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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906525/stereolithographic-printing-of-ionically-crosslinked-alginate-hydrogels-for-degradable-biomaterials-and-microfluidics
#1
Thomas M Valentin, Susan E Leggett, Po-Yen Chen, Jaskiranjeet K Sodhi, Lauren H Stephens, Hayley D McClintock, Jea Yun Sim, Ian Y Wong
3D printed biomaterials with spatial and temporal functionality could enable interfacial manipulation of fluid flows and motile cells. However, such dynamic biomaterials are challenging to implement since they must be responsive to multiple, biocompatible stimuli. Here, we show stereolithographic printing of hydrogels using noncovalent (ionic) crosslinking, which enables reversible patterning with controlled degradation. We demonstrate this approach using sodium alginate, photoacid generators and various combinations of divalent cation salts, which can be used to tune the hydrogel degradation kinetics, pattern fidelity, and mechanical properties...
September 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883042/real-time-acquisition-of-transendothelial-electrical-resistance-in-an-all-human-in-vitro-3-dimensional-blood-brain-barrier-model-exemplifies-tight-junction-integrity
#2
Zaynah Maherally, Helen L Fillmore, Sim Ling Tan, Suk Fei Tan, Samah A Jassam, Friederike I Quack, Kathryn E Hatherell, Geoffrey J Pilkington
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes embedded in basal lamina (BL). Most in vitro models use nonhuman, monolayer cultures for therapeutic-delivery studies, relying on transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements without other tight-junction (TJ) formation parameters. We aimed to develop reliable, reproducible, in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) models incorporating relevant human, in vivo cell types and BL proteins. The 3D BBB models were constructed with human brain endothelial cells, human astrocytes, and human brain pericytes in mono-, co-, and tricultures...
September 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839283/formation-of-a-plane-facets-in-three-dimensional-hexagonal-gan-structures-for-photonic-devices
#3
Seung-Hyuk Lim, Young Chul Sim, Yang-Seok Yoo, Sunghan Choi, Sangwon Lee, Yong-Hoon Cho
Control of the growth front in three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal GaN core structures is crucial for increased performance of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and other photonic devices. This is due to the fact that InGaN layers formed on different growth facets in 3D structures exhibit various band gaps which originate from differences in the indium-incorporation efficiency, internal polarization, and growth rate. Here, a-plane {[Formula: see text] } facets, which are rarely formed in hexagonal pyramid based growth, are intentionally fabricated using mask patterns and adjustment of the core growth conditions...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833970/single-cell-phenotyping-reveals-heterogeneity-among-haematopoietic-stem-cells-following-infection
#4
Adam L MacLean, Maia A Smith, Juliane Liepe, Aaron Sim, Reema Khorshed, Narges M Rashidi, Nico Scherf, Axel Krinner, Ingo Roeder, Cristina Lo Celso, Michael Ph Stumpf
The haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche provides essential micro-environmental cues for the production and maintenance of HSCs within the bone marrow. During inflammation, haematopoietic dynamics are perturbed, but it is not known whether changes to the HSC-niche interaction occur as a result. We visualise HSCs directly in vivo, enabling detailed analysis of the 3D niche dynamics and migration patterns in murine bone marrow following Trichinella spiralis infection. Spatial statistical analysis of these HSC trajectories reveals two distinct modes of HSC behaviour: (i) a pattern of revisiting previously explored space, and (ii) a pattern of exploring new space...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819224/the-role-of-rho-gtpases-and-actin-polymerization-during-macrophage-tunneling-nanotube-biogenesis
#5
Samer J Hanna, Kessler McCoy-Simandle, Veronika Miskolci, Peng Guo, Michael Cammer, Louis Hodgson, Dianne Cox
Macrophage interactions with other cells, either locally or at distances, are imperative in both normal and pathological conditions. While soluble means of communication can transmit signals between different cells, it does not account for all long distance macrophage interactions. Recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are membranous channels that connect cells together and allow for transfer of signals, vesicles, and organelles. However, very little is known about the mechanism by which these structures are formed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813673/multipotent-basal-stem-cells-maintained-in-localized-proximal-niches-support-directed-long-ranging-epithelial-flows-in-human-prostates
#6
Mohammad Moad, Edouard Hannezo, Simon J Buczacki, Laura Wilson, Amira El-Sherif, David Sims, Robert Pickard, Nicholas A Wright, Stuart C Williamson, Doug M Turnbull, Robert W Taylor, Laura Greaves, Craig N Robson, Benjamin D Simons, Rakesh Heer
Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794262/super-resolution-microscopy-of-the-%C3%A3-carboxysome-reveals-a-homogenous-matrix
#7
Matthew J Niederhuber, Talley J Lambert, Clarence Yapp, Pamela A Silver, Jessica K Polka
Carbon fixation in cyanobacteria makes a major contribution to the global carbon cycle. The cyanobacterial carboxysome is a proteinaceous microcompartment that protects and concentrates the carbon-fixing enzyme RuBisCO in a paracrystalline lattice, making it possible for these organisms to fix CO2 from the atmosphere. The protein responsible for the organization of this lattice in beta-type carboxysomes of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, CcmM, occurs in two isoforms thought to localize differentially within the carboxysome matrix...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756467/no-difference-in-graft-healing-or-clinical-outcome-between-trans-portal-and-outside-in-techniques-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#8
Jae-Ang Sim, Jong-Min Kim, SahngHoon Lee, Eun-Kyoo Song, Jong-Keun Seon
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare femoral tunnel geometry including tunnel position, length, and graft bending angle between trans-portal and outside-in techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and discover whether such differences in tunnel geometry could influence graft healing or clinical outcome. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction performed with either trans-portal technique (32 patients, one centre) or outside-in technique (32 patients, the other centre) were included in this retrospective study...
July 29, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751906/observation-of-extensive-chromosome-axis-remodeling-during-the-diffuse-phase-of-meiosis-in-large-genome-cereals
#9
Isabelle Colas, Benoit Darrier, Mikel Arrieta, Sybille U Mittmann, Luke Ramsay, Pierre Sourdille, Robbie Waugh
The production of balanced fertile haploid gametes requires the faithful separation of paired (synapsed) chromosomes toward the end of meiotic prophase I (desynapsis). This involves the timely dissolution of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene-diplotene transition, a stage traditionally referred to as the "diffuse stage." In species with large genomes such as, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) we know most about the early stages of meiotic prophase I. There, synapsis initiates at the telomeric ends of chromosomes and progresses toward the centromeric regions through the ordered assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744481/visualizing-antimicrobials-in-bacterial-biofilms-three-dimensional-biochemical-imaging-using-tof-sims
#10
Sarah K Davies, Sarah Fearn, Luke P Allsopp, Freya Harrison, Ecaterina Ware, Stephen P Diggle, Alain Filloux, David S McPhail, Jacob G Bundy
Bacterial biofilms are groups of bacteria that exist within a self-produced extracellular matrix, adhering to each other and usually to a surface. They grow on medical equipment and inserts such as catheters and are responsible for many persistent infections throughout the body, as they can have high resistance to many antimicrobials. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic infections and is used as a model for research into biofilms. Direct biochemical methods of imaging of molecules in bacterial biofilms are of high value in gaining a better understanding of the fundamental biology of biofilms and biochemical gradients within them...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723110/portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-choline-and-its-derivatives-based-on-silica-isoporous-membrane-and-gellified-nanointerfaces
#11
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692677/fux-sim-implementation-of-a-fast-universal-simulation-reconstruction-framework-for-x-ray-systems
#12
Monica Abella, Estefania Serrano, Javier Garcia-Blas, Ines García, Claudia de Molina, Jesus Carretero, Manuel Desco
The availability of digital X-ray detectors, together with advances in reconstruction algorithms, creates an opportunity for bringing 3D capabilities to conventional radiology systems. The downside is that reconstruction algorithms for non-standard acquisition protocols are generally based on iterative approaches that involve a high computational burden. The development of new flexible X-ray systems could benefit from computer simulations, which may enable performance to be checked before expensive real systems are implemented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691369/comprehensive-examination-of-mechanical-and-diffusional-effects-on-cell-behavior-using-a-decoupled-3d-hydrogel-system
#13
Suntae Kim, Sung Bo Sim, Kangseok Lee, Chaenyung Cha
Hydrogels possess several physical and chemical properties suitable for engineering cellular environments for biomedical applications. Despite recent advances in hydrogel systems for cell culture, it is still a significant challenge to independently control the mechanical and diffusional properties of hydrogels, both of which are well known to influence various cell behaviors when using hydrogels as 3D cell culture systems. Controlling the crosslinking density of a hydrogel system to tune the mechanical properties inevitably affects their diffusional properties, as the crosslinking density and diffusion are often inversely correlated...
September 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659385/cep19-cooperates-with-fop-and-cep350-to-drive-early-steps-in-the-ciliogenesis-programme
#14
Bahareh A Mojarad, Gagan D Gupta, Monica Hasegan, Oumou Goudiam, Renata Basto, Anne-Claude Gingras, Laurence Pelletier
Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles necessary for efficient transduction of extracellular cues. To initiate cilia formation, ciliary vesicles (CVs) are transported to the vicinity of the centrosome where they dock to the distal end of the mother centriole and fuse to initiate cilium assembly. However, to this date, the early steps in cilia formation remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate functional interplay between CEP19, FOP and CEP350 in ciliogenesis. Using three-dimensional structured-illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) imaging, we mapped the relative spatial distribution of these proteins at the distal end of the mother centriole and show that CEP350/FOP act upstream of CEP19 in their recruitment hierarchy...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608905/detection-of-sio2-nanoparticles-in-lung-tissue-by-tof-sims-imaging-and-fluorescence-microscopy
#15
Lothar Veith, Antje Vennemann, Daniel Breitenstein, Carsten Engelhard, Martin Wiemann, Birgit Hagenhoff
The direct detection of nanoparticles in tissues at high spatial resolution is a current goal in nanotoxicology. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is widely used for the direct detection of inorganic and organic substances with high spatial resolution but its capability to detect nanoparticles in tissue sections is still insufficiently explored. To estimate the applicability of this technique for nanotoxicological questions, comparative studies with established techniques on the detection of nanoparticles can offer additional insights...
July 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606410/effects-of-silane-and-mdp-based-primers-application-orders-on-zirconia-resin-adhesion-a-tof-sims-study
#16
Shu-Fen Chuang, Li-Li Kang, Yi-Chuan Liu, Jui-Che Lin, Ching-Cheng Wang, Hui-Min Chen, Cheng-Kun Tai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS)- and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP)-base primers, in their single or sequential applications, with regard to modifying zirconia surfaces and improving resin-zirconia adhesion. METHODS: Zirconia disks received different treatments: without primer (Zr), MPS-base primer (S), MDP-base primer (M), MPS/MDP mixture (SMmix), MPS followed by MDP (SM), and MDP followed by MPS (MS)...
June 9, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539333/endothelial-markers-expressing-stromal-cells-are-critical-for-kidney-formation
#17
Elina Mukherjee, Katherine Virginia Maringer, Emily Papke, Daniel S Bushnell, Caitlin M Schaefer, Rafael Kramann, Jacqueline Ho, Benjamin D Humphreys, Carlton M Bates, Sunder Sims-Lucas
Kidneys are highly vascularized and contain many distinct vascular beds. However, the origins and roles of developing renal endothelial cells in the formation of the kidney are unclear. We have shown that the Foxd1-positive renal stroma gives rise to endothelial marker expressing progenitors that are incorporated within a subset of peritubular capillaries; however, the significance of these cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of Flk1 in the Foxd1 stroma was important for renal development...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526726/are-phloem-sieve-tubes-leaky-conduits-supported-by-numerous-aquaporins
#18
Ryan C Stanfield, Uwe G Hacke, Joan Laur
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. METHODS: We studied histological sections of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526297/modeling-the-structure-of-keratin-1-and-10-terminal-domains-and-their-misassembly-in-keratoderma
#19
Cedric Badowski, Adelene Y L Sim, Chandra Verma, Ildikó Szeverényi, Chidambaram Natesavelalar, Ana Terron-Kwiatkowski, John Harper, Edel A O'Toole, E Birgitte Lane
The terminal domains of suprabasal keratins of the skin epithelium are very resistant to evidence-based structural analysis because of their inherent flexibility and lack of predictable structure. We present a model for the structure and interactions of the head and tail domains of epidermal keratins 1 and 10, based on all-atom 3D simulations of keratin primary amino acid sequences, and tyrosine phosphorylation predictions, extracted from published databases. We observed that keratin 1 and 10 end domains are likely to form a tetrameric terminal domain complex incorporating a reversibly extendable region potentially acting as a molecular spring...
September 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508624/temperature-treatment-of-highly-porous-zirconium-containing-metal-organic-frameworks-extends-drug-delivery-release
#20
Michelle H Teplensky, Marcus Fantham, Peng Li, Timothy C Wang, Joshua P Mehta, Laurence J Young, Peyman Z Moghadam, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Clemens F Kaminski, David Fairen-Jimenez
Utilizing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a biological carrier can lower the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) required in cancer treatments to provide a more efficacious therapy. In this work, we have developed a temperature treatment process for delaying the release of a model drug compound from the pores of NU-1000 and NU-901, while taking care to utilize these MOFs' large pore volume and size to achieve exceptional model drug loading percentages over 35 wt %. Video-rate super-resolution microscopy reveals movement of MOF particles when located outside of the cell boundary, and their subsequent immobilization when taken up by the cell...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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