total-body-fat-and-regional-body-fat-distribution-in-two-caucasian-populations-of-middle-aged-and-older-adult-women
#8
Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769066/elevation-of-n-3-n-6-pufas-ratio-suppresses-mtorc1-and-prevents-colorectal-carcinogenesis-associated-with-apc-mutation
#9
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768609/long-chain-%C3%AF-6-plasma-phospholipid-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-association-with-colon-adenomas-in-adult-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Charles A Pickens, Mariana de Fátima Albuquerque Pereira, Jenifer I Fenton
Dietary lipid intake can be associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer depending on its composition. Carcinogenesis alters lipid metabolism to facilitate cell growth and survival. For instance, metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with increasing colon cell proliferation. Moreover, precancerous colon lesions (i.e. adenomas) increase the risk for colorectal cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between plasma PUFAs and the number of colon polyps and polyp type (i...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736683/interaction-between-omega-3-pufa-and-uvb-radiation-photoprotective-effect-in-normal-and-tumoral-murine-melanocytes
#11
Renata Ottes Vasconcelos, Silvina Odete Bustos, Juliana Ramos Gonzalez, Camila Wink Soares, Makely Daiane Barbosa, Roger Chammas, Ana Paula de Souza Votto, Gilma Santos Trindade
Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3 PUFA) are attracting a growing interest as potential adjuvants for cancer prevention and treatment. There is evidence about photoprotection in normal cells, but few previous studies have evaluated it in tumoral cells. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in normal murine melanocytic cells (Melan-a) and in tumoral murine melanocytic cells (B16F10) exposed to UVB radiation. Our results showed that ALA exhibited an antiproliferative effect in B16F10 cells, and had minimal effect in Melan-a cells, as demonstrated by MTT assay...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725001/oxidative-stress-in-relation-to-diet-and-physical-activity-among-premenopausal-women
#12
Chelsea Anderson, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler, Hazel B Nichols
Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685528/the-effect-of-%C3%AF-fatty-acids-on-mrna-expression-level-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-patients-with-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#13
A Hosseinzadeh, M-H Somi, H Dolatkhah, A Esfahani, H S Kafil, S M Ardebili
BACKGROUND: The antineoplastic role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligandshas previously been demonstrated in several gastric cancer cell lines. Activation of PPARγ by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits growth and proliferationof tumor cells. In this double-blind clinical study, we evaluate the effect of PUFAs on PPARγ mRNA expression in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 34 chemotherapy-naive patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma were enrolled in the present study...
September 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618149/dietary-associations-with-a-breast-cancer-risk-biomarker-depend-on-menopause-status
#14
Brandon H Hidaka, Susan E Carlson, Bruce F Kimler, Carol J Fabian
We investigated how timing influences the role of diet in breast cancer risk with a cross-sectional study of pre-malignant change in breast tissue. Women with an elevated risk of developing breast cancer (33 premenopausal and 32 postmenopausal) completed the National Cancer Institute's food frequency questionnaire and underwent random periareolar fine-needle aspiration for evaluation of cytologic atypia, an established risk biomarker. Fatty acid composition of breast adipose was measured in 32 (49%) subjects...
October 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603212/mugil-cephalus-roe-oil-obtained-by-supercritical-fluid-extraction-affects-the-lipid-profile-and-viability-in-cancer-hela-and-b16f10-cells
#15
A Rosa, A Piras, M Nieddu, D Putzu, F Cesare Marincola, A M Falchi
We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596041/raman-spectroscopic-analysis-reveals-abnormal-fatty-acid-composition-in-tumor-micro-and-macroenvironments-in-human-breast-and-rat-mammary-cancer
#16
Sixian You, Haohua Tu, Youbo Zhao, Yuan Liu, Eric J Chaney, Marina Marjanovic, Stephen A Boppart
Fatty acids play essential roles in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. To facilitate their avid growth and proliferation, cancer cells not only alter the fatty acid synthesis and metabolism intracellularly and extracellularly, but also in the macroenvironment via direct or indirect pathways. We report here, using Raman micro-spectroscopy, that an increase in the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was identified in both cancerous and normal appearing breast tissue obtained from breast cancer patients and tumor-bearing rats...
September 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595916/saturated-fat-intake-and-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness-results-from-the-population-based-north-carolina-louisiana-prostate-cancer-project
#17
E H Allott, L Arab, L J Su, L Farnan, E T H Fontham, J L Mohler, J T Bensen, S E Steck
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence supports a role for cholesterol in prostate cancer (PC). Dietary saturated fat content impacts serum cholesterol levels. However, epidemiologic associations between saturated fat and PC aggressiveness are inconsistent. We hypothesized that high saturated fat intake would be associated with increased PC aggressiveness, and that statin use would modify this association. METHODS: Of 1854 PC cases in the North Carolina-Louisiana PC Project, 321 (17%) were classified as high aggressive (Gleason sum ⩾8, PSA>20 ng ml(-1), or Gleason sum ⩾7 and clinical stage T3-4) or low/intermediate aggressive (all other cases)...
September 6, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576529/krill-oil-extract-suppresses-cell-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-of-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#18
Abilasha Gayani Jayathilake, Paul Vincent Senior, Xiao Qun Su
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The current available treatments for CRC include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, surgery is only useful when the disease is diagnosed at the earlier stage. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with numerous side effects that decrease the patients' quality of life. Safer, effective alternatives, such as natural compounds, to chemotherapy are desirable. This study assessed the efficacy of free fatty acid (FFA) extract of krill oil on three human CRC cells lines...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573698/endogenously-synthesized-n-3-fatty-acids-in-fat-1-transgenic-mice-prevent-melanoma-progression-by-increasing-e-cadherin-expression-and-inhibiting-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#19
Xuan Yin, Xiong-Wei Yu, Pan Zhu, Yuan-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Feng Wang, Jin-Jie Zhang, Wang Yan, Yang Xi, Jian-Bo Wan, Jing-Xuan Kang, Zu-Quan Zou, Shi-Zhong Bu
Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566583/the-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-prevented-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis-through-blocking-dissociation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-complex-inhibiting-cox-2-through-repressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inducing-15-prostaglandin-dehydrogenase
#20
Young-Min Han, Migyeung Jeong, Jong-Min Park, Mi-Young Kim, Eun-Jin Go, Ji Young Cha, Kyung Jo Kim, Ki Baik Hahm
Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
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