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Elizabeth A Dugan, Jacqueline Sagen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research for neuropathic pain has depended primarily on the use of behavioral nociceptive testing that is sensory-discriminatory based and reflexive in nature. This can be particularly problematic in spinal cord injury (SCI) associated neuropathic pain research where hyperreflexia may develop thus confounding interpretation of reflexive responses as pain symptoms. To address this, we have designed an affective-motivational based Overground System that has interchangeable floors to allow examination of nociceptive behaviors in response to mechanical and cold stimuli prior to and following spinal cord injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Rongfei Wei, Qingjun Guo, Guirui Yu, Jing Kong, Siliang Li, Zhaoliang Song, Jian Hu, Liyan Tian, Xiaokun Han, Chukwunonso Peter Okoli
The isotopic fractionation could contribute to understanding the Cd accumulation mechanisms in plant species. However, there are few of systematical investigations with regards to the Cd isotope fractionation in hyperaccumulator plants. The Cd tolerant Ricinus communis and hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum were cultivated in nutrient solutions with varying Cd and EDTA concentrations. Cd isotope ratios were determined in the solution, root, stem and leaf. The two investigated plants were systematically enriched in light isotopes relative to their solutions (Δ114/110 Cdplant-solution  = -0...
May 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, when melatonin levels are high...
May 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Michael D Kendig, Robert A Boakes, Laura H Corbit
Cue-potentiated feeding (CPF) describes the stimulation of food consumption by cues that have become associated with food. Determining under what Conditions CPF occurs is important to better understand how exposure to food cues contributes to overeating. CPF is typically found to be specific: cues enhance consumption only of the food they have signaled. Further, previous research has focused largely on discrete cues rather than multimodal cues such as a feeding environment. The present experiments paired a "Plus" context with highly palatable food and a "Minus" context with no food or chow in adult female rats...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Georgianna Mann
In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
Sheri R Colberg-Ochs
EDITOR'S NOTE : This article is adapted from the address Dr. Colberg delivered as the recipient of the American Diabetes Association's Outstanding Educator in Diabetes Award for 2016. She delivered the address in June 2016 at the association's 76th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in New Orleans, La. A webcast of this speech is available for viewing at the ADA website (
February 2017: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Kalyan N Rao, Alena M Sentir, Eric A Engleman, Richard L Bell, Leslie A Hulvershorn, Alan Breier, R Andrew Chambers
RATIONAL: Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes...
December 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jason W Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Many theories have been put forward to explain the origins of right-handedness in humans. Here we present evidence that this preference may stem in part from a right hand advantage in grasping for feeding. Thirteen participants were asked to reach-to-grasp food items of 3 different sizes: SMALL (Cheerios®), MEDIUM (Froot Loops®), and LARGE (Oatmeal Squares®). Participants used both their right- and left-hands in separate blocks (50 trials each, starting order counterbalanced) to grasp the items. After each grasp, participants either a) ate the food item, or b) placed it inside a bib worn beneath his/her chin (25 trials each, blocked design, counterbalanced)...
2013: PloS One
Shilpa Naval, Anne Koerber, Larry Salzmann, Indru Punwani, Bradford R Johnson, Christine D Wu
BACKGROUND: Caries prevention traditionally has emphasized the restriction of cariogenic foods and beverages, but it has placed less emphasis on how the choice, combination and sequence of consumed foods and beverages may help reduce plaque acidogenicity. The authors conducted a study to examine whether whole milk, 100 percent apple juice or tap water affect dental plaque acidity in people after a sugary challenge. METHODS: Twenty adults participated in a randomized controlled crossover study...
July 2013: Journal of the American Dental Association
Carine Lampert, Danusa Mar Arcego, Daniela P Laureano, Luísa A Diehl, Isadora Ferreira da Costa Lima, Rachel Krolow, Letícia F Pettenuzzo, Carla Dalmaz, Deusa Vendite
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of breast cancer; however many women complain of weight gain during TAM treatment. The anorectic effects of estradiol (E) and TAM are well known, although the effects of E on the consumption of palatable food are controversial and there is no information regarding the effects of TAM on palatable food consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with estradiol and/or tamoxifen on feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats exposed to standard chow and palatable foods (Froot Loops® or chocolate)...
July 2, 2013: Physiology & Behavior
Lori-Ann R Sacrey, Benjamin Arnold, Ian Q Whishaw, Claudia L R Gonzalez
The variation in hand use as a function of task and developmental age poses a problem for understanding how and when "handedness," preferred use of one hand, develops. The present cross-section study is the first to contrast hand preference use for the natural and frequently used reach-to-eat movement with a constructional task that requires a very similar reach-to-grasp movement. Thirty children between the ages of 1 and 3 years completed an eating task, in which they grasped small food items (Cheerios™ or Froot Loops™) that they brought to the mouth for eating...
December 2013: Developmental Psychobiology
Massimo Bardi, Michael True, Catherine L Franssen, Casey Kaufman, Amanda Rzucidlo, Kelly G Lambert
Effort-Based Reward (EBR) training strengthens associations between effort and rewards, leading to increased persistence in an unsolvable task when compared to control animals. EBR training involves placing animals in a test apparatus in which they are trained to dig in mounds to retrieve froot loop rewards (contingent group); these animals are compared to control animals that are given the same number of rewards, regardless of expended effort (noncontingent group). In the current study, the effect of EBR training on performance in a spatial task (Dry Land Maze) was explored to determine cognitive resilience during behavioral testing...
January 15, 2013: Brain Research
E L Clark, C R Baumann, G Cano, T E Scammell, T Mochizuki
Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad libitum regular chow...
July 21, 2009: Neuroscience
Leticia Ferreira Pettenuzzo, Cristie Noschang, Eduardo von Pozzer Toigo, Andrelisa Fachin, Deusa Vendite, Carla Dalmaz
Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight in male and female rats. Wistar rats (both males and females) were divided into 3 groups: control (receiving water), caffeine 0.3 g/L and caffeine 1.0 g/L (in the drinking water). These groups were subdivided into non-stressed and stressed (repeated-restraint stress for 40 days)...
October 20, 2008: Physiology & Behavior
P P Silveira, A K Portella, L Crema, M Correa, F B Nieto, L Diehl, A B Lucion, C Dalmaz
We have reported that neonatal handling leads to increased sweet food preference in adult life. Our aim was to verify if these differences in feeding behavior appear before puberty, and whether other types of intervention in periadolescence (such as exposure to toys) could interfere with sweet food consumption later in life. Nests of Wistar rats were (1) non-handled or (2) handled (10 min/day) on days 1-10 after birth. Males from these groups were subdivided in two subgroups: one was habituated to sweet food (Froot Loops-Kellogs) in a new environment for 4 days and tested for sweet food preference at age 27 days, before submitting to a new habituation and test for sweet food ingestion again in adult life...
March 18, 2008: Physiology & Behavior
Rajkumar J Sevak, Wouter Koek, Lynette C Daws, William Anthony Owens, Aurelio Galli, Charles P France
Experimentally-induced diabetes can modify the behavioral and neurochemical effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems, possibly through insulin-related regulation of dopamine transporter activity. In this study, several behavioral procedures were used to examine possible changes in sensitivity to amphetamine and other drugs in rats rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin. Conditioned place preference developed to food (Froot Loops) in both control and diabetic rats, demonstrating that conditioned place preference with tactile stimuli can occur in streptozotocin-treated rats...
February 26, 2008: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kerry A Kerstetter, Kathleen M Kantak
RATIONALE: Adult cocaine addicts, abstinent at the time of testing, show a variety of neurocognitive impairments. Less clear is whether there are differences in the degree of impairment if cocaine use is initiated during adolescence rather than adulthood. OBJECTIVES: Using a preclinical model, we evaluated if stimulus-reward learning was impacted differently in rats exposed to cocaine during adolescence (beginning on postnatal day 37) vs adulthood (beginning on postnatal days 74-79) and then tested after a drug-free period...
October 2007: Psychopharmacology
Patricia A Jarosz, Justin T Kessler, Phawanjit Sekhon, Donald V Coscina
A previous study in our laboratory using Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats showed that conditioned place preferences (CPPs) can be learned to two different high-caloric "snack foods"--one high in sugar (Froot Loops cereal: FL) vs. one high in fat (Cheetos: C), and that both preferences were mediated by endogenous opioids. Using the same CPP apparatus and procedures, two genetic sub-strains of SD rats, one selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (DIO) vs. another bred for diet resistance to obesity (DR), were used in this investigation...
April 2007: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Patricia Pelufo Silveira, Carla da Silva Benetti, Caroline Ayres, Flavia Quellen Pederiva, Andre Krumel Portella, Aldo Bolten Lucion, Carla Dalmaz
We have previously demonstrated that neonatal handling increases sweet food ingestion. In the present study, we examined whether food intake, using different kinds of food, is altered in neonatally handled animals, with or without inducing satiety using a sucrose solution. Abdominal fat, glycemia and hormones linked to appetite including leptin, ghrelin and insulin were also measured. We tested palatable food consumption in the homecage to verify whether environmental cues could influence ingestion. Nests of Wistar rats were either (1) non-handled or (2) handled (10 min/day)...
October 16, 2006: Behavioural Brain Research
Patricia A Jarosz, Phawanjit Sekhon, Donald V Coscina
Previous research has shown that food-deprived rats acquire conditioned place preferences (CPPs) to sweet liquids that are largely attenuated by the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NAL). This study determined if ad libitum Chow-fed rats can learn CPPs when given relatively brief exposures to different solid snack foods (SFs) -- one high in sugar (Froot Loops cereal: FL) vs. one high in fat (Cheetos: C). Two groups of 16 male rats were trained during 20-min sessions to eat either FL or C in one side of a three-chambered CPP apparatus vs...
February 2006: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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