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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723110/portable-sensor-for-the-detection-of-choline-and-its-derivatives-based-on-silica-isoporous-membrane-and-gellified-nanointerfaces
#1
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692677/fux-sim-implementation-of-a-fast-universal-simulation-reconstruction-framework-for-x-ray-systems
#2
Monica Abella, Estefania Serrano, Javier Garcia-Blas, Ines García, Claudia de Molina, Jesus Carretero, Manuel Desco
The availability of digital X-ray detectors, together with advances in reconstruction algorithms, creates an opportunity for bringing 3D capabilities to conventional radiology systems. The downside is that reconstruction algorithms for non-standard acquisition protocols are generally based on iterative approaches that involve a high computational burden. The development of new flexible X-ray systems could benefit from computer simulations, which may enable performance to be checked before expensive real systems are implemented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691369/comprehensive-examination-of-mechanical-and-diffusional-effects-on-cell-behavior-using-a-decoupled-3d-hydrogel-system
#3
Suntae Kim, Sung Bo Sim, Kangseok Lee, Chaenyung Cha
Hydrogels possess several physical and chemical properties suitable for engineering cellular environments for biomedical applications. Despite recent advances in hydrogel systems for cell culture, it is still a significant challenge to independently control the mechanical and diffusional properties of hydrogels, both of which are well known to influence various cell behaviors when using hydrogels as 3D cell culture systems. Controlling the crosslinking density of a hydrogel system to tune the mechanical properties inevitably affects their diffusional properties, as the crosslinking density and diffusion are often inversely correlated...
July 10, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659385/cep19-cooperates-with-fop-and-cep350-to-drive-early-steps-in-the-ciliogenesis-programme
#4
Bahareh A Mojarad, Gagan D Gupta, Monica Hasegan, Oumou Goudiam, Renata Basto, Anne-Claude Gingras, Laurence Pelletier
Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles necessary for efficient transduction of extracellular cues. To initiate cilia formation, ciliary vesicles (CVs) are transported to the vicinity of the centrosome where they dock to the distal end of the mother centriole and fuse to initiate cilium assembly. However, to this date, the early steps in cilia formation remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate functional interplay between CEP19, FOP and CEP350 in ciliogenesis. Using three-dimensional structured-illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) imaging, we mapped the relative spatial distribution of these proteins at the distal end of the mother centriole and show that CEP350/FOP act upstream of CEP19 in their recruitment hierarchy...
June 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608905/detection-of-sio2-nanoparticles-in-lung-tissue-by-tof-sims-imaging-and-fluorescence-microscopy
#5
Lothar Veith, Antje Vennemann, Daniel Breitenstein, Carsten Engelhard, Martin Wiemann, Birgit Hagenhoff
The direct detection of nanoparticles in tissues at high spatial resolution is a current goal in nanotoxicology. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is widely used for the direct detection of inorganic and organic substances with high spatial resolution but its capability to detect nanoparticles in tissue sections is still insufficiently explored. To estimate the applicability of this technique for nanotoxicological questions, comparative studies with established techniques on the detection of nanoparticles can offer additional insights...
July 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606410/effects-of-silane-and-mdp-based-primers-application-orders-on-zirconia-resin-adhesion-a-tof-sims-study
#6
Shu-Fen Chuang, Li-Li Kang, Yi-Chuan Liu, Jui-Che Lin, Ching-Cheng Wang, Hui-Min Chen, Cheng-Kun Tai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS)- and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP)-base primers, in their single or sequential applications, with regard to modifying zirconia surfaces and improving resin-zirconia adhesion. METHODS: Zirconia disks received different treatments: without primer (Zr), MPS-base primer (S), MDP-base primer (M), MPS/MDP mixture (SMmix), MPS followed by MDP (SM), and MDP followed by MPS (MS)...
June 9, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539333/endothelial-markers-expressing-stromal-cells-are-critical-for-kidney-formation
#7
Elina Mukherjee, Katherine Virginia Maringer, Emily Papke, Daniel S Bushnell, Caitlin M Schaefer, Rafael Kramann, Jacqueline Ho, Benjamin D Humphreys, Carlton M Bates, Sunder Sims-Lucas
Kidneys are highly vascularized and contain many distinct vascular beds. However, the origins and roles of developing renal endothelial cells in the formation of the kidney are unclear. We have shown that the Foxd1-positive renal stroma gives rise to endothelial marker expressing progenitors that are incorporated within a subset of peritubular capillaries; however, the significance of these cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of Flk1 in the Foxd1 stroma was important for renal development...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526726/are-phloem-sieve-tubes-leaky-conduits-supported-by-numerous-aquaporins
#8
Ryan C Stanfield, Uwe G Hacke, Joan Laur
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Aquaporin membrane water channels have been previously identified in the phloem of angiosperms, but currently their cellular characterization is lacking, especially in tree species. Pinpointing the cellular location will help generate new hypotheses of how membrane water exchange facilitates sugar transport in plants. METHODS: We studied histological sections of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) in leaf, petiole, and stem organs. Immuno-labeling techniques were used to characterize the distribution of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies of aquaporins along the phloem pathway...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526297/modeling-the-structure-of-keratin-1-and-10-terminal-domains-and-their-misassembly-in-keratoderma
#9
Cedric Badowski, Adelene Y L Sim, Chandra Verma, Ildikó Szeverényi, Chidambaram Natesavelalar, Ana Terron-Kwiatkowski, John Harper, Edel A O'Toole, E Birgitte Lane
The terminal domains of suprabasal keratins of the skin epithelium are very resistant to evidence-based structural analysis because of their inherent flexibility and lack of predictable structure. We present a model for the structure and interactions of the head and tail domains of epidermal keratins K1 and K10, based on all-atom 3D simulations of keratin primary amino acid sequences, and tyrosine phosphorylation predictions, extracted from published databases. We observed that K1 and K10 end domains are likely to form a tetrameric terminal domain complex (TTDC) incorporating a reversibly extendable region potentially acting as a molecular spring...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508624/temperature-treatment-of-highly-porous-zirconium-containing-metal-organic-frameworks-extends-drug-delivery-release
#10
Michelle H Teplensky, Marcus Fantham, Peng Li, Timothy C Wang, Joshua P Mehta, Laurence J Young, Peyman Z Moghadam, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha, Clemens F Kaminski, David Fairen-Jimenez
Utilizing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a biological carrier can lower the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) required in cancer treatments to provide a more efficacious therapy. In this work, we have developed a temperature treatment process for delaying the release of a model drug compound from the pores of NU-1000 and NU-901, while taking care to utilize these MOFs' large pore volume and size to achieve exceptional model drug loading percentages over 35 wt %. Video-rate super-resolution microscopy reveals movement of MOF particles when located outside of the cell boundary, and their subsequent immobilization when taken up by the cell...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502172/direct-dopant-patterning-by-a-remote-monolayer-doping-enabled-by-a-monolayer-fragmentation-study
#11
Ori Hazut, Roie Yerushalmi
The development of new doping methods extending beyond the traditional and well-established techniques is desired to match the rapid advances made in semiconductor (SC)-processing methods and nanostructure synthesis in numerous emerging applications, including the doping of 3D architectures. To address this, monolayer doping (MLD) and monolayer contact doping methods have been introduced recently. The MLD methods enable separation of the doping process of nanostructures from the synthesis step; hence, it is termed ex situ doping...
June 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482156/mno2-nanowire-biomass-derived-carbon-from-hemp-stem-for-high-performance-supercapacitors
#12
MinHo Yang, Dong Seok Kim, Seok Bok Hong, Jae-Wook Sim, Jinsoo Kim, Seung-Soo Kim, Bong Gill Choi
Hierarchical 3D nanostructures based on waste biomass are being offered as promising materials for energy storage due to their processabilities, multifunctionalities, environmental benignities, and low cost. Here we report a facile, inexpensive, and scalable strategy for the fabrication of hierarchical porous 3D structure as electrode materials for supercapacitors based on MnO2 nanowires and hemp-derived activated carbon (HC). Vertical MnO2 wires are uniformly deposited onto the surface of HC using a one-step hydrothermal method to produce hierarchical porous structures with conductive interconnected 3D networks...
May 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406496/strategic-and-practical-guidelines-for-successful-structured-illumination-microscopy
#13
REVIEW
Justin Demmerle, Cassandravictoria Innocent, Alison J North, Graeme Ball, Marcel Müller, Ezequiel Miron, Atsushi Matsuda, Ian M Dobbie, Yolanda Markaki, Lothar Schermelleh
Linear 2D- or 3D-structured illumination microscopy (SIM or3D-SIM, respectively) enables multicolor volumetric imaging of fixed and live specimens with subdiffraction resolution in all spatial dimensions. However, the reliance of SIM on algorithmic post-processing renders it particularly sensitive to artifacts that may reduce resolution, compromise data and its interpretations, and drain resources in terms of money and time spent. Here we present a protocol that allows users to generate high-quality SIM data while accounting and correcting for common artifacts...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406495/quantitative-3d-structured-illumination-microscopy-of-nuclear-structures
#14
REVIEW
Felix Kraus, Ezequiel Miron, Justin Demmerle, Tsotne Chitiashvili, Alexei Budco, Quentin Alle, Atsushi Matsuda, Heinrich Leonhardt, Lothar Schermelleh, Yolanda Markaki
3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) is the super-resolution technique of choice for multicolor volumetric imaging. Here we provide a validated sample preparation protocol for labeling nuclei of cultured mammalian cells, image acquisition and registration practices, and downstream image analysis of nuclear structures and epigenetic marks. Using immunostaining and replication labeling combined with image segmentation, centroid mapping and nearest-neighbor analyses in open-source environments, 3D maps of nuclear structures are analyzed in individual cells and normalized to fluorescence standards on the nanometer scale...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364021/lateral-segregation-of-photosystem-i-in-cyanobacterial-thylakoids
#15
Craig MacGregor-Chatwin, Melih Sener, Samuel F H Barnett, Andrew Hitchcock, Meghan C Barnhart-Dailey, Karim Maghlaoui, James Barber, Jerilyn A Timlin, Klaus Schulten, C Neil Hunter
Photosystem I (PSI) is the dominant photosystem in cyanobacteria and it plays a pivotal role in cyanobacterial metabolism. Despite its biological importance, the native organization of PSI in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes is poorly understood. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that ordered, extensive macromolecular arrays of PSI complexes are present in thylakoids from Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Synechococcus sp PCC 7002, and Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy of Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 cells visualize PSI domains within the context of the complete thylakoid system...
May 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#16
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ∼300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity...
May 2, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326349/quantitative-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography-for-assessment-of-age-dependent-changes-in-murine-whole-body-composition
#17
Kim L Beaucage, Steven I Pollmann, Stephen M Sims, S Jeffrey Dixon, David W Holdsworth
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used routinely to quantify skeletal tissue mass in small animal models. Our goal was to evaluate repeated in vivo micro-CT imaging for monitoring whole-body composition in studies of growth and aging in mice. Male mice from 2 to 52 weeks of age were anesthetized and imaged using an eXplore Locus Ultra and/or eXplore speCZT scanner. Images were reconstructed into 3D volumes, signal-intensity thresholds were used to classify each voxel as adipose, lean or skeletal tissue, and tissue masses were calculated from known density values...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323041/quantitative-analyses-of-the-3d-nuclear-landscape-recorded-with-super-resolved-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Volker J Schmid, Marion Cremer, Thomas Cremer
Recent advancements of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy have revolutionized microscopic studies of cells, including the exceedingly complex structural organization of cell nuclei in space and time. In this paper we describe and discuss tools for (semi-) automated, quantitative 3D analyses of the spatial nuclear organization. These tools allow the quantitative assessment of highly resolved different chromatin compaction levels in individual cell nuclei, which reflect functionally different regions or sub-compartments of the 3D nuclear landscape, and measurements of absolute distances between sites of different chromatin compaction...
March 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252396/joint-reconstruction-strategy-for-structured-illumination-microscopy-with-unknown-illuminations
#19
Simon Labouesse, Awoke Negash, Jerome Idier, Sebastien Bourguignon, Thomas Mangeat, Penghuan Liu, Anne Sentenac, Marc Allain
The blind structured illumination microscopy strategy proposed by Mudry et al. is fully re-founded in this paper, unveiling the central role of the sparsity of the illumination patterns in the mechanism that drives super-resolution in the method. A numerical analysis shows that the resolving power of the method can be further enhanced with optimized one-photon or two-photon speckle illuminations. A much improved numerical implementation is provided for the reconstruction problem under the image positivity constraint...
May 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248385/effect-of-oil-on-an-electrowetting-lenticular-lens-and-related-optical-characteristics
#20
Dooseub Shin, Junoh Kim, Cheoljoong Kim, Gyo Hyun Koo, Jee Hoon Sim, Junsik Lee, Yong Hyub Won
While there are many ways to realize autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable displays, the electrowetting lenticular lens is superior due to the high optical efficiency and short response time. In this paper, we propose a more stable electrowetting lenticular lens by controlling the quantity of oil. With a large amount of oil, the oil layer was broken and the lenticular lens was damaged at relatively low voltage. Therefore, controlling the amount of oil is crucial to obtain the required dioptric power with stability...
March 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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