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hippocampus anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681801/anatomy-based-networks-and-topology-alteration-in-seizure-related-cognitive-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Qian Wu, Charlie W Zhao, Zhe Long, Bo Xiao, Li Feng
Epilepsy is a paroxysmal neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide. Cognitive dysfunction induced by seizures is a severe comorbidity of epilepsy and epilepsy syndromes and reduces patients' quality of life. Seizures, along with accompanying histopathological and pathophysiological changes, are associated with cognitive comorbidities. Advances in imaging technology and computing allow anatomical and topological changes in neural networks to be visualized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592955/characterizing-the-human-hippocampus-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-computational-atlas-derived-from-ex-vivo-mri-and-histology
#2
Daniel H Adler, Laura E M Wisse, Ranjit Ittyerah, John B Pluta, Song-Lin Ding, Long Xie, Jiancong Wang, Salmon Kadivar, John L Robinson, Theresa Schuck, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman, John A Detre, Mark A Elliott, Jon B Toledo, Weixia Liu, Stephen Pickup, Michael I Miller, Sandhitsu R Das, David A Wolk, Paul A Yushkevich
Although the hippocampus is one of the most studied structures in the human brain, limited quantitative data exist on its 3D organization, anatomical variability, and effects of disease on its subregions. Histological studies provide restricted reference information due to their 2D nature. In this paper, high-resolution (∼200 × 200 × 200 μm3 ) ex vivo MRI scans of 31 human hippocampal specimens are combined using a groupwise diffeomorphic registration approach into a 3D probabilistic atlas that captures average anatomy and anatomic variability of hippocampal subfields...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588461/diffusion-tensor-tractography-of-the-mammillothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain-using-a-high-spatial-resolution-dti-technique
#3
Arash Kamali, Caroline C Zhang, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Eliana E Bonafante-Mejia, Rajan Patel, John A Lincoln, Pejman Rabiei, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Khader M Hasan
The mammillary bodies as part of the hypothalamic nuclei are in the central limbic circuitry of the human brain. The mammillary bodies are shown to be directly or indirectly connected to the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalami as the major gray matter structures of the human limbic system. Although it is not primarily considered as part of the human limbic system, the thalamus is shown to be involved in many limbic functions of the human brain. The major direct connection of the thalami with the hypothalamic nuclei is known to be through the mammillothalamic tract...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545212/t-1-diffusion-tensor-and-quantitative-magnetization-transfer-imaging-of-the-hippocampus-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#4
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508560/brain-structure-alterations-in-depression-psychoradiological-evidence
#5
Fei-Fei Zhang, Wei Peng, John A Sweeney, Zhi-Yun Jia, Qi-Yong Gong
Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in major depressive disorder patients, such as in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, temporal lobe, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala...
March 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476982/atlas-selection-for-hippocampus-segmentation-relevance-evaluation-of-three-meta-information-parameters
#6
Vanderson Dill, Pedro Costa Klein, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Márcio Sarroglia Pinho
Current state-of-the-art methods for whole and subfield hippocampus segmentation use pre-segmented templates, also known as atlases, in the pre-processing stages. Typically, the input image is registered to the template, which provides prior information for the segmentation process. Using a single standard atlas increases the difficulty in dealing with individuals who have a brain anatomy that is morphologically different from the atlas, especially in older brains. To increase the segmentation precision in these cases, without any manual intervention, multiple atlases can be used...
April 1, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409838/deciphering-the-microstructure-of-hippocampal-subfields-with-in-vivo-dti-and-noddi-applications-to-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Amandine Crombe, Vincent Planche, Gerard Raffard, Julien Bourel, Nadège Dubourdieu, Aude Panatier, Hikaru Fukutomi, Vincent Dousset, Stephane Oliet, Bassem Hiba, Thomas Tourdias
The hippocampus contains distinct populations of neurons organized into separate anatomical subfields and layers with differential vulnerability to pathological mechanisms. The ability of in vivo neuroimaging to pinpoint regional vulnerability is especially important for better understanding of hippocampal pathology at the early stage of neurodegenerative disorders and for monitoring future therapeutic strategies. This is the case for instance in multiple sclerosis whose neurodegenerative component can affect the hippocampus from the early stage...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407456/a-stereotaxic-breed-averaged-symmetric-t2w-canine-brain-atlas-including-detailed-morphological-and-volumetrical-data-sets
#8
Björn Nitzsche, Johannes Boltze, Eberhard Ludewig, Thomas Flegel, Martin J Schmidt, Johannes Seeger, Henryk Barthel, Olivia W Brooks, Matthew J Gounis, Michael H Stoffel, Sabine Schulze
Stereotaxic systems and automatic tissue segmentation routines enable neuronavigation as well as reproducible processing of neuroimage datasets. Such systems have been developed for humans, non-human-primates, sheep, and rodents, but not for dogs. Although dogs share important neurofunctional and -anatomical features with humans, and in spite of their importance in translational neuroscience, little is known about the variability of the canine brain morphology and, possibly related, function. Moreover, we lack templates, tissue probability maps (TPM), and stereotaxic brain labels for implementation in standard software utilities such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM)...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404409/the-influence-of-dat1-comt-and-bdnf-genetic-polymorphisms-on-total-and-subregional-hippocampal-volumes-in-early-onset-heavy-cannabis-users
#9
Albert Batalla, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yann Chye, Murat Yücel, Carles Soriano-Mas, Sagnik Bhattacharyya, Marta Torrens, José A S Crippa, Rocío Martín-Santos
Introduction: Hippocampal neuroanatomy is affected by genetic variations in dopaminergic candidate genes and environmental insults, such as early onset of chronic cannabis exposure. Here, we examine how hippocampal total and subregional volumes are affected by cannabis use and functional polymorphisms of dopamine-relevant genes, including the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine transporter (DAT1), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes. Material and Methods: We manually traced total hippocampal volumes and automatically segmented hippocampal subregions using high-resolution MRI images, and performed COMT, DAT1, and BDNF genotyping in 59 male Caucasian young adults aged 18-30 years...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#10
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
January 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#11
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175201/neuroanatomical-substrate-of-noise-sensitivity
#12
Marina Kliuchko, Tuomas Puoliväli, Marja Heinonen-Guzejev, Mari Tervaniemi, Petri Toiviainen, Mikko Sams, Elvira Brattico
Recent functional studies suggest that noise sensitivity, a trait describing attitudes towards noise and predicting noise annoyance, is associated with altered processing in the central auditory system. In the present work, we examined whether noise sensitivity could be related to the structural anatomy of auditory and limbic brain areas. Anatomical MR brain images of 80 subjects were parcellated with FreeSurfer to measure grey matter volume, cortical thickness, cortical area and folding index of anatomical structures in the temporal lobe and insular cortex...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163066/from-structure-to-behavior-in-basolateral-amygdala-hippocampus-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Emotion influences various cognitive processes, including learning and memory. The amygdala is specialized for input and processing of emotion, while the hippocampus is essential for declarative or episodic memory. During emotional reactions, these two brain regions interact to translate the emotion into particular outcomes. Here, we briefly introduce the anatomy and functions of amygdala and hippocampus, and then present behavioral, electrophysiological, optogenetic and biochemical evidence from recent studies to illustrate how amygdala and hippocampus work synergistically to form long-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#14
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#15
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058356/predicting-auditory-feedback-control-of-speech-production-from-subregional-shape-of-subcortical-structures
#16
Xiaoying Tang, Na Chen, Siyun Zhang, Jeffery A Jones, Baofeng Zhang, Jingyuan Li, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although a growing body of research has focused on the cortical sensorimotor mechanisms that support auditory feedback control of speech production, much less is known about the subcortical contributions to this control process. This study examined whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures assessed by statistical shape analysis is associated with vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials in response to pitch feedback errors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between the magnitudes of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the right thalamus, between the latencies of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the left caudate and pallidum, and between the latencies of cortical N1 responses and subregional shape of the left putamen...
January 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#17
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Theodore William Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue, and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
February 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#18
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912691/the-brain-of-the-black-diceros-bicornis-and-white-ceratotherium-simum-african-rhinoceroses-morphology-and-volumetrics-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Adhil Bhagwandin, Mark Haagensen, Paul R Manger
The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883807/comparing-cat12-and-vbm8-for-detecting-brain-morphological-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Farnaz Farokhian, Iman Beheshti, Daichi Sone, Hiroshi Matsuda
The identification of the brain morphological alterations that play important roles in neurodegenerative/neurological diseases will contribute to our understanding of the causes of these diseases. Various automated software programs are designed to provide an automatic framework to detect brain morphological changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can also be used for the detection of brain volumetric abnormalities. Here, we compared gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormality results obtained by a VBM analysis using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) via the current version of Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM12) with the results obtained by a VBM analysis using the VBM8 toolbox implemented in the older software SPM8, in adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with (n = 51) and without (n = 57) hippocampus sclerosis (HS), compared to healthy adult controls (n = 28)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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