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Yi-Bin Qi, Chen-Yu Wang, Cheng-Yuan Lv, Zeng-Min Lun, Cheng-Gang Zheng
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrea Ferrero, Baiyu Chen, Zhoubo Li, Lifeng Yu, Cynthia McCollough
PURPOSE: To compare algorithms performing material decomposition and classification in dual energy CT, it is desirable to know the ground truth of the lesion to be analyzed in real patient data. In this work, we developed and validated a framework to insert digital lesions of arbitrary chemical composition into patient projection data acquired on a dual-source, dual-energy CT system. METHODS: A model that takes into account beam hardening effects was developed to predict the CT number of objects with known chemical composition...
February 27, 2017: Medical Physics
Peng Xu, En-Rong Xiao, Dan Xu, Yin Zhou, Feng He, Bi-Yun Liu, Lei Zeng, Zhen-Bin Wu
Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen...
2017: PloS One
Roman Thibeaux, Sophie Geroult, Claire Benezech, Stéphane Chabaud, Marie-Estelle Soupé-Gilbert, Dominique Girault, Emilie Bierque, Cyrille Goarant
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important re-emerging infectious disease that affects humans worldwide. Infection occurs from indirect environment-mediated exposure to pathogenic leptospires through contaminated watered environments. The ability of pathogenic leptospires to persist in the aqueous environment is a key factor in transmission to new hosts. Hence, an effort was made to detect pathogenic leptospires in complex environmental samples, to genotype positive samples and to assess leptospiral viability over time...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
William Telford, Lynn Stickland, Marco Koschorreck
Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers...
February 27, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Matthew V Sheridan, David John Hill, Benjamin D Sherman, Degao Wang, Seth L Marquard, Kyung-Ryang Wee, James F Cahoon, Thomas J Meyer
Mesoporous metal-oxide film electrodes consisting of derivatized 5.5 μm thick SnO2 films with an outer 4.3 nm shell of TiO2 added by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been investigated to explore unbiased water splitting on p, n, and p+n type silicon substrates. Modified electrodes were derivatized by addition of the water oxidation catalyst, [Ru(bda)(4-O(CH2)3PO3H2)-pyr)2], 1, (pyr = pyridine; bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate), and chromophore, [Ru(4,4'-PO3H2-bpy)(bpy)2]2+, RuP2+, (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), which form 2:1 RuP2+:1 assemblies on the surface...
February 27, 2017: Nano Letters
Mareike Töpperwien, Martin Krenkel, Daniel Vincenz, Franziska Stöber, Anja M Oelschlegel, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Tim Salditt
Studies of brain cytoarchitecture in mammals are routinely performed by serial sectioning of the specimen and staining of the sections. The procedure is labor-intensive and the 3D architecture can only be determined after aligning individual 2D sections, leading to a reconstructed volume with non-isotropic resolution. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography offers a unique potential for high-resolution 3D imaging of intact biological specimen due to the high penetration depth and potential resolution...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew J Karon, Aidan A Cronin, Ryan Cronk, Reza Hendrawan
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools are important for child health, development, and educational performance; yet coverage in Indonesian schools remains low. To address this deficiency, UNICEF and partners conducted a WASH intervention in 450 schools across three provinces in Indonesia. A survey evaluating the sustainability of infrastructure and behavioral interventions in comparison to control districts was conducted one year after completion of the intervention. The survey data were also compared with national government data to assess the suitability of government data to report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Md Nurul Amin, Carolien Kroeze, Maryna Strokal
Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Benjamin Holt, Rebecca Trinh, Michelle M Gierach
Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ivone Vaz-Moreira, Olga C Nunes, Célia M Manaia
Drinking water comprises a complex microbiota, in part shaped by the disinfection and distribution systems. Gram-negative bacteria, mainly members of the phylum Proteobacteria, represent the most frequent bacteria in drinking water, and their ubiquity and physiological versatility raises questions about possible implications in human health. The first step to address this concern is the identification and characterization of such bacteria that is the first objective of this study, aiming at identifying ubiquitous or persistent Gram-negative bacteria, Proteobacteria or members of other phyla, isolated from tap water or from its source...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lars Bohlin, Paco Cárdenas, Anders Backlund, Ulf Göransson
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Astrid Fischer, Thomas Ter Laak, Jan Bronders, Nele Desmet, Ekkehard Christoffels, Annemarie van Wezel, Jan Peter van der Hoek
Water authorities and drinking water companies are challenged with the question if, where and how to abate contaminants of emerging concern in the urban water cycle. The most effective strategy under given conditions is often unclear to these stakeholders as it requires insight into several aspects of the contaminants such as sources, properties, and mitigation options. Furthermore the various parties in the urban water cycle are not always aware of each other's requirements and priorities. Processes to set priorities and come to agreements are lacking, hampering the articulation and implementation of possible solutions...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Liangdong Li, Jinghua Xue, Ruizhen Liu, Xiao Li, Lijuan Lai, Jiali Xie, Zhihua Huang, Cheng Huang
In order to improve the poor water solubility of genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyisoflavone), which is extracted from food sources such as tofu, soybeans, and kudzu, we sulfonated genistein to synthesize a relatively more water-soluble compound, namely genistein-3'-sodium sulfonate (GSS). Our previous studies demonstrate that GSS protects cortical neurons from injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential molecular mechanisms of action of GSS in rat glutamate-induced cortical neuron injury in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo models...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Andre Banning, Nadine Pawletko, Julia Röder, Christine Kübeck, Frank Wisotzky
Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater extracted for drinking water usage from a Quaternary fluvial aquifer partly exceed the German drinking water guideline of 10μgL(-1). Responsible sources and mobilization processes were unknown and gave rise to this study. Land use of the watershed is mainly agricultural leading to groundwater nitrate concentrations >50mgL(-1) and a need for water treatment prior to utilization as drinking water. This is successfully accomplished by addition of nutrients triggering bacterial nitrate reduction, followed by the addition of NaOH for water softening and CO2 for pH adjustment, with subsequent reinfiltration into the aquifer...
February 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ahmed El Nemr, Ghada F El-Said
  Heavy metal contamination in both sediments and molluscs from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast was investigated. Seawater, sediments, and mollusc samples were collected from representative locations along the coastal area. Different representations of the data set, including, statistical methods (correlation matrix and cluster analyses), various sediment quality assessment methods, and bioaccumulation factor calculation, were combined to investigate the trends of heavy metals, identify pollution sources, and assess sediment quality from a toxicological point of view...
March 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Abiodun D Aderibigbe, Alex G Stewart, Andrew S Hursthouse
A multidisciplinary approach to research affords the opportunity of objectivity, creation of new knowledge and potentially a more generally acceptable solution to problems that informed the research in the first place. It increasingly features in national programmes supporting basic and applied research, but for over 40 years, has been the arena for many research teams in environmental geochemistry and health. This study explores the nature of multidisciplinary research in the earth and health sciences using a sample selected from co-authored articles reporting research on arsenic (As) in drinking water from 1979 to 2013...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Shakil A Romshoo, Reyaz Ahmad Dar, Khalid Omar Murtaza, Irfan Rashid, Farooq A Dar
Physico-chemical groundwater (GW) parameters were evaluated to understand the hydrogeochemical processes in the Siwalik plains of Jammu and Kashmir, India. During the 2012-2013 post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons, GW samples (n = 207) from deep bore wells and shallow open wells were chemically analysed. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and Fe(2+)) and anions (HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and F(-)) showed a wide spatio-temporal variation. Results suggest that weathering and dissolution of carbonates and silicate rocks is the main source of water mineralization...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chiara Pagliarani, Marco Vitali, Manuela Ferrero, Nicola Vitulo, Marco Incarbone, Claudio Lovisolo, Giorgio Valle, Andrea Schubert
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is routinely grafted and rootstocks inducing drought tolerance represent a source for adapting vineyards to climate change in temperate areas. Our goal was to investigate drought stress effects on miRNA abundance in a drought-resistant grapevine rootstock, M4 (Vitis vinifera X Vitis berlandieri), compared with a commercial cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), by using their auto- and reciprocal grafts. RNA extracted from roots and leaves of droughted and irrigated plants of different graft combinations was used to prepare cDNA libraries for small RNA sequencing, and to analyse miRNAs by Real Time PCR (RT-qPCR)...
February 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
Shireen Kotay, Weidong Chai, William Guilford, Katie Barry, Amy J Mathers
There have been an increasing number of reports implicating Gammaproteobacteria often carrying genes of drug resistance from colonized sink traps to vulnerable hospitalized patients. However, the mechanism of transmission from the wastewater of the sink P-trap to patients remains poorly understood. Herein we report the use of a designated hand washing sink lab gallery to model dispersion of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- expressing Escherichia coli from sink wastewater to the surrounding environment. We found no dispersion of GFP-E...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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