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hippocampus anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140463/anatomic-investigation-of-the-trajectory-for-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#1
Vanessa M Holanda, Abuzer Gungor, Serhat Baydin, Erik H Middlebrooks, Shabbar F Danish
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has emerged as a promising treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Surgeons must understand the relevant anatomy that is traversed by the catheter and affected by ablation. OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomic structures crossed by the LITT catheter until it reaches the amygdala. METHODS: Three human cadaveric heads were implanted with catheters using a frameless stereotactic technique...
November 11, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#2
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058356/predicting-auditory-feedback-control-of-speech-production-from-subregional-shape-of-subcortical-structures
#3
Xiaoying Tang, Na Chen, Siyun Zhang, Jeffery A Jones, Baofeng Zhang, Jingyuan Li, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Although a growing body of research has focused on the cortical sensorimotor mechanisms that support auditory feedback control of speech production, much less is known about the subcortical contributions to this control process. This study examined whether subregional anatomy of subcortical structures assessed by statistical shape analysis is associated with vocal compensations and cortical event-related potentials in response to pitch feedback errors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between the magnitudes of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the right thalamus, between the latencies of vocal compensations and subregional shape of the left caudate and pallidum, and between the latencies of cortical N1 responses and subregional shape of the left putamen...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#4
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922876/visual-deficit-from-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-anatomical-considerations
#5
Walter J Jermakowicz, Michael E Ivan, Iahn Cajigas, Ramses Ribot, Ignacio Jusue-Torres, Mehul B Desai, Armando Ruiz, Pierre-Francois D'Haese, Andres M Kanner, Jonathan R Jagid
BACKGROUND: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is quickly emerging as an effective surgical therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). One of the most frequent complications of the procedure is postoperative visual field cuts, but the physiopathology of these deficits is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential causes of visual deficits after LITT for TLE in an attempt to minimize this complication. METHODS: This retrospective chart review compares the case of a 24-year-old male who developed homonymous hemianopsia following LITT for TLE to 17 prior patients who underwent the procedure and suffered no visual deficit...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912691/the-brain-of-the-black-diceros-bicornis-and-white-ceratotherium-simum-african-rhinoceroses-morphology-and-volumetrics-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Adhil Bhagwandin, Mark Haagensen, Paul R Manger
The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883807/comparing-cat12-and-vbm8-for-detecting-brain-morphological-abnormalities-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Farnaz Farokhian, Iman Beheshti, Daichi Sone, Hiroshi Matsuda
The identification of the brain morphological alterations that play important roles in neurodegenerative/neurological diseases will contribute to our understanding of the causes of these diseases. Various automated software programs are designed to provide an automatic framework to detect brain morphological changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can also be used for the detection of brain volumetric abnormalities. Here, we compared gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) abnormality results obtained by a VBM analysis using the Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) via the current version of Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM12) with the results obtained by a VBM analysis using the VBM8 toolbox implemented in the older software SPM8, in adult temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with (n = 51) and without (n = 57) hippocampus sclerosis (HS), compared to healthy adult controls (n = 28)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882412/a-flavonoid-agonist-of-the-trkb-receptor-for-bdnf-improves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-ds
#8
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli, Roberto Rimondini, Renata Bartesaghi
Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
December 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866680/on-the-value-of-reptilian-brains-to-map-the-evolution-of-the-hippocampal-formation
#9
Sam Reiter, Hua-Peng Liaw, Tracy M Yamawaki, Robert K Naumann, Gilles Laurent
Our ability to navigate through the world depends on the function of the hippocampus. This old cortical structure plays a critical role in spatial navigation in mammals and in a variety of processes, including declarative and episodic memory and social behavior. Intense research has revealed much about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and computation; yet, even intensely studied phenomena such as the shaping of place cell activity or the function of hippocampal firing patterns during sleep remain incompletely understood...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797597/environmental-enrichment-protects-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-neurons-from-the-long-lasting-effects-of-protein-malnutrition-early-in-life
#10
Roberto O Soares, Everton Horiquini-Barbosa, Sebastião S Almeida, João-José Lachat
As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701481/place-and-grid-cells-in-a-loop-implications-for-memory-function-and-spatial-coding
#11
César Rennó-Costa, Adriano B L Tort
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have different codes for space. However, how one code relates to the other is ill understood. Based on the anatomy of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry, we constructed a model of place and grid cells organized in a loop to investigate their mutual influence in the establishment of their codes for space. Using computer simulations, we first replicated experiments in rats that measured place and grid cell activity in different environments, and then assessed which features of the model account for different phenomena observed in neurophysiological data, such as pattern completion and pattern separation, global and rate remapping of place cells, and realignment of grid cells...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659785/the-impact-of-aging-on-brain-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pathology-and-cognition-in-mice-and-rhesus-macaques
#12
Pengcheng Han, Megan Nielsen, Melissa Song, Junxiang Yin, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, James R Engle, Brittany N Dugger, Thomas G Beach, Carol A Barnes, Jiong Shi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its age-related effects are unknown. We chose the rhesus macaque due to its closeness to human anatomy and physiology. We examined four variables: aging, cognitive performance, amyloid plaques and PACAP. Delayed nonmatching-to-sample recognition memory scores declined with age and correlated with PACAP levels in the striatum, parietal and temporal lobes. Because amyloid plaques were the only AD pathology in the old rhesus macaque, we further studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652965/a-protocol-for-manual-segmentation-of-medial-temporal-lobe-subregions-in-7%C3%A2-tesla-mri
#13
D Berron, P Vieweg, A Hochkeppler, J B Pluta, S-L Ding, A Maass, A Luther, L Xie, S R Das, D A Wolk, T Wolbers, P A Yushkevich, E Düzel, L E M Wisse
Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL) anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T) MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC), perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36), parahippocampal cortex (PhC), and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub), CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592695/unraveling-the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-reversal-learning
#14
Adrià Vilà-Balló, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Pablo Ripollés, Marta Simó, Júlia Miró, David Cucurell, Diana López-Barroso, Montserrat Juncadella, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Mercè Falip, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Research in reversal learning has mainly focused on the functional role of dopamine and striatal structures in driving behavior on the basis of classic reinforcement learning mechanisms. However, recent evidence indicates that, beyond classic reinforcement learning adaptations, individuals may also learn the inherent task structure and anticipate the occurrence of reversals. A candidate structure to support such task representation is the hippocampus, which might create a flexible representation of the environment that can be adaptively applied to goal-directed behavior...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468552/accelerated-age-dependent-hippocampal-volume-loss-in-parkinson-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Christine B Schneider, Markus Donix, Katharina Linse, Annett Werner, Mareike Fauser, Lisa Klingelhoefer, Matthias Löhle, Rüdiger von Kummer, Heinz Reichmann, Alexander Storch
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320311/a-receptor-based-analysis-of-local-ecosystems-in-the-human-brain
#16
Skirmantas Janušonis
BACKGROUND: As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function...
March 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#17
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus (DG) in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modeling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281921/lateralization-of-neurobiological-response-in-adolescents-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-related-to-severe-childhood-sexual-abuse-the-tri-modal-reaction-t-mr-model-of-protection
#18
Tuba Mutluer, Vedat Şar, Çiğdem Kose-Demiray, Harun Arslan, Sibel Tamer, Serap Inal, Anıl Ş Kaçar
This study inquires into neurobiological response to stress and its clinical correlates among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cerebral anatomy were carried out on 23 female adolescents with PTSD related to severe childhood sexual abuse and 21 matched healthy controls. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents, Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Beck Depression Scale, and a set of neuro-cognitive tests were administered to all participants...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138428/automated-tractography-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-using-tracts-constrained-by-underlying-anatomy-tracula
#19
Barbara A K Kreilkamp, Bernd Weber, Mark P Richardson, Simon S Keller
PURPOSE: A detailed understanding of white matter tract alterations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is important as it may provide useful information for likely side of seizure onset, cognitive impairment and postoperative prognosis. However, most diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies have relied on manual reconstruction of tract bundles, despite the recent development of automated techniques. In the present study, we used an automated white matter tractography analysis approach to quantify temporal lobe white matter tract alterations in TLE and determine the relationships between tract alterations, the extent of hippocampal atrophy and the chronicity and severity of the disorder...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133417/concatenated-spatially-localized-random-forests-for-hippocampus-labeling-in-adult-and-infant-mr-brain-images
#20
Lichi Zhang, Qian Wang, Yaozong Gao, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
Automatic labeling of the hippocampus in brain MR images is highly demanded, as it has played an important role in imaging-based brain studies. However, accurate labeling of the hippocampus is still challenging, partially due to the ambiguous intensity boundary between the hippocampus and surrounding anatomies. In this paper, we propose a concatenated set of spatially-localized random forests for multi-atlas-based hippocampus labeling of adult/infant brain MR images. The contribution in our work is two-fold...
March 15, 2017: Neurocomputing
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