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Namrata Kumar, Vinita Das, Amita Pandey, Smriti Agrawal
A unicornuate uterus with non-communicating rudimentary horn has always been notorious and poses threat to continuation of pregnancy with dismal consequences. We are reporting an interesting case of uterine malformation with a 90° rotation of uterine axis which ultimately ruptured during termination of pregnancy. The rarity in our case was not only conception in non-communicating horn but also the complete twisting of axis which made the pregnant horn come in front of the non-gravid unicornuate uterus, mimicking normal pregnancy...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
S V Novikov
Diffusive transport of a particle in a spatially correlated random energy landscape having exponential density of states has been considered. We exactly calculate the diffusivity in the nondispersive quasi-equilibrium transport regime for the 1D transport model and found that for slow decaying correlation functions the diffusivity becomes singular at some particular temperature higher than the temperature of the transition to the true non-equilibrium dispersive transport regime. It means that the diffusion becomes anomalous and does not follow the usual ∝ t1/2 law...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Luke J Sandilands, Wonshik Kyung, So Yeun Kim, J Son, J Kwon, T D Kang, Y Yoshida, S J Moon, C Kim, Tae Won Noh
The prototypical correlated metal Sr_{2}RhO_{4} was studied using optical and photoemission spectroscopy. At low energies and temperatures, the optical data reveal a complex, multicomponent response that on the surface points to an unconventional metallic state in this material. Via a comparison with photoemission, the anomalous optical response may be attributed to an unexpectedly strong interband transition near 180 meV between spin-orbit coupled bands that are nearly parallel along ΓX. This spin-orbit coupling effect is shown to occur in a number of related metallic ruthenates and explains the previously puzzling optical properties reported for these materials...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Furu Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Di Xiao, Yugui Yao
Band inversion has led to rich physical effects in both topological insulators and topological semimetals. It has been found that the inverted band structure with the Mexican-hat dispersion could enhance the interband correlation leading to a strong intrinsic plasmon excitation. Its frequency ranges from several meV to tens of meV and can be effectively tuned by the external fields. The electron-hole asymmetric term splits the peak of the plasmon excitation into double peaks. The fate and properties of this plasmon excitation can also act as a probe to characterize the topological phases even in lightly doped systems...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Berhane Temelso, Katurah L Klein, Joel W Mabey, Cristóbal Pérez, Brooks H Pate, Zbigniew Kisiel, George C Shields
The rich potential energy surface of the water undecamer, (H2O)11, was explored with a basin-hopping algorithm using a TIP4P potential followed by extensive ab initio MP2 minimizations and CCSD(T) corrections. This protocol yielded 17, 66, and 125 distinct isomers within 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kcal mol-1 of the complete basis set CCSD(T) global minimum, respectively. These isomers were categorized into fifteen different families based on their oxygen framework and hydrogen bonding topology. Determination of the global minimum proved challenging because of the presence of many nearly isoenergetic isomers...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ce Shang, Xianfeng Chen, Weidong Luo, Fangwei Ye
We consider the topological characteristics of the spin-orbital coupling particles loaded in one-dimensional (1D) optical superlattices subject to the Zeeman field. The phase shift of the superlattice provides a virtual dimension which allows us to simulate two-dimensional topological phases with a physically 1D system. The system possesses a variety of quantum phase transitions over a large parametric space and two important topological phases, namely, quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) and quantum spin Hall (QSH) phases are found to coexist in the system, but they reside in different bandgaps...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rosvaldas Šuminas, Gintaras Tamošauskas, Audrius Dubietis
We experimentally demonstrate virtually lossless, filamentation-free and energy-scalable more than three-fold self-compression of mid-infrared laser pulses at 2.1 μm in a birefringent medium (β-BBO crystal), which stems from favorable interplay between the second-order cascading-enhanced self-phase modulation and anomalous group velocity dispersion. By choosing an appropriate input beam diameter and intensity, the self-compression down to sub-30 fs pulse widths with gigawatt peak power is achieved without the onset of beam filamentation and associated nonlinear losses due to the multiphoton absorption, yielding the energy throughput greater than 86%...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Yumiao Pei, Yi Hu, Cibo Lou, Daohong Song, Liqin Tang, Jingjun Xu, Zhigang Chen
We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate a spatial diametric drive acceleration of two mutually incoherent optical beams in 1D optical lattices under a self-defocusing nonlinearity. The two beams, exciting the modes at the top/bottom edges of the first Bloch band and hence experiencing normal/anomalous diffraction, can bind together and bend in the same direction during nonlinear propagation, analogous to the interplay between two objects with opposite signs of mass that breaks Newton's third law. Their spatial spectrum changes associated with the acceleration are analyzed for different lattice modulations...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Sisi Tan, Xiaoming Wei, Jianglai Wu, Lingxiao Yang, Kevin K Tsia, Kenneth K Y Wong
Dispersive pulse-stretching at 2.0 μm has long been hindered by the high intrinsic optical loss from conventional dispersive media. Here a flexible pulse-stretching technique at 2.0 μm is demonstrated over a broad bandwidth with large-scale dispersion and low intrinsic optical loss. The technique employs the newly proposed pulse-stretching scheme, namely, free-space angular-chirp-enhanced delay. Both normal and anomalous temporal dispersion (up to ±500  ps/nm) with low intrinsic loss (<6  dB) over a spectral bandwidth of ∼84  nm at 2...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Francesca Di Luccio, Giovanni Chiodini, Stefano Caliro, Carlo Cardellini, Vincenzo Convertito, Nicola Alessandro Pino, Cristiano Tolomei, Guido Ventura
Intrusions are a ubiquitous component of mountain chains and testify to the emplacement of magma at depth. Understanding the emplacement and growth mechanisms of intrusions, such as diapiric or dike-like ascent, is critical to constrain the evolution and structure of the crust. Petrological and geological data allow us to reconstruct magma pathways and long-term magma differentiation and assembly processes. However, our ability to detect and reconstruct the short-term dynamics related to active intrusive episodes in mountain chains is embryonic, lacking recognized geophysical signals...
January 2018: Science Advances
Keerthi Chigurupati, Subin Sukesan, Pravin S Lovhale, Baiju S Dharan, Thomas Koshy
Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) accounts for 0.4% of the congenital heart diseases. Comprehensive 2D and 3D transesophageal echocardiographic imaging of a well-collateralized subset of ALCAPA is described. A nonstandard short-axis view of both aorta and pulmonary arteries showed the origin of left coronary artery from the posterior sinus of the pulmonary artery and right coronary artery in its usual position. Pulse-wave interrogation of the coronary arteries showed the direction of flow in opposite directions...
January 11, 2018: Echocardiography
Dennis Bodewits, Tony L Farnham, Michael S P Kelley, Matthew M Knight
Cometary outgassing can produce torques that change the spin state of the cometary nucleus, which in turn influences the evolution and lifetime of the comet. If these torques increase the rate of rotation to the extent that centripetal forces exceed the material strength of the nucleus, the comet can fragment. Torques that slow down the rotation can cause the spin state to become unstable, but if the torques persist the nucleus can eventually reorient itself and the rotation rate can increase again. Simulations predict that most comets go through a short phase of rapid changes in spin state, after which changes occur gradually over longer times...
January 10, 2018: Nature
Michael A Becker, Roman Vaxenburg, Georgian Nedelcu, Peter C Sercel, Andrew Shabaev, Michael J Mehl, John G Michopoulos, Samuel G Lambrakos, Noam Bernstein, John L Lyons, Thilo Stöferle, Rainer F Mahrt, Maksym V Kovalenko, David J Norris, Gabriele Rainò, Alexander L Efros
Nanostructured semiconductors emit light from electronic states known as excitons. For organic materials, Hund's rules state that the lowest-energy exciton is a poorly emitting triplet state. For inorganic semiconductors, similar rules predict an analogue of this triplet state known as the 'dark exciton'. Because dark excitons release photons slowly, hindering emission from inorganic nanostructures, materials that disobey these rules have been sought. However, despite considerable experimental and theoretical efforts, no inorganic semiconductors have been identified in which the lowest exciton is bright...
January 10, 2018: Nature
Lili Lang, Xuepeng Qiu, Shiming Zhou
Of crucial importance to antiferromagnetic (AF) spintronic devices, AF domain wall (AFDW), created in exchange biased Y3Fe5O12/Ni0.50Co0.50O (NiCoO)/Pt, is characterized by anomalous Hall-like effect through magnetic proximity effect and spin Hall magnetoresistance at NiCoO/Pt interface. The AFDW thickness, in the order of nanometers, has been for the first time proved in experiments to increase with increasing temperature. AF spins within AFDW show the same chirality in decent and ascent branches of ferromagnetic magnetization reversal process...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roobala Chelladurai, Koushik Debnath, Nikhil R Jana, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Interaction of functional nanoparticles with cells and model biomembranes have been widely studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the particles as potential drug delivery vehicles and bio-imaging labels as well as in understanding nanoparticle cytotoxicity effects. Charged nanoparticles, in particular, with tunable surface charge have been found to be effective in targeting cellular membranes as well as the sub-cellular matrix. However, a microscopic understanding of the underlying physical principles which govern nanoparticle binding, uptake or diffusion on cells is lacking...
January 10, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michael Rafaelof, Hamzah Mustak, Daniel B Rootman
Lateral bony decompression may offer several biomechanical advantages and has become a commonly used surgical approach. Preoperative imaging plays a key role in surgical planning by providing information about the locoregional anatomy. The marrow space of the greater wing of the sphenoid is a focal point of the decompression surgery based on the volume that it occupies. Several vessels pass through the sphenoid bone, but most are small caliber vessels. The authors describe a case of an uncommon anatomical variant of the cranial diploic venous system in which the anterior transverse diploic vessel traverses the marrow space of the sphenoid...
January 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Hui-Jiuan Chen, Tian Hang, Chengduan Yang, Guishi Liu, Di-An Lin, Jiangming Wu, Shuolin Pan, Bo-Ru Yang, Jun Tao, Xi Xie
In situ effective separation of oil pollutants including oil spills and oil emulsions from water is an emerging technology yet remains challenging. Hydrophobic micro- or nano-materials with ferromagnetism have been explored for oil removal, yet the separation efficiency of an oil emulsion was compromised due to the limited dispersion of hydrophobic materials in water. A surfactant coating on microparticles prevented particle aggregation, but reduced oil absorption and emulsion cleaning ability. Recently, polystyrene microbeads covered with nanospikes have been reported to display anomalous dispersion in phobic media without surfactants...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Marisa Giuffrida, Marco Viccaro, Luisa Ottolini
Lithium gradients in plagioclase are capable of recording extremely short-lived processes associated with gas loss from magmas prior to extrusion at the surface. We present SIMS profiles of the 7Li/30Si ion ratio in plagioclase crystals from products of the paroxysmal sequence that occurred in the period 2011-2013 at Mt. Etna (Italy) in an attempt to constrain the final ascent and degassing processes leading to these powerful eruptions involving basic magma. The observed Li concentrations reflect cycles of Li addition to the melt through gas flushing, and a syn-eruptive stage of magma degassing driven by decompression that finally produce significant Li depletion from the melt...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mattias L Johansson, Bradley A Dufour, Kyle W Wellband, Lynda D Corkum, Hugh J MacIsaac, Daniel D Heath
The globally invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was introduced to the Great Lakes around 1990, spreading widely and becoming the dominant benthic fish in many areas. The speed and scope of this invasion is remarkable and calls into question conventional secondary spread models and scenarios. We utilized nine microsatellites to identify large-scale genetic structure in Round Goby populations in the eastern Great Lakes, and assessed the role of colonization vs. secondary transport and dispersal in developing this structure...
January 10, 2018: Heredity
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