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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929750/purification-and-immunogenicity-of-hemagglutinin-from-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-expressed-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#1
Teen-Lee Pua, Xiao Ying Chan, Hwei-San Loh, Abdul Rahman Omar, Vidadi Yusibov, Konstantin Musiychuk, Alexandra C Hall, Megan V Coffin, Yoko Shoji, Jessica A Chichester, Hong Bi, Stephen J Streatfield
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is an ongoing global health concern due to its severe sporadic outbreaks in Asia, Africa and Europe, which poses a potential pandemic threat. The development of safe and cost-effective vaccine candidates for HPAI is considered the best strategy for managing the disease and addressing the pandemic preparedness. The most potential vaccine candidate is the antigenic determinant of influenza A virus, hemagglutinin (HA). The present research was aimed at developing optimized expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and protein purification process for HA from the Malaysian isolate of H5N1 as a vaccine antigen for HPAI H5N1...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928919/pathogenicity-characteristics-of-an-iranian-variant-2-is-1494-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus-in-experimentally-infected-spf-chickens
#2
H Najafi, A Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, M Hashemzadeh, O Madadgar, V Karimi, R K Farahani, H Abdollahi, H Maghsoudsloo, P Seifouri
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a major cause of economic loss to the poultry industry. IB virus primarily affects respiratory tract, but strains differ in their tropism for such other target organs as kidneys and alimentary tract. The objective of this study was to estimate the pathogenicity of an Iranian IB virus (IBV) variant (variant-2) which is one of the most prevalent isolates circulating in Iranian poultry farms. SPF chickens were intranasally inoculated with 104 EID50/0.1 ml of the virus. Sera, fecal swabs, and different tissue samples were collected on different days post infection...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928915/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-enteric-viruses-in-enteritis-affected-commercial-broiler-chickens-in-india
#3
B Kaithal, N Jindal, P Kumar, S K Mor
A study was conducted to detect and characterize the enteric viruses (chicken astrovirus, avian nephritis virus and avian orthoreovirus) present in flocks of commercial broiler chickens suffering from enteritis in Haryana, India. The intestinal contents were collected from 65 enteritis-affected flocks (cases) and tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Of these 65 cases, 35 (53.80%) were positive for a single virus and 26 (40.00%) for two viruses. The remaining four samples were negative for all three viruses tested...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928741/site-specific-glycosylation-of-the-newcastle-disease-virus-haemagglutinin-neuraminidase
#4
Cassandra L Pegg, Christine Hoogland, Jeffrey J Gorman
Members of the Avulavirus, Respirovirus and Rubulavirus genera of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses utilise haemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins as their attachment proteins. These glycoproteins are oligomeric type II integral membrane proteins, which possess haemagglutination and sialidase activity. Previous studies have shown that the N-linked glycans present on these proteins can modulate the ability of the virus to infect host cells and stimulate the host immune system. However, site-specific heterogeneity of these glycans has not been defined...
December 7, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928017/a-temperature-sensitive-live-attenuated-canine-influenza-virus-h3n8-vaccine
#5
Aitor Nogales, Laura Rodriguez, Caroline Chauché, Kai Huang, Emma C Reilly, David J Topham, Pablo R Murcia, Colin R Parrish, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
: Canine influenza is a respiratory disease of dogs caused by canine influenza virus (CIV). CIV subtypes responsible for influenza in dogs include H3N8, which originated from the transfer of H3N8 equine influenza virus to dogs; and the H3N2 CIV, which is an avian-origin virus that adapted to infect dogs. Influenza infections are most effectively prevented through vaccination to reduce transmission and future infection. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIV in dogs...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927274/characterization-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-prevalence-in-humans-and-poultry-in-huai-an-china-molecular-epidemiology-phylogenetic-and-dynamics-analyses
#6
Peng Fei Yang, Qing Li Yan, Chun Cheng Liu, Ya Dong Xing, Min Hui Zhang, Qiang Gao, Hao Yu, Hai Bo Yao, Nan Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To trace the source of human H7N9 cases in Huai'an and elucidate the genetic characterization of Huai'an strains associated with both humans and birds in live poultry market. METHODS: An enhanced surveillance was implemented when the first human H7N9 case was confirmed in Huai'an. Clinical specimens, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples were collected and screened by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for H7N9 virus. The positive samples were subjected to further RT-PCR and genome sequencing...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926816/identification-of-polymerase-gene-mutations-that-affect-viral-replication-in-h5n1-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-pigeons
#7
Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Tomo Daidoji, Tatsuya Takagi, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Takaaki Nakaya, Yohei Watanabe
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 infects a wide range of host species, with a few cases of sporadic pigeon infections reported in the Middle East and Asia. However, the role of pigeons in the ecology and evolution of H5N1 viruses remains unclear. We previously reported two H5N1 virus strains, isolated from naturally infected pigeons in Egypt, that have several unique mutations in their viral polymerase genes. Here, we investigated the effect of these mutations on H5N1 polymerase activity and viral growth and identified three mutations that affected viral polymerase activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924808/avian-h11-influenza-virus-isolated-from-domestic-poultry-in-a-colombian-live-animal-market
#8
Pedro Jiménez-Bluhm, Erik A Karlsson, Karl A Ciuoderis, Valerie Cortez, Shauna A Marvin, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Jorge E Osorio
Live animal markets (LAMs) are an essential source of food and trade in Latin American countries; however, they can also serve as 'hotbeds' for the emergence and potential spillover of avian influenza viruses (AIV). Despite extensive knowledge of AIV in Asian LAMs, little is known about the prevalence South American LAMs. To fill this gap in knowledge, active surveillance was carried out at the major LAM in Medellin, Colombia between February and September 2015. During this period, overall prevalence in the market was 2...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924642/development-of-an-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-specific-detection-of-a-distinct-genetic-lineage-of-the-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#9
Gonzalo Tomás, Martín Hernández, Ana Marandino, Claudia Techera, Sofia Grecco, Diego Hernández, Alejandro Banda, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV...
December 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924415/detection-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus-793b-avian-metapneumovirus-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-and-mycoplasma-synoviae-in-poultry-in-ethiopia
#10
S Hutton, J Bettridge, R Christley, T Habte, K Ganapathy
A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry...
December 6, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923953/seroevidence-for-a-high-prevalence-of-subclinical-infection-with-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-among-workers-in-a-live-poultry-market-in-indonesia
#11
Kazufumi Shimizu, Laksmi Wulandari, Emmanuel D Poetranto, Retno A Setyoningrum, Resti Yudhawati, Amelia Sholikhah, Aldise M Nastri, Anna L Poetranto, Adithya Y R Candra, Edith F Puruhito, Yusuke Takahara, Yoshiaki Yamagishi, Masaoki Yamaoka, Hak Hotta, Takako Ustumi, Maria I Lusida, Soetjipto, Yohko K Shimizu, Gatot Soegiarto, Yasuko Mori
BACKGROUND:  In Indonesia, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus has become endemic in poultry and has caused sporadic deadly infections in human. Since 2012, we have conducted fixed-point surveillance of avian influenza viruses at a live-poultry market in East Java, Indonesia. In this study, we examined the seroprevalence of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection among market workers. METHODS:  Sera were collected from 101 workers in early 2014 and examined for antibody activity against avian A(H5N1) Eurasian lineage virus by a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922116/risk-assessment-of-recent-egyptian-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#12
A-S Arafa, S Yamada, M Imai, T Watanabe, S Yamayoshi, K Iwatsuki-Horimoto, M Kiso, Y Sakai-Tagawa, M Ito, T Imamura, N Nakajima, K Takahashi, D Zhao, K Oishi, A Yasuhara, C A Macken, G Zhong, A P Hanson, S Fan, J Ping, M Hatta, T J S Lopes, Y Suzuki, M El-Husseiny, A Selim, N Hagag, M Soliman, G Neumann, H Hasegawa, Y Kawaoka
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are enzootic in poultry populations in different parts of the world, and have caused numerous human infections in recent years, particularly in Egypt. However, no sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses has yet been reported. We tested nine naturally occurring Egyptian H5N1 viruses (isolated in 2014-2015) in ferrets and found that three of them transmitted via respiratory droplets, causing a fatal infection in one of the exposed animals...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919263/derivation-of-chicken-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-tolerant-to-newcastle-disease-virus-induced-lysis-through-multiple-rounds-of-infection
#13
Leonardo Susta, Ying He, Jessica M Hutcheson, Yangqing Lu, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice, Ping Yu, Zaid Abdo, Claudio L Afonso
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV-caused disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows adult cells to be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like state capable of contributing to live offspring and passing on unique traits in a number of species...
December 5, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919225/comparison-of-the-first-three-waves-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-circulation-in-the-mainland-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#14
Nijuan Xiang, A Danielle Iuliano, Yanping Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Xingyi Geng, Bili Ye, Wenxiao Tu, Ch Ao Li, Yong Lv, Ming Yang, Jian Zhao, Yali Wang, Fuqiang Yang, Lei Zhou, Bo Liu, Yuelong Shu, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li
BACKGROUND: H7N9 human cases were first detected in mainland China in March 2013. Circulation of this virus has continued each year shifting to typical winter months. We compared the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics for the first three waves of virus circulation. METHODS: The first wave was defined as reported cases with onset dates between March 31-September 30, 2013, the second wave was defined as October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014 and the third wave was defined as October 1, 2014-September 30, 2015...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#15
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918640/label-free-virus-capture-and-release-by-a-microfluidic-device-integrated-with-porous-silicon-nanowire-forest
#16
Yiqiu Xia, Yi Tang, Xu Yu, Yuan Wan, Yizhu Chen, Huaguang Lu, Si-Yang Zheng
Viral diseases are perpetual threats to human and animal health. Detection and characterization of viral pathogens require accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic assays. For field and clinical samples, the sample preparation procedures limit the ultimate performance and utility of the overall virus diagnostic protocols. This study presents the development of a microfluidic device embedded with porous silicon nanowire (pSiNW) forest for label-free size-based point-of-care virus capture in a continuous curved flow design...
December 5, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918148/influenza-a-virus-surveillance-in-the-invasive-american-mink-neovison-vison-from-freshwater-ecosystems-northern-spain
#17
H Gholipour, N Busquets, X Fernández-Aguilar, A Sánchez, M P Ribas, G De Pedro, P Lizarraga, O Alarcia-Alejos, C Temiño, O Cabezón
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916934/immune-related-gene-expression-patterns-in-gpv-or-h9n2-infected-goose-spleens
#18
Shun Chen, Anqi Wang, Lipei Sun, Fei Liu, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Kunfeng Sun, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
Goose parvovirus (GPV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV) or a RNA virus (H9N2), RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916476/genesis-evolution-and-prevalence-of-h5n6-avian-influenza-viruses-in-china
#19
Yuhai Bi, Quanjiao Chen, Qianli Wang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific...
November 25, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916319/recombinant-viral-vectored-vaccines-for-the-control-of-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#20
David L Suarez, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
Vaccination is a commonly used tool for the control of both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) viruses. Traditionally, inactivated adjuvanted vaccines made from a low pathogenic field strain have been used for vaccination, but advances in molecular biology have allowed a number of different viral vectored vaccines, expressing the AI virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene, to be developed and licensed for use for control of AI. This review summarizes the licensed vector vaccines available for use in poultry...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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