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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323816/an-ns-segment-exonic-splicing-enhancer-regulates-influenza-a-virus-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#1
Xiaofeng Huang, Min Zheng, Pui Wang, Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Pin Chen, Yen-Chin Liu, Honglian Liu, Yixin Chen, Wenjun Song, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
Influenza virus utilizes host splicing machinery to process viral mRNAs expressed from both M and NS segments. Through genetic analysis and functional characterization, we here show that the NS segment of H7N9 virus contains a unique G540A substitution, located within a previously undefined exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif present in the NEP mRNA of influenza A viruses. G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2-ESE interaction...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323565/surveillance-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-of-minnesota-during-2015-outbreaks-in-domestic-poultry
#2
Christopher S Jennelle, Michelle Carstensen, Erik C Hildebrand, Paul C Wolf, Daniel A Grear, Hon S Ip, Louis Cornicelli
An outbreak of a novel reassortant of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) virus (HPAIV) decimated domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) from March through mid-June, 2015 in the state of Minnesota, USA. In response, as part of broader surveillance efforts in wild birds, we designed a pilot effort to sample and test hunter-harvested Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) for HPAIV in Minnesota counties with known infected poultry facilities. We also collected opportunistic samples from dead Wild Turkeys or live Wild Turkeys showing neurologic signs (morbidity and mortality samples) reported by the public or state agency personnel...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323563/isolation-of-an-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strain-from-wild-birds-in-seoul-a-highly-urbanized-area-in-south-korea
#3
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Dong-Hun Lee, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song
Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316016/complete-genome-sequence-and-evolution-analysis-of-a-columbid-herpesvirus-type-1-from-feral-pigeon-in-china
#4
Ying Guo, Siwen Li, Xiao Sun, Ying He, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Panpan Zhao, Mingwei Xing
Here, we report the genome sequence of a feral pigeon alphaherpesvirus (columbid herpesvirus type 1, CoHV-1), strain HLJ, and compare it with other avian alphaherpesviruses. The CoHV-1 strain HLJ genome is 204,237 bp in length and encodes approximately 130 putative protein-coding genes. Phylogenetically, CoHV-1 complete genome resides in a monophyletic group with the falconid herpesvirus type 1 (FaHV-1) genome, distant from other alphaherpesviruses. Interestingly, the evolutionary analysis of partial genes of CoHV-1 isolated from different organisms and areas (currently accessible on GenBank) indicates that the CoHV-1 HLJ strain isolated from pigeon (Columba livia) is closely related to the strains isolated from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Poland and owl (Bubo virginianus) in USA...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316013/the-papain-like-protease-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-has-deubiquitinating-activity
#5
Liping Yu, Xiaorong Zhang, Tianqi Wu, Yuyang Wang, Jie Meng, Qian Liu, Xiaosai Niu, Yantao Wu
Coronavirus papain-like proteases (PLPs) can act as proteases that process virus-encoded large replicase polyproteins and also as deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes. Like the PLPs of other coronaviruses (CoVs), the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) PLP catalyzes proteolysis of Gly-Gly dipeptide bonds to release mature cleavage products. However, the other functions of the IBV PLP are not well understood. In this study, we found that IBV exhibits strong global DUB activity with significant reductions of the levels of ubiquitin (Ub)-, K48-, and K63-conjugated proteins...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#6
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302119/efficacy-of-an-inactivated-bivalent-vaccine-against-the-prevalent-strains-of-newcastle-disease-and-h9n2-avian-influenza
#7
Jing Zhao, Huiming Yang, Hongjun Xu, Zengbin Ma, Guozhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AI) are two of the most important diseases of poultry, causing severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of ND virus (NDV) and H9N2 AI virus (AIV), but the antigenic differences between the current circulating strains and the vaccine strains might account for recent ND and H9N2 AI outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. METHODS: We developed an inactivated bivalent H9N2 and NDV vaccine based on the current prevalent strains of H9N2 AIV and NDV in China and evaluated its efficacy in chickens in this study...
March 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302021/cytokines-induced-during-influenza-virus-infection
#8
Tatiana Betáková, Anna Kostrabova, Veronika Lachova, Lucia Turianova
Influenza A virus is one of the major human pathogens. The influenza infection can pass out without any subclinical symptoms or infestation can appear in upper respiratory tract as well as in lower respiratory tract where it can result in lethal outcome. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are activated shortly after infection providing protection against infection. Many activities of the cells of innate and adaptive immunity are coordinated by cytokines. However, inordinate or disbalanced immune response may result in overproduction of cytokines as well as chemokines what can lead to severe inflammation, including excessive recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells at the site of infection...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301247/different-duck-species-infected-intramuscularly-with-duck-origin-genotype-ix-apmv-1-show-discrepant-mortality-and-indicate-another-fatal-genotype-apmv-1-to-ducks
#9
Guanghua Fu, Longfei Cheng, Qiuling Fu, Baomin Qi, Cuiteng Chen, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Chunhe Wan, Rongchang Liu, Yu Huang
Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#10
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301244/low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-and-coinfecting-pathogens-a-review-of-experimental-infections-in-avian-models
#11
Sajid Umar, Jean Luc Guerin, Mariette F Ducatez
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. LPAIV has, however, become a great threat to poultry industry due to mixed infections with other pathogens. Coinfections do frequently occur in the field but are not easily detected, and their impact on pathobiology is not clearly defined due to their complicated nature, but it is well known that there is an impact. One way to increase our knowledge of coinfections in poultry is to challenge birds in experimental and controlled conditions...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301241/pathology-and-tissue-distribution-of-an-lpai-h5n8-of-north-american-lineage-isolated-from-an-outbreak-in-commercial-japanese-quail-coturnix-c-japonica-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#12
S Carnaccini, S T Stoute, A A Bickford, H L Shivaprasad
This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301239/pathotyping-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-in-peru-defining-two-novel-subgenotypes-within-genotype-xii
#13
Ana Chumbe, Ray Izquierdo-Lara, Luis Tataje, Rosa Gonzalez, Giovana Cribillero, Armando E González, Manolo Fernández-Díaz, Eliana Icochea
Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. In this study, we report the results of pathogenicity testing and phylogenetic analyses of seven NDVs isolated from several regions of Peru between 2004 and 2015...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301233/identification-of-type-a-influenza-viruses-from-wild-birds-on-the-delmarva-peninsula-2007-10
#14
Lauren A Preskenis, Brian S Ladman, Jack Gelb
Wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (Delmarva) Peninsula region within the Atlantic Flyway were sampled as part of the Early Detection of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza (AI) in Wild Migratory Birds program. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state wildlife agencies submitted 7858 samples for AI virus (AIV) testing by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) to the University of Delaware Poultry Health System from April 2007 to March 2011. Virus isolation attempts were performed on samples with matrix gene cycle threshold (Ct) values ≤33...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301231/evaluation-and-identification-of-marek-s-disease-virus-bac-clones-as-standardized-reagents-for-research
#15
John R Dunn, Sanjay M Reddy, Masahiro Niikura, Venugopal Nair, Janet E Fulton, Hans H Cheng
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Understanding of MDV gene function advanced significantly following the cloning of the MDV genome as either a series of overlapping cosmids or as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), both of which could produce viable MDV. The objectives of this study were to compare multiple virulent MDV BAC clones using the Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory's pathotyping assay, and to demonstrate the use of these clones as standardized reagents for a modified pathotyping assay by other laboratories...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301229/low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-wild-migratory-waterfowl-in-a-region-of-high-poultry-production-delmarva-maryland
#16
Diann J Prosser, Christine L Densmore, Larry J Hindman, Deborah D Iwanowicz, Chris A Ottinger, Luke R Iwanowicz, Cindy P Driscoll, Jessica L Nagel
Migratory waterfowl are natural reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and may contribute to the long-distance dispersal of these pathogens as well as spillover into domestic bird populations. Surveillance for AIVs is critical to assessing risks for potential spread of these viruses among wild and domestic bird populations. The Delmarva Peninsula on the east coast of the United States is both a key convergence point for migratory Atlantic waterfowl populations and a region with high poultry production (>4,700 poultry meat facilities)...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299701/aptasensors-for-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1
#17
Yanbin Li, Ronghui Wang
Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which have specific three-dimensional (3D) structures for high affinity and specific recognition to their target. In diagnostic and detection assays, aptamers represent an alternative to antibodies as recognition agents and offer advantages, such as reduced cost, rapid and reproducible synthesis, controllable modification, and improved stability. Aptamers are favorably used in biosensors as sensitive and selective bio-receptors coupled with a variety of transducers such as optical, mass-sensitive, and electrochemical sensors, the so-called aptasensors...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298880/h7n9-and-h5n1-avian-influenza-suitability-models-for-china-accounting-for-new-poultry-and-live-poultry-markets-distribution-data
#18
Jean Artois, Shengjie Lai, Luzhao Feng, Hui Jiang, Hang Zhou, Xiangping Li, Madhur S Dhingra, Catherine Linard, Gaëlle Nicolas, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson, Hongjie Yu, Marius Gilbert
In the last two decades, two important avian influenza viruses infecting humans emerged in China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in the late nineties, and the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus in 2013. China is home to the largest population of chickens (4.83 billion) and ducks (0.694 billion), representing, respectively 23.1 and 58.6% of the 2013 world stock, with a significant part of poultry sold through live-poultry markets potentially contributing to the spread of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment: Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293218/genetic-characterization-of-continually-evolving-highly-pathogenic-h5n6-influenza-viruses-in-china-2012-2016
#19
Meng Li, Na Zhao, Jing Luo, Yuan Li, Lin Chen, Jiajun Ma, Lin Zhao, Guohui Yuan, Chengmin Wang, Yutian Wang, Yanhua Liu, Hongxuan He
H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/Pavo Cristatus/Jiangxi/JA1/2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292308/surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-south-korea-between-2012-and-2014
#20
Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim
BACKGROUND: National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. METHODS: During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
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