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Luciana P Mazur, Maria A P Cechinel, Selene M A Guelli U de Souza, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
The discharge of inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewaters has greatly contributed to the release of contaminants into the environment, including toxic metals. Toxic metals are persistent and bioaccumulative, being their removal from wastewaters prior to release into water bodies of great concern. Literature reports the use of brown marine macroalgae for toxic metals removal from aqueous solutions as an economic and eco-friendly technique, even when applied to diluted solutions. Minor attention has been given to the application of this technique in the treatment of real wastewaters, which present a complex composition that can compromise the biosorption performance...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ding Wang, Kelsey L Kundert, Monica B Emelko
Forest catchments can produce high quality source water with a low turbidity. However, the combination of low turbidity, low organic carbon, and low temperature water conditions presents operating challenges in conventional water treatment processes. In this study, in-line filtration was tested using pilot-scale filter columns, and was found to be an appropriate option to treat a typical low turbidity water originating from the Rocky Mountains near Calgary, Alberta, Canada. When alum and cationic polymer were dosed simultaneously, in-line filtration produced high quality effluent with a turbidity and a particle count value of less than 0...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Technology
Kelsey Pieper, Rebekah L Martin, Min Tang, LeeAnne Walters, Jeffrey Parks, Siddhartha Roy, Christina L Devine, Marc A Edwards
In April 2014, the drinking water source in Flint, Michigan was switched from Lake Huron water with phosphate inhibitors to Flint River water without corrosion inhibitors. The absence of corrosion control and use of a more corrosive source increased lead leaching from plumbing. Our city-wide citizen science water lead results contradicted official claims that there was no problem- our 90th percentile was 26.8 µg/L, which was almost double the Lead and Copper Rule action level of 15 µg/L. Back calculations of a LCR sampling pool with 50% lead pipes indicated an estimated 90th percentile lead value of 31...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Karen Head, Kornkiat Snidvongs, Simon Glew, Glenis Scadding, Anne Gm Schilder, Carl Philpott, Claire Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition affecting both adults and children. Patients experience symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea, sneezing and nasal itching, which may affect their quality of life.Nasal irrigation with saline (salty water), also known as nasal douching, washing or lavage, is a procedure that rinses the nasal cavity with isotonic or hypertonic saline solutions. It can be performed with low positive pressure from a spray, pump or squirt bottle, with a nebuliser or with gravity-based pressure in which the person instils saline into one nostril and allows it to drain out of the other...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ashley Suchomel, Helen Goeden, Julia Dady
Americans fill upward of four billion prescriptions for pharmaceuticals each year, and many of those pharmaceuticals eventually make their way into the environment. Hundreds of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are detected in ambient waters and source water used for drinking water in the U.S. Very few of these drugs have health-based guidance values that suggest a safe level for individuals exposed in the ambient environment through drinking water. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has developed a novel method to derive screening-level human health guidance values for APIs...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Angel A Escobedo, Gustavo Acosta-Ballester, Pedro Almirall, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Cecilia Ortíz, Alfredo Laffita, Elaine Chirino
We present four cases in which probable sexual transmission of Giardia lamblia was suspected. Diagnosing this mode of transmission in endemic areas is often difficult and should be considered only as possible, because exposure to poor sanitation and a potentially contaminated environment are always latent. However, as patients reported, there was no history of drinking tap water, exposure to recreational water, eating contaminated food, or other potential sources of infection but anilingus with an infected partner...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ieva Goldberga, Rui Li, Melinda J Duer
The extracellular matrix of a tissue is as important to life as the cells within it. Its detailed molecular structure defines the environment of a tissue's cells and thus their properties, including differentiation and metabolic status. Collagen proteins are the major component of extracellular matrices. Self-assembled collagen fibrils provide both specific mechanical properties to handle external stresses on tissues and, at the molecular level, well-defined protein binding sites to interact with cells. How the cell-matrix interactions are maintained against the stresses on the tissue is an important and as yet unanswered question...
June 22, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Hans Degens, Rob C I Wüst
Water is indispensable for life. It is the medium in the cell required for biochemical reactions, a main source of evaporative cooling and a solute for waste products in our urine. Water is also the main component of blood that is crucial for the transport of oxygen, hormones and substrates to, and removal of heat and metabolites from, body cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Daniele Cassin, Janusz Dominik, Margherita Botter, Roberto Zonta
Contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the shallow water areas of the Venice Lagoon (415 km2 ) was investigated in the surface (0-5 cm) and sub-surface (5-10 cm) sediments by collecting cores from 380 sites. The concentrations of 14 PAHs (USEPA priority pollutants) and seven PCB indicator congeners were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary gas chromatography (GC), respectively. PAH and PCB concentrations ranged from 2...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R M Kamenova-Totzeva, A V Totzev, R M Kotova, G R Ivanova-Teneva
This study presents the results of 222Rn in 24 sources of mineral water, 54 samples from different captured natural springs and drillings. 222Rn determination was performed by direct measurement using Alpha Guard with Aqua Kit. The results for the TDS, anions (F-, Cl-, SO42-), cations (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), pH and temperature of the investigated mineral waters were correlated with radon content by statistical software tool IBM SPSS. In the paper are shown the results of investigated correlations between the 222Rn content and gross alpha activity, gross beta activity and specific activity of 226Ra...
June 19, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Masako Dannoura, Daniel Epron, Dorine Desalme, Catherine Massonnet, Shoko Tsuji, Caroline Plain, Pierrick Priault, Dominique Gérant
Phloem failure has recently been recognized as one of the mechanisms causing tree mortality under drought, though direct evidence is still lacking. We combined 13C pulse-labelling of 8-year-old beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) growing outdoors in a nursery with an anatomical study of the phloem tissue in their stems to examine how drought alters carbon transport and phloem transport capacity. For the six trees under drought, predawn leaf water potential ranged from -0.7 to -2.4 MPa, compared with an average of -0...
June 20, 2018: Tree Physiology
Smita Kumar, Prabodh K Trivedi
Arsenic (As), naturally occurring metalloid and a potential hazardous material, is found in low concentrations in the environment and emerges from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The presence of As in ground water, which is used for irrigation, is a matter of great concern since it affects crop productivity and contaminates food chain. In plants, As alters various metabolic pathways in cells including the interaction of substrates/enzymes with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins and the replacement of phosphate in ATP for energy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
C Chen, W X Zhang, L Y Qi, X J Gao, Y H Liang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting root cracks after root canal instrumentation using histological gold standard. METHODS: Twenty complete extracted human mandibular incisors that were free of caries, calculus, and root treatment were chosen and accessed coronally with a diamond bur, then mounted in resin blocks with alginate impression material using simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed 3 mm...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Sarah Lepuschitz, Steliana Huhulescu, Patrick Hyden, Burkhard Springer, Thomas Rattei, Franz Allerberger, Robert L Mach, Werner Ruppitsch
The increasing emergence of multi-resistant bacteria in healthcare settings, in the community and in the environment represents a major health threat worldwide. In 2016, we started a pilot project to investigate antimicrobial resistance in surface water. Bacteria were enriched, cultivated on selective chromogenic media and species identification was carried out by MALDI-TOF analysis. From a river in southern Austria a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated. Whole genome sequence analysis identified the isolate as ST8, spa type t008, SCCmecIV, PVL and ACME positive, which are main features of CA-MRSA USA300...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rongxiao Che, Yongcui Deng, Fang Wang, Weijin Wang, Zhihong Xu, Yanbin Hao, Kai Xue, Biao Zhang, Li Tang, Huakun Zhou, Xiaoyong Cui
Biological nitrogen fixation, conducted by soil diazotrophs, is the primary nitrogen source for natural grasslands. However, the diazotrophs in grassland soils are still far from fully investigated. Particularly, their regional-scale distribution patterns have never been systematically examined. Here, soils (0-5 cm) were sampled from 54 grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau to examine the diazotroph abundance, diversity, and community composition, as well as their distribution patterns and driving factors. The diazotroph abundance was expressed as nifH gene copies, measured using real-time PCR...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Timo Falkenberg, Deepak Saxena, Thomas Kistemann
This cohort study explores the contribution of wastewater irrigation, in the context of WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene), on in-household water contamination among urban farming households in Ahmedabad, India. Drinking water samples of 204 households in four peri-urban farming communities were collected from the point-of-source (PoS) and point-of-use (PoU) of each household four times over the 12-month follow-up period. Next to the quantification of E. coli, three household surveys (baseline, hygiene and farm) were conducted...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Azmat, Muhammad Uzair Qamar, Christian Huggel, Ejaz Hussain
Streamflow projections are fundamental sources for future water resources strategic planning and management, particularly in high-altitude scarcely-gauged basins located in high mountain Asia. Therefore, quantification of the climate change impacts on major hydrological components (evapotranspiration, soil water storage, snowmelt-runoff, rainfall-runoff and streamflow) is of high importance and remains a challenge. For this purpose, we analysed general circulation models (GCMs) using a multiple bias correction approach and two different hydrological models i...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M H Do, H H Ngo, W S Guo, Y Liu, S W Chang, D D Nguyen, L D Nghiem, B J Ni
Wastewater is now considered to be a vital reusable source of water reuse and saving energy. However, current wastewater has multiple limitations such as high energy costs, large quantities of residuals being generated and lacking in potential resources. Recently, great attention has been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to their mild operating conditions where a variety of biodegradable substrates can serve as fuel. MFCs can be used in wastewater treatment facilities to break down organic matter, and they have also been analysed for application as a biosensor such as a sensor for biological oxygen which demands monitoring...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Ribeiro, C Couto, A R Ribeiro, A S Maia, M Santos, M E Tiritan, E Pinto, A A Almeida
The present study evaluated the content and distribution of several trace elements (Li, Be, Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb, and U) in the Douro River estuary. For that, three matrices were collected (water, sediments and native local flora) to assess the extent of contamination by these elements in this estuarine ecosystem. Results showed their occurrence in estuarine water and sediments, but significant differences were recorded on the concentration levels and pattern of distribution among both matrices and sampling points...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
John Hoslett, Theoni Maria Massara, Simos Malamis, Darem Ahmad, Inge van den Boogaert, Evina Katsou, Balsam Ahmad, Heba Ghazal, Stefaan Simons, Luiz Wrobel, Hussam Jouhara
Significant growth of the human population is expected in the future. Hence, the pressure on the already scarce natural water resources is continuously increasing. This work is an overview of membrane and filtration methods for the removal of pollutants such as bacteria, viruses and heavy metals from surface water. Microfiltration/Ultrafiltration (MF/UF) can be highly effective in eliminating bacteria and/or act as pre-treatment before Nanofiltration/Reverse Osmosis (NF/RO) to reduce the possibility of fouling...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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