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Shufeng Liu, Yishen Tian, Shanshan Zhang, Li Wang
A new modular nanoswitch was described for versatile, rapid (within 1 h), homogeneous and sensitive protein detection. The system employs two hairpins (HP1 and HP2) that can be reciprocally recognized through the apical loop-loop interaction. The HP2 possesses a conformation-switching stem-loop structure with the appended single-stranded tails on each end, which can hybridize with the recognition element-conjugated DNA strands to construct a protein-responsive HP2 scaffold. It works according to a simple mix-and-detect assay format with the first formation of a kissing complex between HP1 and HP2 scaffold for fluorescence quenching and then the cascade propagation from the steric strain by protein binding to the dissociation of kissing complex for fluorescence recovery...
January 22, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Daniel Poehnert, Nils Hadeler, Harald Schrem, Alexander Kaltenborn, Juergen Klempnauer, Markus Winny
This single-center prospective, controlled observational study investigates the impact of incisional negative pressure wound therapy on wound healing processes and its potency to prevent superficial surgical site infections after reversal of a double loop ileostomy. Furthermore, this study gains insight in socio-economic aspects, like duration of hospital stay and, for the first time, patient's quality of life during the incisional negative pressure wound treatment. To address this question, an interventional group of 24 patients treated with incisional negative pressure wound therapy (Prevena® incisional wound management system, KCI, Germany) and a respective control cohort of 25 patients treated with a standard sterile dressing were observed for 30 days in the post-operative course...
January 22, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Jodie A Austin, Ian R Smith, Amina Tariq
Closed-loop electronic medication management systems (EMMS) are recognised as an effective intervention to improve medication safety, yet evidence of their effectiveness in hospitals is limited. Few studies have compared medication turnaround time for a closed-loop electronic versus paper-based medication management environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication turnaround times in a paper-based hospital environment with a digital hospital equipped with a closed-loop EMMS, consisting of computerised physician order entry, profiled automated dispensing cabinets packaged with unit dose medications and barcode medication administration...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
James L Butler, Y Audrey Hay, Ole Paulsen
The entorhinal-hippocampal system is an important circuit in the brain, essential for certain cognitive tasks such as memory and navigation. Different gamma oscillations occur in this circuit, with the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), CA3, and CA1 all generating gamma oscillations with different properties. These three gamma oscillations converge within CA1, where much work has gone into trying to isolate them from each other. Here we compared the gamma generators in the mEC, CA3, and CA1 using optogenetically-induced theta-gamma oscillations...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
D Kerr, C Axelrod, C Hoppe, D C Klonoff
The ability of an individual living with diabetes to have human-to-human contact with their healthcare provider is not keeping pace with the number of people developing diabetes. From a futurist perspective, however, this dichotomy of diabetes care represents an opportunity for digital healthcare. The focus of technological innovation is unlikely to be the replacement of the multidisciplinary diabetes team but rather the provision of meaningful individual and family support between clinic visits and, on a larger scale, the facilitation of population health management for diabetes...
January 22, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Moti Freiman, Hannes Nickisch, Holger Schmitt, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, Patrick M Donnelly, Mani Vembar, Liran Goshen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a functionally personalized boundary condition (BC) model for estimating the fractional flow reserve (FFR) from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) using flow simulation (CT-FFR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCTA data of 90 subjects with subsequent invasive FFR in 123 lesions within 21 days (range: 0-83) were retrospectively collected. We developed a functionally-personalized BC model accounting specifically for the coronary micro-vascular resistance dependency on the coronary outlets pressure suggested by several physiological studies...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Anan Shtaya, Debayan Dasgupta, John Millar, Owen Sparrow, Diederik Bulters, Jonathan Duffill
OBJECT: The outcomes of microsurgery of previously coiled aneurysms are poorly described and little is known about what factors predict poor outcome. Therefore, we set out studying our case series to identify predictors of poor outcome following microsurgery for previously coiled recurrent aneurysms. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from a prospectively maintained vascular database reviewing presentations, recurrent aneurysms measurements, surgery and outcomes of microsurgical clipping of recurrent previously coiled intracranial aneurysms...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
P Cottin, N Mebtouche, G Pourcher, N Devaquet, T Bégué, P Trouiller, B Sztrymf
Immediate complications can arise due to faulty implantation of material during fusion procedures, but none have been reported in connection with ablation of material in the spine. We report a case of intraperitoneal migration of a pedicle screw during attempted removal. It crossed the psoas muscle and perforated a small-intestine loop, triggering hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis by perforation. We analyze the causes and mechanisms underlying this exceptional case of migration, with a view to sharing preventive measures...
January 16, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Jiang Zhu, Shuangli Li, Theresa A Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, Maili Liu, Yunhuang Yang
Human protein TGIF1 is an essential regulator of cell fate with broad roles in different tissues, and has been implicated in holoprosencephaly (HPE) and many cancers. The function of TGIF1 in transcriptional regulation depends on its three-amino acid loop extension (TALE) type of homeodomain (HD). Two missense mutations that led to P192A and R219C substitutions in TGIF1-HD were previously found in HPE patients and suggested to be the causes for these cases. However, how these mutations affected TGIF1 function has not been investigated from a structural view...
January 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kun Liu, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Dhanaraj Premnath, Prashen Chelikani
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are a group of 25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans. The cognate agonists and the mechanism of ligand binding to the majority of the T2Rs remain unknown. Here we report the first structure-function analysis of T2R7 and study the ability of this receptor to bind to different agonists by site-directed mutagenesis. Screening of ligands for T2R7 in calcium based assays lead to the identification of novel compounds that activate this receptor. Quinine, diphenidol, dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine showed substantial activation of T2R7...
January 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michele Schiavon, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The insulin to carbohydrate ratio (CR) is a parameter used by patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) to calculate the premeal insulin bolus. Usually, it is estimated by the physician based on patient diary, but modern diabetes technologies, such as subcutaneous glucose sensing (continuous glucose monitoring, CGM) and insulin delivery (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) systems, can provide important information for its optimization. In this study, a method for CR optimization based on CGM and CSII data is presented and its efficacy and robustness tested in several in silico scenarios, with the primary aim of increasing protection against hypoglycemia...
February 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Brian Anderson Free, Derek Paley
Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Karman vortex street and reverse Karman vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Karman gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Karman vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control...
January 22, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Bassem M Mohammed, Ivan Ivanov, Anton Matafonov, Jonas Emsley, David Gailani
Background: Factor XII (FXII) Locarno is a natural variant with proline replacing Arg353 at the activation cleavage site, preventing conversion to the fully active protease factor XIIa (FXIIa). Recently, we showed that FXII restricted to a single chain form (sc-FXII) by replacing Arg353 with alanine expresses proteolytic activity that is enhanced by cofactors such as polyphosphate. Aim: To determine if the Pro353 substitution affects the activity of sc-FXII. Methods: Wild type FXII (FXII-WT), FXII-R353A, and FXII Locarno (FXII-R353P) were tested for their abilities to activate prekallikrein, and to induce thrombin generation and coagulation in plasma in a factor XI-dependent manner...
January 2018: Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Juan C Monllau, Juan I Erquicia, Maximiliano Ibañez, Pablo E Gelber, Federico Ibañez, Angel Masferrer-Pino, Xavier Pelfort
Patellar instability has been shown to be associated with different major factors. However, studies have demonstrated that soft tissue reconstructions are adequate enough to reestablish patellar constraint. In recent years, the medial patellofemoral ligament has been recognized as the primary passive restraint for lateral translation of the patella. Their reconstruction has gain popularity as the procedure is quite simple and fast. Although several surgical techniques have been described for their reconstruction, no clear consensus has been reached as to which is best...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
Kristen Hychka, Caroline Gottschalk Druschke
Urban aquatic restoration can be difficult to accomplish because of complications like pollutants, population density, infrastructure, and expense; however, restoration in urban settings has the potential to provide benefits to many people. The success of urban restoration projects-even those focused primarily on ecological targets-depends on community involvement and managers' understanding and consideration of community needs. However research on the social barriers to urban restoration and strategies managers use to overcome them is relatively rare...
November 1, 2017: Society & Natural Resources
Aziz Sadeghizadeh, Rahbar Rahimi, Farid Farhad Dad
In this work, a novel three-phase and three dimensional CFD model based on the Euler-Euler approach developed for modeling the hydrodynamic, mass transfer and CO2 fixation using microalgae in an internal loop airlift reactor with internal sparger. The main objective of this work was to development of CFD codes in order to simulate the CO2 biofixation process under different input gas velocity during 11 days of culture time and simulate the unsteady state mass transfer based on Surface-Renewal-Stretch (SRS) model...
January 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sandy Winfield Jere, Nicolette Nadene Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse
Photobiomodulation (PBM) modulates cellular processes to enhance diabetic wound healing. The photon energy activates wounded cells to proliferate and migrate. However, the signalling pathways responsible for these observations remain unknown. This study aimed to determine if PBM stimulates cellular proliferation and migration via the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway. Normal, wounded, diabetic and diabetic wounded cell models were exposed to PBM at a wavelength of 660nm and fluence of 5J/cm2 and incubated for 48h...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Naomi W Lucchi, Daouda Ndiaye, Sumudu Britton, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique holds substantial promise as an alternative easy-to-use molecular test for malaria parasite detection. Several modifications to the initial malaria LAMP assay have been made in an effort to make the LAMP platform more field-friendly. Areas covered: A PubMed literature search was performed using the following search terms: "malaria," "loop mediated isothermal amplification", "LAMP", "molecular tests" and "diagnostics". The authors review the currently reported malaria LAMP assays and discuss what requirements would be needed to make malaria LAMP assays field-usable, especially in the context of malaria elimination...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA) is a high production volume chemical in industrial applications and widely found in baked or fried carbohydrate-rich foods. In this study, we unravelled that AA induced developmental toxicity associated with oxidative stress status and disordered lipid distribution in heart region of developing zebrafish. Treatment with AA caused a deficient cardiovascular system with significant heart malformation and dysfunction. We also found that AA could reduce the number of cardiomyocytes through the reduced capacity of cardiomyocyte proliferation rather than cell apoptosis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Loredana Zilli, Annalisa Bianchi, Maroua Sabbah, Laura Pecoraro, Roberta Schiavone, Sebastiano Vilella
The long-term goal of this research project is to set up efficient protocol that can be used to develop a standardized approach for vitrification of marine fish spermatozoa. In particular, the aim of the present study was to develop a vitrification protocol for sea bream (Sparus aurata) spermatozoa. To draw up the protocol, we tested two different dilution media (1% NaCl and Mounib medium), three different vitrification devices (loops, drops and cut straws), different cryoprotectants (CPs) and three different equilibration times (30, 60 and 120 s)...
January 11, 2018: Theriogenology
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