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hippocampus anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909002/anatomy-of-subcortical-structures-predicts-age-related-differences-in-skill-acquisition
#1
Sima Chalavi, Hamed Zivari Adab, Lisa Pauwels, Iseult A M Beets, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Thiago Santos Monteiro, Celine Maes, Stefan Sunaert, Stephan P Swinnen
Skill acquisition capabilities vary substantially from one individual to another. Volumetric brain studies have demonstrated that global volume of several subcortical structures predicts variations in learning outcome in young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). In this study, for the first time, we utilized shape analysis, which offers a more sensitive detection of subregional brain anatomical deformations, to investigate whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures is associated with training-induced performance improvement on a bimanual task in YA and OA, and whether this association is age-dependent...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888083/clinical-and-imaging-evaluation-of-the-transuncus-selective-amygdalo-hippocampectomy
#2
Enrico Ghizoni, Roger Matias, Stefan Lieber, Brunno Machado de Campos, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Pamela Castro Pereira, Augusto Amato, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim, Tátila Martins Lopes, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Various reports described the transuncus approach (TU) as a selective route to the amygdala and hippocampus, but this approach has not yet being submitted to a solid post operative imaging analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomy, surgical technique, postoperative imaging analysis and outcome in a series of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy (SHA) via TU. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 25 consecutive patients who underwent to selective amigdalo-hippocampectomy through TU...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851995/key-clinical-benefits-of-neuroimaging-at-7t
#3
Siegfried Trattnig, Elisabeth Springer, Wolfgang Bogner, Gilbert Hangel, Bernhard Strasser, Barbara Dymerska, Pedro Lima Cardoso, Simon Daniel Robinson
The growing interest in ultra-high field MRI, with more than 35.000 MR examinations already performed at 7T, is related to improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. Since the signal-to-noise ratio increases with the field strength of the MR scanner, the most evident application at 7T is to gain higher spatial resolution in the brain compared to 3T. Of specific clinical interest for neuro applications is the cerebral cortex at 7T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure, like the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in Multiple Sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844618/repatriation-is-associated-with-isthmus-cingulate-cortex-reduction-in-community-dwelling-elderly
#4
Raffaella Calati, Jerome J Maller, Chantal Meslin, Jorge Lopez-Castroman, Karen Ritchie, Philippe Courtet, Sylvaine Artero
OBJECTIVES: The impact of stressful life events (SLEs) on brain anatomy is poorly understood, particularly its long-term neural consequences. We tested the hypothesis that a serious SLE (repatriation of French citizens living in Algeria in 1962) is associated with changes in brain regions previously implicated in psychopathology (hippocampus, amygdala, corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex, anterior, posterior and isthmus cingulate cortex (ICC) in a large elderly population. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire anatomical scans from 82 subjects repatriated from Algeria and 339 subjects without this experience or any other trauma...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751944/hippocampal-to-basal-forebrain-transport-of-mn-2-is-impaired-by-deletion-of-klc1-a-subunit-of-the-conventional-kinesin-microtubule-based-motor
#5
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672554/alpha-oscillation-neurofeedback-modulates-amygdala-complex-connectivity-and-arousal-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Andrew A Nicholson, Tomas Ros, Paul A Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Rosemarie C Kluetsch, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback aimed at reducing the amplitude of the alpha-rhythm has been shown to alter neural networks associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), leading to symptom alleviation. Critically, the amygdala is thought to be one of the central brain regions mediating PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we compare directly patterns of amygdala complex connectivity using fMRI, before and after EEG neurofeedback, in order to observe subcortical mechanisms associated with behavioural and alpha oscillatory changes among patients...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667783/comparison-of-feline-brain-anatomy-in-0-25-and-3%C3%A2-tesla-magnetic-resonance-images
#7
P Przyborowska, Z Adamiak, P Holak, Y Zhalniarovich
The intention of the comparison of both low and high field was to examine which anatomical brain structures of cats were visible on low field images, as in clinical veterinary practice, 3 Tesla (T) magnets were of limited availability. The research was performed on 20 European short-haired male and female cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weight of 2-4 kg. 0.25 T magnetic resonance images of neurocranium were acquired in all using T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR) of 4010 ms and echo time (TE) of 90 ms in dorsal and transverse plane, and T2-weighted fast spine echo sequences with TR of 4290 ms and TE of 120 ms in sagittal plane...
September 25, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625234/flattened-sheet-like-fornix-forming-a-cobra-hood-deformity-a-previously-unreported-variant-of-fornix-anatomy-and-its-implication-for-surgical-approaches-to-the-third-ventricle
#8
Tulika Gupta, Daisy Sahni, R Shane Tubbs, Sunil K Gupta
BACKGROUND: The fornix is the main efferent tract from the hippocampus and is an important component of the memory pathways. Variations in the anatomy of the fornix are not commonly encountered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anatomy of the fornix was studied in 30 cadavers of normal adult healthy males who had died in road accidents. The full extent of the hippocampus was prosected up to the tail under the magnoscope. RESULTS: In 10 of the 30 brains, the crura and the body of fornix were bilaterally broad and flat like a sheet, rather than the usual compact bundle, forming a cobra-like hood over the roof of the third ventricle...
September 2016: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566261/functional-neuroanatomy-of-arithmetic-and-word-reading-and-its-relationship-to-age
#9
Tanya M Evans, D Lynn Flowers, Megan M Luetje, Eileen Napoliello, Guinevere F Eden
Arithmetic and written language are uniquely human skills acquired during early schooling and used daily. While prior studies have independently characterized the neural bases for arithmetic and reading, here we examine both skills in a single study to capture their shared and unique cognitive mechanisms, as well as the role of age/experience in modulating their neural representations. We used functional MRI in 7- to 29-year-olds who performed single-digit subtraction, single-digit addition, and single-word reading...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499121/transcortical-selective-amygdalohippocampectomy-technique-through-the-middle-temporal-gyrus-revisited-an-anatomical-study-laboratory-investigation
#10
Baran Bozkurt, Ricardo da Silva Centeno, Feres Chaddad-Neto, Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa, Marcelo Augusto Acosta Goiri, Ali Karadag, Bekir Tugcu, Talat Cem Ovalioglu, Necmettin Tanriover, Serdar Kaya, Kaan Yagmurlu, Andrew Grande
The anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) have been used for surgical treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined the comprehensive white matter tract anatomy of the temporal lobe to gain an insight into the trans-middle temporal gyrus, a lateral approach which has been commonly used. The transmiddle temporal gyrus approach was performed in a stepwise manner on cadaveric human heads to examine the traversing white matter pathways through it and the structures located in the temporal horn...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479794/the-effects-of-hippocampal-lesions-on-mri-measures-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity
#11
Richard N Henson, Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Mariella Gregori, Jon S Simons, Linda Geerligs, Sharon Erzinçlioğlu, Narinder Kapur, Georgina Browne
Focal brain lesions can affect connectivity between distal brain regions (connectional diaschisis) and impact on the graph-theoretic properties of major brain networks (connectomic diaschisis). Given its unique anatomy and diverse range of functions, the hippocampus has been claimed to be a critical "hub" in brain networks. We investigated the effects of hippocampal lesions on structural and functional connectivity in six patients with amnesia, using a range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses. Neuropsychological assessment revealed marked episodic memory impairment and generally intact performance across other cognitive domains...
August 1, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284228/studies-of-the-macroscopic-and-microscopic-morphology-hippocampus-of-brain-in-vencobb-broiler
#12
Shailesh Kumar Gupta, Kumaresh Behera, C R Pradhan, Arun Kumar Mandal, Kamdev Sethy, Dayanidhi Behera, Kuladip Prakash Shinde
AIM: The aim of this study was to study the anatomy of different parts of brain and histology of hippocampus of Vencobb broiler chicken. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 12 adult experimental birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. After separation of the brain, gross anatomy features were studied. Brain tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin for 2-3 days, and then routine dehydration process in ascending grades of ethyl alcohol was done. After xylene cleaning, paraffin impregnation was prepared...
May 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261057/the-functional-anatomy-of-time-what-and-when-in-the-brain
#13
REVIEW
Karl Friston, Gyorgy Buzsáki
This Opinion article considers the implications for functional anatomy of how we represent temporal structure in our exchanges with the world. It offers a theoretical treatment that tries to make sense of the architectural principles seen in mammalian brains. Specifically, it considers a factorisation between representations of temporal succession and representations of content or, heuristically, a segregation into when and what. This segregation may explain the central role of the hippocampus in neuronal hierarchies while providing a tentative explanation for recent observations of how ordinal sequences are encoded...
July 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147649/trim9-deletion-alters-the-morphogenesis-of-developing-and-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons-and-impairs-spatial-learning-and-memory
#14
Cortney C Winkle, Reid H J Olsen, Hyojin Kim, Sheryl S Moy, Juan Song, Stephanie L Gupton
UNLABELLED: During hippocampal development, newly born neurons migrate to appropriate destinations, extend axons, and ramify dendritic arbors to establish functional circuitry. These developmental stages are recapitulated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus, where neurons are continuously generated and subsequently incorporate into existing, local circuitry. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 regulates these developmental stages in embryonic and adult-born mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro and in vivo Embryonic hippocampal and adult-born dentate granule neurons lacking Trim9 exhibit several morphological defects, including excessive dendritic arborization...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082833/the-hippocampus-a-special-place-for-time
#15
Charan Ranganath, Liang-Tien Hsieh
Many findings have demonstrated that memories of past events are temporally organized. It is well known that the hippocampus is critical for such episodic memories, but, until recently, little was known about the temporal organization of mnemonic representations in the hippocampus. Recent developments in human and animal research have revealed important insights into the role of the hippocampus in learning and retrieving sequences of events. Here, we review these findings, including lesion and single-unit recording studies in rodents, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans, and computational models that link findings from these studies to the anatomy of the hippocampal circuit...
April 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029195/neuroanatomical-features-in-soldiers-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
D Sussman, E W Pang, R Jetly, B T Dunkley, M J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to psychological trauma, impacts up to 20 % of soldiers returning from combat-related deployment. Advanced neuroimaging holds diagnostic and prognostic potential for furthering our understanding of its etiology. Previous imaging studies on combat-related PTSD have focused on selected structures, such as the hippocampi and cortex, but none conducted a comprehensive examination of both the cerebrum and cerebellum...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025904/statistical-shape-analysis-of-subcortical-structures-using-spectral-matching
#17
Mahsa Shakeri, Herve Lombaert, Alexandre N Datta, Nadine Oser, Laurent Létourneau-Guillon, Laurence Vincent Lapointe, Florence Martin, Domitille Malfait, Alan Tucholka, Sarah Lippé, Samuel Kadoury
Studying morphological changes of subcortical structures often predicate neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Hence, methods for quantifying morphological variations in the brain anatomy, including groupwise shape analyses, are becoming increasingly important for studying neurological disorders. In this paper, a novel groupwise shape analysis approach is proposed to detect regional morphological alterations in subcortical structures between two study groups, e...
September 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995784/supersize-my-brain-a-cross-sectional-voxel-based-morphometry-study-on-the-association-between-self-reported-dietary-restraint-and-regional-grey-matter-volumes
#18
Laura N van der Laan, Lisette Charbonnier, Sanne Griffioen-Roose, Floor M Kroese, Inge van Rijn, Paul A M Smeets
Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary restraint. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on anatomical scans from 155 normal-weight females to investigate how regional grey matter volume correlates with restraint. A positive correlation was found in several areas, including the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, striatum and the amygdala (bilaterally, p<0...
May 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932446/type-vi-adenylyl-cyclase-negatively-regulates-glun2b-mediated-ltd-and-spatial-reversal-learning
#19
Ching-Pang Chang, Cheng-Ta Lee, Wen-Hsien Hou, Meng-Syuan Lin, Hsing-Lin Lai, Chen-Li Chien, Chen Chang, Pei-Lin Cheng, Cheng-Chang Lien, Yijuang Chern
The calcium-sensitive type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC) that converts ATP to cAMP under stimulation. It is a calcium-inhibited AC and integrates negative inputs from Ca(2+) and multiple other signals to regulate the intracellular cAMP level. In the present study, we demonstrate that AC6 functions upstream of CREB and negatively controls neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. Genetic removal of AC6 leads to cyclase-independent and N-terminus of AC6 (AC6N)-dependent elevation of CREB expression, and enhances the expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal neurons...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878891/overshadowed-by-the-amygdala-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-emerges-as-key-to-psychiatric-disorders
#20
M A Lebow, A Chen
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a center of integration for limbic information and valence monitoring. The BNST, sometimes referred to as the extended amygdala, is located in the basal forebrain and is a sexually dimorphic structure made up of between 12 and 18 sub-nuclei. These sub-nuclei are rich with distinct neuronal subpopulations of receptors, neurotransmitters, transporters and proteins. The BNST is important in a range of behaviors such as: the stress response, extended duration fear states and social behavior, all crucial determinants of dysfunction in human psychiatric diseases...
April 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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