Read by QxMD icon Read

Avian virus

Klaudia Chrzastek, Dong-Hun Lee, Saad Gharaibeh, Aniko Zsak, Darrell R Kapczynski
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are a valuable tool to monitor changes in viral genomes and determine the genetic heterogeneity of viruses. In this study, NGS was applied to clinical poultry samples from Jordan to detect eleven H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). All of the viruses tested belonged to Middle East A genetic group of G1 lineage. Deep sequencing demonstrated a high degree of heterogeneity of glutamine and leucine residues at position 226 in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, which increases specificity to either avian or mammalian-type receptors...
March 7, 2018: Virology
Hitoshi Takahashi, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5 HPAI) viruses is a threat to both animal and human public health and has the potential to cause a serious future pandemic in humans. Thus, specific and rapid detection of H5 HPAI viruses is required for infection control in humans. To develop a simple and rapid diagnostic system to detect H5 HPAI viruses with high specificity and sensitivity, we attempted to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize linear epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) of H5 subtype viruses...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Franziska Feichtner, Anna Schachner, Evelyn Berger, Michael Hess
The recent emergence of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) induced disease outbreaks in chicken flocks worldwide, with distinct aetiologies confined to particular FAdV species and serotypes, is increasingly urging the need for specific and mass-applicable antibody screening systems. Despite this exigency, there are to date no available serological procedures which satisfactorily combine the criteria for sensitive detection of antibodies against FAdVs, diagnostic reliability in face of cross-reactions and requirements for a rapid and large-scale application...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Shin-Hee Kim
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
A Ashraf, S Mahboob, R Andleeb, M U Ijaz, M S Shah
Recently, medicinal plants are achieving great interest because of their use in ethno medicine treatment of different common diseases and also other medicinal assertions are now reinforced by comprehensive scientific evidence. Almost 82 research articles and abstracts published, so far, were screened for evaluating antiviral efficiency of various plant samples and 23 different plants were found to be traditionally used against Newcastle disease (ND). ND is a most transmissible viral disease of avian species caused by virulent strain of Avula virus from the Paramyxoviridae family...
2018: Acta Virologica
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Dalibor Miklík, Filip Šenigl, Jiří Hejnar
Individual groups of retroviruses and retroviral vectors differ in their integration site preference and interaction with the host genome. Hence, immediately after infection genome-wide distribution of integrated proviruses is non-random. During long-term in vitro or persistent in vivo infection, the genomic position and chromatin environment of the provirus affects its transcriptional activity. Thus, a selection of long-term stably expressed proviruses and elimination of proviruses, which have been gradually silenced by epigenetic mechanisms, helps in the identification of genomic compartments permissive for proviral transcription...
March 8, 2018: Viruses
Sanatana-Eirini Soilemetzidou, Alex D Greenwood, Gábor Á Czirják
Influenza A viruses are one of the most important and most studied pathogens in humans and domestic animals but little is known about viral prevalence in non-avian wildlife. Serum samples from three free-ranging cervid species (red [ Cervus elaphus], fallow [ Dama dama] , and roe deer [ Capreolus capreolus]) were collected from six German national parks between 2000 and 2002. The serum was tested for the presence of influenza A antibodies using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only one of 137 samples tested positive...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Kang-Seuk Choi, Ji-Ye Kim, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Min-Jun Jang, Hyuk-Moo Kwon, Haan-Woo Sung
Eleven avian paramyxovirus type 6 (APMV-6) isolates from Eurasian Wigeon ( n=5; Anas penelope), Mallards ( n=2; Anas platyrhynchos), and unknown species of wild ducks ( n=4) from Korea were analyzed based on the nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the fusion (F) gene. Fecal samples were collected in 2010-2014. Genotypes were assigned based on phylogenetic analyses. Our results revealed that APMV-6 could be classified into at least two distinct genotypes, G1 and G2. The open reading frame (ORF) of the G1 genotype was 1,668 nt in length, and the putative F0 cleavage site sequence was113 PAPEPRL119 ...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sajid Umar, Maxence Delverdier, Mattias Delpont, Sakhia F Z Belkasmi, Angélique Teillaud, Céline Bleuart, Isabelle Pardo, Mohammed El Houadfi, Jean-Luc Guérin, Mariette F Ducatez
Respiratory diseases are responsible for major economic losses in poultry farms. While in most cases a single pathogen is not alone responsible for the clinical outcome, the impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in turkeys. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between E.coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV, H6N1), in the turkey model. Four-week-old commercial turkeys were inoculated with either H6N1, O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart...
March 8, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Aruna Amarasinghe, Victor Palomino-Tapia, Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Khawaja Bakhtawar, Eva Nagy, Shayan Sharif, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Cytosine-guanosine deoxynucleotides (CpG) DNA can be delivered in ovo at embryo day (ED)18 for the stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)21 signaling pathway that ultimately protects chickens against a number of bacterial and viral infections. There is a dearth of information understanding the mechanisms of protection induced by in ovo delivered CpG DNA. The objective of this study was to determine the immune cell changes post-hatch following in ovo delivery of the TLR21 ligand, CpG DNA. In order to quantify changes of percentage of KUL01+, IgM+ B, cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ and CD8α+ cells, trachea, lung, duodenum, large intestine, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected on day 1 post-hatch...
2018: PloS One
N Takemae, P T Nguyen, V T Le, T N Nguyen, T L To, T D Nguyen, V P Pham, H V Vo, Q V T Le, H T Do, D T Nguyen, Y Uchida, T Saito
Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark...
March 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Shin-Hee Kim, Siba K Samal
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. Recovery of infectious NDV from cDNA using reverse genetics has made it possible to manipulate the genome of NDV. This has greatly contributed to our understanding of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of NDV. Furthermore, NDV has modular genome and accommodates insertion of a foreign gene as a transcriptional unit, thus enabling NDV as a vaccine vector against diseases of humans and animals. Avirulent NDV strains (e...
February 22, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
In-Won Lee, Young-Il Kim, Gyo-Jin Lim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Suk Song, Young-Ki Choi
Recent canine influenza outbreaks have raised concerns about the generation of pathogenic variants that may pose a threat to public health. Here, we examine avian-like H3N2 canine influenza viruses (CIVs) isolated from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea from dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses are closely related to strains previously isolated from dogs in Korea and China. However, molecular characterization demonstrated non-synonymous mutations between the canine viruses, particularly in the putative H3 antigenic sites, NA stalk regions, and in the internal genes of the 2012-2013 isolates compared with the 2009 isolate...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Haiyun Jin, Wan Wang, Xueqin Yang, Hailong Su, Jiawen Fan, Rui Zhu, Shifeng Wang, Huoying Shi, Xiufan Liu
BACKGROUND: Vaccines constitute a unique selective pressure, different from natural selection, drives the evolution of influenza virus. In this study, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (H9N2) was continually passaged in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs with or without selective pressures from antibodies induced by homologous maternal antibodies. Genetic mutations, antigenic drift, replication, and pathogenicity of the passaged virus were evaluated. RESULTS: Antigenic drift of the passaged viruses occurred in the 47th generation (vF47) under selective pressure on antibodies and in the 52nd generation (nF52) without selective pressure from antibodies...
March 6, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Fanfeng Meng, Guiwei Dong, Yubiao Zhang, Sibao Tian, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
In poultry, fowl adenovirus (FAdV) and immunosuppressive virus co-infection is likely to cause decreased egg production, inclusion body hepatitis, and pericardial effusion syndrome. In this study, fowl adenovirus infection was found in parental and descendent generations of chickens. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot hybridization to detect the infection of reticuloendotheliosis (REV), avian leukosis virus (ALV), and chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) in 480 plasma samples...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn Bochsler
This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105 , 102 , and 101 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Rita Czakó, Leatrice Vogel, Troy Sutton, Yumiko Matsuoka, Florian Krammer, Zhongying Chen, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao
The continued detection of zoonotic influenza infections, most notably due to the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, underscores the need for pandemic preparedness. Decades of experience with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) for the control of seasonal influenza support the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine platform. All LAIV candidates are derived from one of two licensed master donor viruses (MDVs), cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca A/Leningrad/134/17/57. A number of LAIV candidates targeting avian H5 influenza viruses derived with each MDV have been evaluated in humans, but have differed in their infectivity and immunogenicity...
March 1, 2018: Vaccine
Joshua A Steele, A Denene Blackwood, John F Griffith, Rachel T Noble, Kenneth C Schiff
Along southern California beaches, the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used to quantify the potential presence of fecal contamination in coastal recreational waters have been previously documented to be higher during wet weather conditions (typically winter or spring) than those observed during summer dry weather conditions. FIB are used for management of recreational waters because measurement of the bacterial and viral pathogens that are the potential causes of illness in beachgoers exposed to stormwater can be expensive, time-consuming, and technically difficult...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
Hui Hu, Kwonil Jung, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are critical human and animal pathogens because of their potential to cause severe epidemics of respiratory or enteric diseases. In pigs, the newly emerged porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and re-emerged porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) reported in the US and Asia, as well as the discovery of novel CoVs in wild bats or birds, has necessitated development of improved detection and control measures for these CoVs. Because the previous pancoronavirus (panCoV) RT-PCR established in our laboratory in 2007-2011 did not detect deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) in swine fecal and serum samples, our goal was to develop a new panCoV RT-PCR assay to detect known human and animal CoVs, including δ-CoVs...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"