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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350557/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-health-benefits
#1
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual, and neurological development, as well as maternal and child health...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342901/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-time-dependently-reduce-cell-viability-and-oncogenic-microrna-21-expression-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-cells-mcf-7
#2
Lauren LeMay-Nedjelski, Julie K Mason-Ennis, Amel Taibi, Elena M Comelli, Lilian U Thompson
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), independently reduce the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, but the mechanisms, which may involve microRNA (miRNA), are still unclear. The expression of the oncomiR, miR-21, is reduced by DHA treatment, but the effects of ALA on miR-21, alone or combined with EPA and DHA under physiologically relevant concentrations, have not been investigated. The effects of ALA alone and +/-EPA and DHA at the blood molar ratios seen in either humans (1...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324859/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-detects-differential-lipid-composition-in-mammary-glands-on-low-fat-high-animal-fat-versus-high-fructose-diets
#3
Dianning He, Devkumar Mustafi, Xiaobing Fan, Sully Fernandez, Erica Markiewicz, Marta Zamora, Jeffrey Mueller, Joseph R Sachleben, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Gregory S Karczmar
The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: low fat diet (LFD), high animal fat diet (HAFD), and high fructose diet (HFruD). MRI scans of mammary glands were acquired with a 9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316682/effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-oxylipins-in-a-routine-clinical-setting
#4
Christoph Schmöcker, Ingrid W Zhang, Stefanie Kiesler, Ursula Kassner, Annika I Ostermann, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Nils H Schebb, Karsten-H Weylandt
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312596/ra-and-%C3%AF-3-pufa-co-treatment-activates-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#5
Shenglong Zhu, Guangxiao Lin, Ci Song, Yikuan Wu, Ninghan Feng, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
Retinoic acid (RA), is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce the efficacy of RA. In this study, we found that RA and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) synergistically induced cell death in vitro and in vivo and autophagy activation. Moreover, RA-induced hypercholesterolemia was completely corrected by ω-3 PUFA supplementation. In addition, we demonstrated that the effects of this combination on the autophagic flux were independent of the two major canonic regulatory complexes controlling autophagic vesicle formation...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282029/docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-and-fatty-acid-synthase-expression-and-inhibits-cell-proliferation-by-inhibiting-pakt-signaling-in-a-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cell-line
#6
Li-Hsuan Huang, Hsin-Yun Chung, Hui-Min Su
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, is highly expressed in breast cancer and its expression is reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in liver. We previously found a positive association between rat mammary tumor levels of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and tumor weight. We examined the roles of the major n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and the major n-6 PUFA, AA, in FASN expression in, and proliferation of, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275470/lipid-inflammatory-mediators-in-cancer-progression-and-therapy
#7
Saraswoti Khadge, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Geoffrey M Thiele, James E Talmadge
Rodent and clinical studies have documented that myeloid cell infiltration of tumors is associated with neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia and poor patient outcomes. This contrasts with lymphocyte infiltration of tumors, which is associated with improved outcomes. Lifestyle parameters such as high fat diet s and omega (ω)-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake may influence these inflammatory parameters including extramedullary myelopoiesis that can contribute to a metastatic "niche". While, tumor secretion of growth factors (GFs) and chemokines regulate tumor-immune-cell crosstalk, in this chapter, we also emphasize how lifestyle choices, including, obesity, high-fat and high ω-6 PUFA dietary content, contribute to inflammation and myeloid cell infiltration of tumors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241838/telomerase-level-increase-is-related-to-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-efficacy-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Tomasz Pawełczyk, Marta Grancow-Grabka, Elżbieta Trafalska, Janusz Szemraj, Natalia Żurner, Agnieszka Pawełczyk
Schizophrenia is associated with shortening of the lifespan mainly due to cardiovascular events, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both telomere attrition and decrease of telomerase levels were observed in schizophrenia. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence multiple biochemical mechanisms which are postulated to accelerate telomere shortening and limit the longevity of patients with schizophrenia. Intervention studies based on add-on therapy with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in patients with schizophrenia did not assess the changes in telomerase levels...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232261/long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cancer-any-cause-for-concern
#9
Simona Serini, Gabriella Calviello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, concerns have been raised with regard to the recommended doses of marine long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-omega-3 PUFAs) especially in relation to cancer risk and treatment. There is urgent need to clarify this point. This review considers the most recent evidence related to the potential risk of developing cancer with high LC-omega-3 PUFA intakes, and possible research strategies to better elucidate this matter. RECENT FINDINGS: The latest published recommendations have still highlighted the usefulness of an increased dietary intake of LC-omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of some cardiovascular diseases...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231904/protective-effects-of-%C3%AF-3-pufa-in-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Simona Serini, Renata Ottes Vasconcelos, Renata Nascimento Gomes, Gabriella Calviello
It has been demonstrated that ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may exert a beneficial role as adjuvants in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Particularly, several in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies have shown the antitumor activity of ω-3 PUFA in different kinds of cancers, and several human studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA are able to decrease the risk of a series of cardiovascular diseases. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their pleiotropic beneficial effects...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229414/lipid-droplets-induced-by-secreted-phospholipase-a2and-unsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-breast-cancer-cells-from-nutrient-and-lipotoxic-stress
#11
Eva Jarc, Ana Kump, Petra Malavašič, Thomas O Eichmann, Robert Zimmermann, Toni Petan
Cancer cells driven by the Ras oncogene scavenge unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) from their environment to counter nutrient stress. The human group X secreted phospholipase A2(hGX sPLA2) releases FAs from membrane phospholipids, stimulates lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis in Ras-driven triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and enables their survival during starvation. Here we examined the role of LDs, induced by hGX sPLA2and unsaturated FAs, in protection of TNBC cells against nutrient stress. We found that hGX sPLA2releases a mixture of unsaturated FAs, including ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), from TNBC cells...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210633/recent-evidence-on-the-role-of-dietary-pufas-in-cancer-development-and-prevention
#12
Massimo D'Archivio, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Vari, Carmela Santangelo, Claudio Giovannini, Roberta Masella
During the last decades a great bulk of scientific information has been accumulated about the metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that can impact human health. In particular, a growing body of evidence from in vitro, animal, and clinical studies supporting the use of n-3 PUFAs in cancer prevention has been collected. Furthermore, a considerable effort has recently been done to evaluate the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs might improve the efficiency of currently used anticancer drugs. The role of n-6 PUFAs, in contrast, needs to be better assessed...
December 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207677/dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-fish-consumption-and-endometrial-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-of-epidemiological-studies
#13
Rui Hou, Shen-Shen Yao, Jia Liu, Lian-Lian Wang, Lang Wu, Luo Jiang
The relationship between intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids and endometrial cancer risk has not been consistent across epidemiological studies. We quantitatively assessed the aforementioned association through a systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed and Embase were searched through March 2017 for eligible epidemiological studies. Fixed or random-effects models were used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The dose-response relationship was also evaluated. Based on the literature search, five prospective studies and 11 case-control studies were identified...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192322/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-induce-cell-death-through-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-glioblastoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Soyeon Kim, Kaipeng Jing, Soyeon Shin, Soyeon Jeong, Seung-Hyeon Han, Heyrim Oh, Yoon-Seon Yoo, Jeongsu Han, Young-Joo Jeon, Jun-Young Heo, Gi-Ryang Kweon, Seung-Kiel Park, Jong-Il Park, Tong Wu, Kyu Lim
Among brain tumors, glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type and is associated with the lowest patient survival rate. Numerous lines of evidence have established that omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) have potential for the prevention and therapy of several types of cancers. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω3-PUFA, was reported to inhibit growth and induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death in several cancer cell lines; however, its effects on GBM cells are still unknown. in the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of DHA on the GBM cell lines, D54MG, U87MG, U251MG and GL261...
January 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188717/a-protective-role-for-triacylglycerols-during-apoptosis
#15
Nasi Li, Yasemin Sancak, Jonna Frasor, G Ekin Atilla-Gokcumen
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are one of the major constituents of the glycerolipid family. Their main role in cells is to store excess fatty acids, and they are mostly found within lipid droplets. TAGs contain acyl chains which vary in length and degree of unsaturation, resulting in hundreds of chemically distinct species. We have previously reported that TAGs containing polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (PUFA-TAGs) accumulate via activation of diacylglycerol acyltransferases during apoptosis. In this work, we show that accumulation of PUFA-TAGs is a general phenomenon during this process...
November 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176006/gpr120-mechanism-of-action-role-and-potential-for-medical-applications
#16
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Joanna Róg, Dariusz Juchnowicz, Justyna Morylowska-Topolska
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate many cellular processes. GPR120/FFAR4, a receptor from this family that is activated by fatty acids, has received considerable attention recently. This paper presents a literature review concerning the role of GPR120 and its mechanism of action in animal and human studies as well as the potential use of GPR120 for the treatment of chronic diseases. Two electronic databases - Medline and Google Scholar - were searched for available studies addressing the review topic that were written in English and published from 2000 to June 2017...
November 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156720/novel-strategies-of-raman-imaging-for-brain-tumor-research
#17
Imiela Anna, Polis Bartosz, Polis Lech, Abramczyk Halina
Raman diagnostics and imaging have been shown to be an effective tool for the analysis and discrimination of human brain tumors from normal structures. Raman spectroscopic methods have potential to be applied in clinical practice as they allow for identification of tumor margins during surgery. In this study, we investigate medulloblastoma (grade IV WHO) (n= 5), low-grade astrocytoma (grades I-II WHO) (n =4), ependymoma (n=3) and metastatic brain tumors (n= 1) and the tissue from the negative margins used as normal controls...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141575/the-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-on-immune-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#18
Rosa Casas, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Sacanella
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) hinges on the relevant role it plays in inflammatory diseases. Several clinical, epidemiological and experimental evidences suggest that consumption of the MeDiet reduces the incidence of certain pathologies related to oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and immune system diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). DISCUSSION: These reductions can be partially attributed to extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption which has been described as a key bioactive food because of its high nutritional quality and its particular composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols...
November 13, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136473/structural-investigation-of-bulk-and-dispersed-inverse-lyotropic-hexagonal-liquid-crystalline-phases-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-monoglyceride
#19
Anan Yaghmur, Sabah Al-Hosayni, Heinz Amenitsch, Stefan Salentinig
Recent studies demonstrated the potential therapeutic use of newly synthesized omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) monoglycerides owing to their beneficial health effects in various disorders including cancer and inflammation diseases. To date, the research was mainly focused on exploring the biological effects of these functional lipids. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the hydration-mediated self assembly of these lipids that leads to the formation of nanostructures, which are attractive for use as vehicles for the delivery of drugs and functional foods...
November 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101597/randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-trial-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-prevention-of-aromatase-inhibitor-induced-musculoskeletal-pain
#20
Maryam B Lustberg, Tonya S Orchard, Raquel Reinbolt, Rebecca Andridge, Xueliang Pan, Martha Belury, Rachel Cole, Amanda Logan, Rachel Layman, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Robert Wesolowski, Michael Berger, Elaine Patterson, Charles Loprinzi, Charles L Shapiro, Lisa Yee
PURPOSE: Aromatase inhibitor (AI)-induced joint symptoms negatively impact drug adherence and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Mechanisms underlying symptoms may include inflammation. It is hypothesized that n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties and may reduce symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing 4.3 g/day n - 3 PUFA supplements vs placebo for 24 weeks in postmenopausal breast cancer patients starting adjuvant AIs...
November 3, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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