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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224246/circadian-peak-dopaminergic-activity-response-at-the-biological-clock-pacemaker-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-area-mediates-the-metabolic-responsiveness-to-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Shuqin Luo, Yahong Zhang, Michael Ezrokhi, Yang Li, Tsung-Huang Tsai, Anthony H Cincotta
Among vertebrate species of the major vertebrate classes in the wild, a seasonal rhythm of whole body fuel metabolism, oscillating from lean to obese condition, is a common biological phenomenon. This annual cycle is driven in part by annual changes in the circadian dopaminergic signaling at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), with diminution of circadian peak dopaminergic activity at the SCN facilitating development of the seasonal obese insulin resistant condition. The present study investigated whether such an ancient circadian dopamine-SCN activity system for expression of the seasonal obese, insulin resistant phenotype may be operative in animals made obese, insulin resistant by high fat feeding and if so whether reinstatement of the circadian dopaminergic peak at the SCN would be sufficient to reverse the adverse metabolic impact of the high fat diet without alteration of caloric intake...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224041/identifying-and-monitoring-neurons-that-undergo-metamorphosis-regulated-cell-death-metamorphoptosis-by-a-neuron-specific-caspase-sensor-casor-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Gyunghee Lee, Jaeman Kim, Yujin Kim, Siuk Yoo, Jae H Park
Activation of caspases is an essential step toward initiating apoptotic cell death. During metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, many larval neurons are programmed for elimination to establish an adult central nervous system (CNS) as well as peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, their neuronal functions have remained mostly unknown due to the lack of proper tools to identify them. To obtain detailed information about the neurochemical phenotypes of the doomed larval neurons and their timing of death, we generated a new GFP-based caspase sensor (Casor) that is designed to change its subcellular position from the cell membrane to the nucleus following proteolytic cleavage by active caspases...
December 9, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223949/-will-the-crispr-cas9-system-change-the-genome-of-humanity
#3
EDITORIAL
Damasia Becú-Villalobos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223933/task-based-and-resting-state-fmri-reveal-compensatory-network-changes-following-damage-to-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#4
Glyn P Hallam, Hannah E Thompson, Mark Hymers, Rebecca E Millman, Jennifer M Rodd, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Damage to left inferior prefrontal cortex in stroke aphasia is associated with semantic deficits reflecting poor control over conceptual retrieval, as opposed to loss of knowledge. However, little is known about how functional recruitment within the semantic network changes in patients with executive-semantic deficits. The current study acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 14 patients with semantic aphasia, who had difficulty with flexible semantic retrieval following left prefrontal damage, and 16 healthy age-matched controls, allowing us to examine activation and connectivity in the semantic network...
October 17, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223929/the-minimum-monitoring-signal-to-noise-ratio-for-off-axis-signals-and-its-implications-for-directional-hearing-aids
#5
Alan W Archer-Boyd, Jack A Holman, W Owen Brimijoin
The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) benefit of hearing aid directional microphones is dependent on the angle of the listener relative to the target, something that can change drastically and dynamically in a typical group conversation. When a new target signal is significantly off-axis, directional microphones lead to slower target orientation, more complex movements, and more reversals. This raises the question of whether there is an optimal design for directional microphones. In principle an ideal microphone would provide the user with sufficient directionality to help with speech understanding, but not attenuate off-axis signals so strongly that orienting to new signals was difficult or impossible...
November 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223926/an-update-on-factor-xi-structure-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Bassem M Mohammed, Anton Matafonov, Ivan Ivanov, Mao-Fu Sun, Qiufang Cheng, S Kent Dickeson, Chan Li, David Sun, Ingrid M Verhamme, Jonas Emsley, David Gailani
Factor XI (FXI) is the zymogen of a plasma protease, factor XIa (FXIa), that contributes to thrombin generation during blood coagulation by proteolytic activation of several coagulation factors, most notably factor IX (FIX). FXI is a homolog of prekallikrein (PK), a component of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system. While sharing structural and functional features with PK, FXI has undergone adaptive changes that allow it to contribute to blood coagulation. Here we review current understanding of the biology and enzymology of FXI, with an emphasis on structural features of the protein as they relate to protease function...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223900/driving-factors-of-soil-carbon-accumulation-in-oxisols-in-long-term-no-till-systems-of-south-brazil
#7
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado, Charles W Rice, Dorivar A Ruiz Diaz, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
In a climate change scenario, it is important to understand the factors that lead to changes in a soil carbon (C) sink. It is recognized that such process is highly dependent on climate, soil properties, topography, and vegetation. However, few studies demonstrate how these mechanisms operate in highly weathered Oxisols. Therefore, this study evaluated the driving factors for C recovery and accumulation and its relations with fertility attributes in the soil profile (0 to 1m depth) in no-till (NT) croplands of south Brazil...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223686/nourishing-networks-a-social-ecological-analysis-of-a-network-intervention-for-improving-household-nutrition-in-western-kenya
#8
Autumn L DeLorme, Erika R Gavenus, Charles R Salmen, Gor Ouma Benard, Brian Mattah, Elizabeth Bukusi, Kathryn J Fiorella
RATIONALE: A growing body of research emphasizes the need to engage social networks in maternal and child nutrition interventions. However, an understanding of how interventions functionally engage not only mothers but fathers, grandparents, friends, and other social network members remains limited. OBJECTIVE: This study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model to analyze the multiple levels at which the Kanyakla Nutrition Program operates to change behavior...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223670/cystourethroscopy-versus-contrast-studies-in-urogenital-sinus-and-cloacal-anomalies-in-children
#9
Khaled Ashour, Sameh Shehata, Ahmed Osheba
BACKGROUND: Cloacal malformation is a spectrum of diseases affecting females, resulting in abnormal confluence of the urinary system, genital system, and/or gastrointestinal system. Proper reconstruction depends mainly on accurate preoperative illustration of the abnormal anatomy. Among the various modalities to delineate the urogenital sinus and the distances to confluence, lies the radiological contrast study, as well as the preoperative diagnostic cystourethroscopy. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the contrast study and diagnostic cystourethroscopy in the demonstration of the exact changes in anatomy resulting from urogenital sinus / cloacal abnormalities...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#10
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223539/losartan-suppresses-the-kainate-induced-changes-of-angiotensin-at1-receptor-expression-in-a-model-of-comorbid-hypertension-and-epilepsy
#11
Dimitrinka Atanasova, Jana Tchekalarova, Natasha Ivanova, Zlatina Nenchovska, Ekaterina Pavlova, Nina Atanassova, Nikolai Lazarov
AIMS: Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that components of renin-angiotensin system are elevated in the hippocampus in epileptogenic conditions. In the present work, we explored the changes in the expression of angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1 receptor) in limbic structures, as well as the effect of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan in a model of comorbid hypertension and epilepsy. MAIN METHODS: The expression of AT1 receptors was compared between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats by using immunohistochemistry in the kainate (KA) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223534/systemic-recovery-and-therapeutic-effects-of-transplanted-allogenic-and-xenogenic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-rat-blunt-chest-trauma-model
#12
Elisa Maria Amann, Markus Thomas Rojewski, Sinja Rodi, Daniel Fürst, Jörg Fiedler, Annette Palmer, Sonja Braumüller, Markus Huber-Lang, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Rolf Erwin Brenner
BACKGROUND: Effective therapy of Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is still a major scientific and clinical problem. To define novel therapeutic strategies for sequelae of blunt chest trauma (TxT) like ALI/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and regenerative effects of a single dose of ex vivo expanded human or rat mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs/rMSCs) with or without priming, immediately after the induction of TxT in Wistar rats. METHODS: We analyzed the histological score of lung injury, the cell count of the broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BAL), the change in local and systemic cytokine level and the recovery of the administered cells 24 h and 5 days post trauma...
December 6, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223507/limitations-in-learning-how-treatment-verifications-fail-and-what-to-do-about-it
#13
Susan Richardson, Bruce Thomadsen
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were: to provide dialog on why classic incident learning systems have been insufficient for patient safety improvements, discuss failures in treatment verification, and to provide context to the reasons and lessons that can be learned from these failures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Historically, incident learning in brachytherapy is performed via database mining which might include reading of event reports and incidents followed by incorporating verification procedures to prevent similar incidents...
December 6, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223477/immuno-oncology-from-the-perspective-of-somatic-evolution
#14
REVIEW
Santiago González, Nadezda Volkova, Philip Beer, Moritz Gerstung
The past years have witnessed significant success for cancer immunotherapies that activate a patient's immune system against their cancer cells. At the same time our understanding of the genetic changes driving tumor evolution have progressed dramatically. The study of cancer genomes has shown that tumors are best understood as cell populations governed by the rules of evolution, leading to the emergence and spread of cell lineages with pathogenic mutations. Moreover, somatic evolution can explain the acquisition of mutations conferring drug resistance in the ever-lasting battle for reaching even fitter cell states...
December 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223425/assessing-age-dependent-multi-task-functional-co-activation-changes-using-measures-of-task-potency
#15
Roselyne J Chauvin, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar, Christian F Beckmann
It is being hypothesised that the developing adolescent brain is increasingly enlisting long-range connectivity, allowing improved communication between spatially distant brain regions. The developmental trajectories of such maturational changes remain elusive. Here, we aim to study how the brain engages in multiple tasks (working memory, reward processing, and inhibition) at the network-level and evaluate how effects of age across these tasks are related to each other. We characterise how the brain departs from its functional baseline architecture towards task-induced functional connectivity modulations using a novel measure called task potency, allowing direct comparison between tasks by defining sensitivity to one or multiple tasks...
December 5, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223368/transport-of-polymer-stabilized-nano-scale-zero-valent-iron-in-porous-media
#16
Pulin K Mondal, Paul D Furbacher, Ziteng Cui, Magdalena M Krol, Brent E Sleep
This study presents a set of laboratory-scale transport experiments and numerical simulations evaluating carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer stabilized nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) transport. The experiments, performed in a glass-walled two-dimensional (2D) porous medium system, were conducted to identify the effects of water specific discharge and CMC concentration on nZVI transport and to produce data for model validation. The transport and movement of a tracer lissamine green B® (LGB) dye, CMC, and CMC-nZVI were evaluated through analysis of the breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the outlets, the time-lapsed images of the plume, and retained nZVI in the sandbox...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223345/synergy-between-root-hydrotropic-response-and-root-biomass-in-maize-zea-mays-l-enhances-drought-avoidance
#17
Delfeena Eapen, Jesús Martínez-Guadarrama, Oralia Hernández-Bruno, Leonardo Flores, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo, Gladys I Cassab
Roots of higher plants change their growth direction in response to moisture, avoiding drought and gaining maximum advantage for development. This response is termed hydrotropism. There have been few studies of root hydrotropism in grasses, particularly in maize. Our goal was to test whether an enhanced hydrotropic response of maize roots correlates with a better adaptation to drought and partial/lateral irrigation in field studies. We developed a laboratory bioassay for testing hydrotropic response in primary roots of 47 maize elite DTMA (Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa) hybrids...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223326/effects-of-perceived-discrimination-and-trust-on-breast-cancer-screening-among-korean-american-women
#18
Hye Chong Hong, Carol Estwing Ferrans, Chang Park, Hyeonkyeong Lee, Lauretta Quinn, Eileen G Collins
OBJECTIVE: Korean American (KA) women continue to have lower breast cancer screening rates than other racial groups. Perceived discrimination and trust have been associated with breast cancer screening adherence, but little is known about the associations in KA women. METHODS: Surveys were completed by 196 KA women in the Chicago metropolitan area. Multiple and Firth logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors (perceived discrimination, trust, acculturation, cultural beliefs, health care access) influencing breast cancer screening adherence (mammogram)...
December 6, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223307/assessment-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-the-periparturient-cow
#19
REVIEW
Erminio Trevisi, Andrea Minuti
The transition period is the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cows. Within a few weeks, cows are submitted to many challenges (physiological, nutritional, psychological, management) that require prompt and effective adaptive responses. The immune system is involved in this process, and many changes of the cow's immune system components have been observed around calving. Cows are considered to be immunosuppressed in late lactation, and available data suggest that the immune system is dysregulated around parturition...
December 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223212/how-to-engage-your-team-to-implement-delayed-cord-clamping
#20
Rebecca L Gams, Kimberly K Popp, Julianne Cramer, Thomas N George, Phillip N Rauk, Samantha A Sommerness, Jane A Sublette
This article describes how a health care team changed practice by implementing delayed cord clamping as standard practice. After administration of a survey to assess clinicians' knowledge and to discover barriers to this proposed practice change, members of a multidisciplinary committee used the results to create a guideline for delayed cord clamping and a plan for successful implementation. Integral to embedding and sustaining changes in practice was development of the Delivery Room Brief and Debrief Tool and inclusion of the process into nursing guidelines and the electronic health record...
December 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
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