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pufa, cancer

Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
H-M Burger, S Abel, W C A Gelderblom
Fumonisin B1 (FB1 ), a group 2B natural occurring carcinogenic mycotoxin, modulated lipid and fatty acid (FA) constituents of lipid rafts isolated from primary hepatocytes following exposure to a cytotoxic concentration of FB1 (250 μM). The major effects observed in rafts, included a significant (p < 0.05) increase in raft cholesterol (CHOL) and glycerophospholipid such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), whereas sphingomyelin (SM) decreased (p < 0.05). Changes in lipid constituents resulted in the disruption of important membrane fluidity parameters represented as a decreased (p < 0...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sunghee Lee, Jeonghee Lee, Il Ju Choi, Young-Woo Kim, Keun Won Ryu, Young-Il Kim, Jeongseon Kim
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs are reported to have immunomodulatory effects, but few studies have examined these functions. Thus, we examined whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are associated with the risk of gastric cancer and further investigated whether fatty acid desaturases 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) modify this association. In a case-control study, 1,464 participants (402 cases and 1,062 controls) were enrolled. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was utilized to measure dietary PUFA intake...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mostafa Moradi Sarabi, Fakhraddin Naghibalhossaini
Growing evidence suggests a role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the prevention of various types of malignancy, including colorectal cancer (CRC). No published studies have yet examined the direct effect of PUFA treatment on DNA methylation in CRC cells. In this study, 5 human CRC cells were treated with 100 μM DHA, EPA, and LA for 6 days and changes in their global- and gene-specific DNA methylation status as well as expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT) were investigated. Cell-type specific differences in DNA methylation and expression of DNMTs were observed in PUFA-treated cells...
February 22, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Upekha E Liyanage, Matthew H Law, Jue Sheng Ong, Anne E Cust, Graham J Mann, Sarah V Ward, Puya Gharahkhani, Mark M Iles, Stuart MacGregor
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, mainly affecting populations of European ancestry. Some observational studies suggest that particular diets reduce melanoma risk - putatively through an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption. However, interpretation of these observational findings is difficult due to residual confounding or reverse causality. To date, a randomised controlled trial has not been carried out to examine the relationship between PUFAs and melanoma. Hence, we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to evaluate the link between PUFAs and melanoma...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Simona Serini, Roberta Cassano, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Angela Maria Rizzo, Gabriella Calviello, Sonia Trombino
New strategies are being investigated to ameliorate the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of the drugs currently used in colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common malignancies in the Western world. Data have been accumulated demonstrating that the antineoplastic therapies with either conventional or single-targeted drugs could take advantage from a combined treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA). These nutrients, shown to be safe at the dosage generally used in human trials, are able to modulate molecules involved in colon cancer cell growth and survival...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paola de Pablo, Dora Romaguera, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Anne-Marie Quirke, Alison J Cartwright, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Diana Gavrila, Carman Navarro, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Rosario Tumino, William E Ollier, Dominique S Michaud, Elio Riboli, Patrick J Venables, Benjamin A Fisher
OBJECTIVES: Findings relating to dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mixed. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA is an accurate objective biomarker of PUFA status; however, there are little data on erythrocyte membrane PUFA and risk of RA. The objective was therefore to compare erythrocyte membrane PUFA between pre-RA individuals and matched controls from a population-based sample, and specifically to test the hypothesis that higher levels of longer chain n-3 PUFA are associated with lower risk of RA...
February 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Oana Zanoaga, Ancuta Jurj, Lajos Raduly, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Oscar Wu, Cornelia Braicu, Claudia Diana Gherman, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Breast cancer represents one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide, with an increase in the number of newly diagnosed patients in the last decade. The role of fatty acids, particularly of a diet rich in ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in breast cancer development is not fully understood and remains controversial due to their complex mechanism of action. However, a large number of animal models and cell culture studies have demonstrated that high levels of ω-3 PUFAs have an inhibitory role in the development and progression of breast cancer, compared to ω-6 PUFAs...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Obert C Chikwanha, Payam Vahmani, Voster Muchenje, Michael E R Dugan, Cletos Mapiye
Dietary fatty acids (FA) consumed by sheep, like other ruminants, can undergo biohydrogenation resulting in high proportions of saturated FA (SFA) in meat. Biohydrogenation is typically less extensive in sheep than cattle, and consequently, sheep meat can contain higher proportions of omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), and PUFA biohydrogenation intermediates (PUFA-BHI) including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monounsaturated FAs (t-MUFA). Sheep meat is also noted for having characteristically higher contents of branched chain FA (BCFA)...
February 2018: Food Research International
Fatemeh Rahrovani, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Ehsan Ghaedi, Hamed Mohammadi, Amir-Hooshang Ehsani, Ali Esrafili, Mahmoud Djalali
Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study...
January 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Amar M Eltweri, Lynne M Howells, Anne L Thomas, Ashley R Dennison, David J Bowrey
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence assessing the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on oesophageal adenocarcinoma, both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the effects of the omega-3 PUFA and oxaliplatin on OE33 and OE19 cells. METHOD: The two oesophageal cells were treated with Omegaven® (fish oil emulsion), EPA, DHA and oxaliplatin and incubated for up to 144 h. RESULTS: The following inhibitory effects were observed on OE33 cells: EPA reduced cell growth by 39% (p = 0...
January 30, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Jingjing Du, Linyuan Shen, Zhendong Tan, Peiwen Zhang, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Mailing Gan, Qiong Yang, Jideng Ma, An'an Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Yanzhi Jiang, Long Jin, Mingzhou Li, Lin Bai, Xuewei Li, Jinyong Wang, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity is a major driver of metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, and insulin resistance. However, there are no effective drugs to treat obesity. Betaine is a nontoxic, chemically stable and naturally occurring molecule. This study shows that dietary betaine supplementation significantly inhibits the white fat production in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. This might be due to betaine preventing the formation of new white fat (WAT), and guiding the original WAT to burn through stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and promoting browning of WAT...
January 26, 2018: Nutrients
Erin L Van Blarigan, Charles S Fuchs, Donna Niedzwiecki, Xing Ye, Sui Zhang, Mingyang Song, Leonard Saltz, Robert J Mayer, Rex B Mowat, Renaud Whittom, Alexander Hantel, Al Benson, Daniel Atienza, Michael Messino, Hedy Kindler, Alan Venook, Shuji Ogino, Edward L Giovannucci, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
BACKGROUND: Marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily found in dark fish, may prevent colorectal cancer progression, in part through inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). However, data in humans are limited. METHODS: We examined marine ω-3 PUFAs and fish intake and survival among 1,011 colon cancer patients enrolled in CALGB 89803 between 1999 to 2001 and followed through 2009. Diet was assessed during and 6 months after chemotherapy...
January 22, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual, and neurological development, as well as maternal and child health...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Lauren LeMay-Nedjelski, Julie K Mason-Ennis, Amel Taibi, Elena M Comelli, Lilian U Thompson
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), independently reduce the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, but the mechanisms, which may involve microRNA (miRNA), are still unclear. The expression of the oncomiR, miR-21, is reduced by DHA treatment, but the effects of ALA on miR-21, alone or combined with EPA and DHA under physiologically relevant concentrations, have not been investigated. The effects of ALA alone and +/-EPA and DHA at the blood molar ratios seen in either humans (1...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
Christoph Schmöcker, Ingrid W Zhang, Stefanie Kiesler, Ursula Kassner, Annika I Ostermann, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Nils H Schebb, Karsten-H Weylandt
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shenglong Zhu, Guangxiao Lin, Ci Song, Yikuan Wu, Ninghan Feng, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce the efficacy of RA. In this study, we found that RA and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) synergistically induced cell death in vitro and in vivo and autophagy activation. Moreover, RA-induced hypercholesterolemia was completely corrected by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In addition, we demonstrated that the effects of this combination on the autophagic flux were independent of the two major canonic regulatory complexes controlling autophagic vesicle formation...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Li-Hsuan Huang, Hsin-Yun Chung, Hui-Min Su
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, is highly expressed in breast cancer and its expression is reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in liver. We previously found a positive association between rat mammary tumor levels of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and tumor weight. We examined the roles of the major n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and the major n-6 PUFA, AA, in FASN expression in, and proliferation of, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
Saraswoti Khadge, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Geoffrey M Thiele, James E Talmadge
Rodent and clinical studies have documented that myeloid cell infiltration of tumors is associated with neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia and poor patient outcomes. This contrasts with lymphocyte infiltration of tumors, which is associated with improved outcomes. Lifestyle parameters such as high fat diet s and omega (ω)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake may influence these inflammatory parameters including extramedullary myelopoiesis that can contribute to a metastatic "niche". While, tumor secretion of growth factors (GFs) and chemokines regulate tumor-immune-cell crosstalk, in this chapter, we also emphasize how lifestyle choices, including, obesity, high-fat and high ω-6 PUFA dietary content, contribute to inflammation and myeloid cell infiltration of tumors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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