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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331671/the-molecular-characteristics-of-avian-influenza-viruses-h9n2-derived-from-air-samples-in-live-poultry-markets
#1
Yanheng Wu, Jinsi Lin, Shuhuan Yang, Ying Xie, Man Wang, Xueqin Chen, Yayang Zhu, Le Luo, Wuyang Shi
OBJECTIVE: To study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection. METHODS: Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330815/supplementing-dietary-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-powder-and-vitamin-e-in-broiler-chickens-evaluation-of-humoral-immune-response-lymphoid-organs-and-blood-proteins
#2
Hossein Rostami, Alireza Seidavi, Mohammad Dadashbeiki, Yadollah Asadpour, João Simões, Assar Ali Shah, Vito Laudadio, Caterina Losacco, Antonella Perillo, Vincenzo Tufarelli
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) powder (RP) and vitamin E (VE) at different levels on humoral immunity of broilers during a 42-day production cycle. A total of 270 1-day-old male chicks were assigned to nine groups with three replicates of ten birds each, and diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, or 1.0% RP and 0, 100, or 200 mg/kg VE, respectively. Commercial-inactivated vaccines against avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses, and living infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccine were administered by spray method...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330804/in-vivo-manipulation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-during-glioma-genesis
#3
Patricia D B Tiburcio, Séan B Lyne, L Eric Huang
Hypoxia has long been recognized as a driving force of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, and the transcription factor HIF-1α is believed to play a crucial role in these processes. Here we describe an efficient RCAS/Nes-TVA system that allows for in vivo manipulation of HIF-1α expression in the mouse neural progenitor cells. Simple production of the recombinant avian virus RCAS enables quick delivery of gene of interest through injection into the neural progenitors of transgenic mice expressing the viral cognate receptor TVA under the nestin promoter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330371/transcriptional-inaccuracy-threshold-attenuates-differences-in-rna-dependent-dna-synthesis-fidelity-between-retroviral-reverse-transcriptases
#4
Alba Sebastián-Martín, Verónica Barrioluengo, Luis Menéndez-Arias
In M13mp2 lacZα forward mutation assays measuring intrinsic fidelity of DNA-dependent DNA synthesis, wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RTs of group M/subtype B previously showed >10-fold higher error rates than murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) RTs. An adapted version of the assay was used to obtain error rates of RNA-dependent DNA synthesis for several RTs, including wild-type HIV-1BH10, HIV-1ESP49, AMV and MLV RTs, and the high-fidelity mutants of HIV-1ESP49 RT K65R and K65R/V75I...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329534/a-large-scale-study-of-a-poultry-trading-network-in-bangladesh-implications-for-control-and-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-viruses
#5
N Moyen, G Ahmed, S Gupta, T Tenzin, R Khan, T Khan, N Debnath, M Yamage, D U Pfeiffer, G Fournie
BACKGROUND: Since its first report in 2007, avian influenza (AI) has been endemic in Bangladesh. While live poultry marketing is widespread throughout the country and known to influence AI dissemination and persistence, trading patterns have not been described. The aim of this study is to assess poultry trading practices and features of the poultry trading networks which could promote AI spread, and their potential implications for disease control and surveillance. Data on poultry trading practices was collected from 849 poultry traders during a cross-sectional survey in 138 live bird markets (LBMs) across 17 different districts of Bangladesh...
January 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327590/a-simple-strategy-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-based-on-intensity-modulated-spr-biosensor-and-new-generated-antibody
#6
Ying-Feng Chang, Wen-Hung Wang, Yi-Wei Hong, Ruei-Yu Yuan, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Yu-Wen Huang, Po-Liang Lu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Li-Chen Su, Sheng-Fan Wang
A new reassortant avian influenza A H7N9 virus have emerged in China since 2013, causing human infection with high mortality. An accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for controlling the outbreaks of the disease. We therefore propose a simple strategy for rapidly and sensitively detecting the H7N9 virus using an intensity-modulated surface plasmon resonance (IM-SPR) biosensor integrated with a new generated monoclonal antibody. The novel antibody exhibits significant specificity to recognize H7N9 virus compared with other clinical human influenza isolates (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327234/antiviral-effect-of-lithium-chloride-on-replication-of-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-in-cell-culture
#7
Kun Qian, Xiaowei Cheng, Danyang Zhang, Hongxia Shao, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Aijian Qin
Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported to possess antiviral activity against several viruses. In the current study, we assessed the antiviral activity effect of LiCl on ALV-J infection in CEF cells by using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, IFA and p27 ELISA analysis. Our results showed that both viral RNA copy number and protein level decreased significantly in a dose and time dependent manner. Time-course analysis revealed that the antiviral effect was more pronounced when CEFs were treated at the post infection stage rather than at early absorption or pre-absorption stages...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325970/the-role-of-adjuvant-immunomodulatory-agents-for-treatment-of-severe-influenza
#8
REVIEW
David S Hui, Nelson Lee, Paul K Chan, John H Beigel
A severe inflammatory immune response with hypercytokinemia occurs in patients hospitalized with severe influenza, such as avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. The role of immunomodulatory therapy is unclear as there have been limited published data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Passive immunotherapy such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin have some studies demonstrating benefit when administered as an adjunctive therapy for severe influenza...
January 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325601/evaluation-of-elisa-and-haemagglutination-inhibition-as-screening-tests-in-serosurveillance-for-h5-h7-avian-influenza-in-commercial-chicken-flocks
#9
M E Arnold, M J Slomka, A C Breed, C K Hjulsager, S Pritz-Verschuren, S Venema-Kemper, R J Bouwstra, R Trebbien, S Zohari, V Ceeraz, L E Larsen, R J Manvell, G Koch, I H Brown
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes...
January 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325564/engineered-recombinant-protein-products-of-the-avian-paramyxovirus-type-1-nucleocapsid-and-phosphoprotein-genes-for-serological-diagnosis
#10
Na Zhao, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
BACKGROUND: Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy). METHODS: Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA...
January 11, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324360/evaluation-of-the-zoonotic-potential-of-multiple-subgroups-of-clade-2-3-4-4-influenza-a-h5n8-virus
#11
Yu-Na Lee, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Sang-Hee Woo, Sun-Ha Cheon, Youn-Jeong Lee
Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis identified two genetic groups of the H5N8 HPAIVs in South Korea; group A evolved further into four subgroups. Here, we examined the zoonotic potential, both in vivo and in vitro, of genetically distinct subgroups of H5N8 HPAIVs isolated in South Korea. When compared with other subgroups, A/mallard/Korea/H2102/2015 (H2102) virus caused relatively severe disease in mice at high doses. In ferrets, all H5N8 viruses replicated restrictively in the respiratory tract and did not induce significant clinical signs of influenza infection...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323268/evaluation-of-animal-to-human-and-human-to-human-transmission-of-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-in-china-2013-15
#12
Victor Virlogeux, Luzhao Feng, Tim K Tsang, Hui Jiang, Vicky J Fang, Ying Qin, Peng Wu, Xiling Wang, Jiandong Zheng, Eric H Y Lau, Zhibin Peng, Juan Yang, Benjamin J Cowling, Hongjie Yu
A novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) virus emerged in China in March 2013 and by 27 September 2017 a total of 1533 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported. Occurrences of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission have been previously identified, and the force of human-to-human transmission is an important component of risk assessment. In this study, we constructed an ecological model to evaluate the animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of H7N9 during the first three epidemic waves in spring 2013, winter/spring 2013-2014 and winter/spring 2014-2015 in China based on 149 laboratory-confirmed urban cases...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322931/differential-responses-of-innate-immunity-triggered-by-different-subtypes-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-human-and-avian-hosts
#13
Yingying Cao, Yaowei Huang, Ke Xu, Yuanhua Liu, Xuan Li, Ye Xu, Wu Zhong, Pei Hao
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity provides first line of defense against viral infections. The interactions between hosts and influenza A virus and the response of host innate immunity to viral infection are critical determinants for the pathogenicity or virulence of influenza A viruses. This study was designed to investigate global changes of gene expression and detailed responses of innate immune systems in human and avian hosts during the course of infection with various subtypes of influenza A viruses, using collected and self-generated transcriptome sequencing data from human bronchial epithelial (HBE), human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE), and A549 cells infected with influenza A virus subtypes, namely H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 HALo mutant, and H7N9, and from ileum and lung of chicken and quail infected with H5N1, or H5N2...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321303/infection-and-replication-of-influenza-virus-at-the-ocular-surface
#14
Hannah M Creager, Amrita Kumar, Hui Zeng, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Though influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320563/field-effectiveness-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccination-in-commercial-layers-in-indonesia
#15
Simson Tarigan, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Risa Indriani, Sumarningsih Sumarningsih, Sidna Artanto, Syafrison Idris, Peter A Durr, Widya Asmara, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Mark A Stevenson, Jagoda Ignjatovic
Although vaccination of poultry for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been practiced during the last decade in several countries, its effectiveness under field conditions remains largely unquantified. Effective HPAI vaccination is however essential in preventing incursions, silent infections and generation of new H5N1 antigenic variants. The objective of this study was to asses the level and duration of vaccine induced immunity in commercial layers in Indonesia. Titres of H5N1 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were followed in individual birds from sixteen flocks, age 18-68 week old (wo)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312663/avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infections-in-humans-across-five-epidemics-in-mainland-china-2013-2017
#16
EDITORIAL
David S C Hui, Nelson Lee, Paul K S Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311555/swarm-incursions-of-reassortants-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strains-h5n8-and-h5n5-clade-2-3-4-4b-germany-winter-2016-17
#17
Anne Pohlmann, Elke Starick, Christian Grund, Dirk Höper, Günter Strebelow, Anja Globig, Christoph Staubach, Franz J Conraths, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Timm Harder, Martin Beer
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in winter 2016/2017 was the most severe HPAI epizootic ever reported in Germany. The H5N8 and H5N5 viruses detected in birds in Germany in 2016/2017 represent a reassortant swarm of at least five distinct genotypes, which carried closely related HA segments derived from clade 2.3.4.4b. The genotypes of these viruses and their spatio-temporal distribution indicated a unique situation with multiple independent entries of HPAIV into Germany.
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308753/-design-and-application-of-bundle-treatment-plan-in-the-early-stage-for-severe-human-infection-by-avian-influenza-h7n9
#18
Ling Wang, Xiaobin Fang, Yongling Yang, Zhengping Zhang, Jianlin Zhou, Jingsong Yang, Kaifeng Liu, Zhenhua Wang
OBJECTIVE: To design bundle treatment plan in the early stage for severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9, and explore its clinical efficacy and application value. METHODS: Fifteen patients with severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9 in Guizhou Province from December 29th, 2016 to June 7th, 2017 were enrolled. Patients admitted from March 6th, 2017 to June 7th, 2017 served as a prospective observation period (bundle treatment group), and those from December 29th, 2016 to March 5th, 2017 were selected as a historical control period (conventional treatment group)...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307740/pathogenicity-and-transmissibility-of-three-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-viruses-isolated-from-wild-birds
#19
Yinfeng Kang, Xuejuan Shen, Runyu Yuan, Bin Xiang, Zhixin Fang, Robert W Murphy, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen, Tao Ren
Since 2013, highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have emerged in poultry and caused sporadic human infections in Asia. The recent discovery of three new avian H5N6 viruses - A/oriental magpie-robin/Guangdong/SW8/2014 (H5N6), A/common moorhen/Guangdong/GZ174/2014 (H5N6) and A/Pallas's sandgrouse/Guangdong/ZH283/2015 (H5N6) - isolated from apparently healthy wild birds in Southern China in 2014-2015 raises great concern for the spread of these highly pathogenic AIVs (HPAIVs) and their potential threat to human and animal health...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307089/genetic-and-biological-characterization-of-three-poultry-origin-h5n6-avian-influenza-viruses-with-all-internal-genes-from-genotype-s-h9n2-viruses
#20
Kaituo Liu, Min Gu, Shunlin Hu, Ruyi Gao, Juan Li, Liwei Shi, Wenqi Sun, Dong Liu, Zhao Gao, Xiulong Xu, Jiao Hu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiaowen Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
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