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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146475/electrical-activity-of-sensory-pathways-in-female-and-male-geriatric-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-and-its-relation-to-oxidative-stress
#1
A Ibáñez-Contreras, U Hernández-Arciga, A Poblano, M Arteaga-Silva, B Hernández-Godínez, G I Mendoza-Cuevas, R Toledo-Pérez, A Alarcón-Aguilar, V Y González-Puertos, M Konigsberg
Synapses loss during aging has been related to decreased neuronal excitability and reduced electrophysiological activity in the nervous system, as well as to increased brain damage. Those physiological and biochemical alterations have been related to the oxidative stress increase associated with old age. The main substrate of lipid peroxidation (LPX) in the central and peripheral nervous systems are the myelin sheaths, and their damage generates a delayed nerve conduction velocity. However, studies in which the neural conduction velocity is related to changes in the redox state are still lacking...
November 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138759/identification-of-persistent-and-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-from-the-mouse-cochlea
#2
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135869/usefulness-of-high-resolution-3d-multi-sequences-for-peripheral-facial-palsy-differentiation-between-bell-s-palsy-and-ramsay-hunt-syndrome
#3
Junko Kuya, Keita Kuya, Yuki Shinohara, Yasuomi Kunimoto, Hiroaki Yazama, Toshihide Ogawa, Hiromi Takeuchi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including three-dimensional (3D) sequences in the differentiation between Bell's palsy (BP) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Twenty patients: 15 patients with BP and five patients with RHS. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical diagnosis (BP or RHS)...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135868/endoscopic-transcanal-transpromontorial-approach-for-vestibular-schwannoma-resection-a-case-series
#4
Cameron C Wick, Demetri Arnaoutakis, Samuel L Barnett, Alejandro Rivas, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate successful surgical management of vestibular schwannomas via an exclusively endoscopic transcanal transpromontorial approach (EETTA). PATIENTS: Four patients with vestibular schwannomas. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical excision via EETTA. MAIN OUTCOMES: Technique refinements, tumor access, complete tumor removal, and patient morbidity. RESULTS: Three tumors were Koos grade I and one tumor was Koos grade II...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134166/anterior-extension-of-tumor-is-as-important-as-tumor-size-to-facial-nerve-outcome-and-extent-of-resection-for-vestibular-schwannomas
#5
Ricky H Wong, William R Copeland, Jeffrey T Jacob, Sananthan Sivakanthan, Jamie J Van Gompel, Harry van Loveren, Michael J Link, Siviero Agazzi
Objectives  We examined vestibular schwannoma tumor dimension and direction of growth to determine whether these correlate with facial nerve outcome as well as extent of resection (EOR). Design  Retrospective review of prospectively maintained databases. Participants  206 patients were a part of this study. Main Outcome Measures  Tumor dimensions were measured using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, and a series of ratios were then calculated to further characterize tumor dimension. Regression analyses were performed to investigate correlation with facial nerve outcome and EOR...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134163/prognostic-indices-for-predicting-facial-nerve-outcome-following-the-resection-of-large-acoustic-neuromas
#6
Kurt Grahnke, Jonathan R Garst, Brendan Martin, John P Leonetti, Douglas E Anderson
This study analyzes the simple ratio of anterior-to-posterior extension of large (>2.5 cm) acoustic neuromas relative to the internal auditory canal (ICA; anterior-posterior [A/P] index) as a tool for predicting risk of facial nerve (FN) injury. In total, 105 patients who underwent microsurgical resection for large acoustic neuromas were analyzed retrospectively. House-Brackmann (HB) scores were assessed immediately postoperatively, at 1 month, and at 1 year. Lateral-medial, inferior-superior, A/P, and maximum diameters were measured from preoperative magnetic resonance images...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129793/the-interval-between-vns-tone-pairings-determines-the-extent-of-cortical-map-plasticity
#7
Michael S Borland, Crystal T Engineer, William A Vrana, Nicole A Moreno, Navzer D Engineer, Sven Vanneste, Pryanka Sharma, Meghan C Pantalia, Mark C Lane, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a tone or movement drives highly-specific and long-lasting plasticity in auditory or motor cortex, respectively. Based on this robust enhancement of plasticity, VNS paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential therapy to improve recovery, even when delivered long after the neurological insult. Development of VNS delivery paradigms that reduce therapy duration and maximize efficacy would facilitate clinical translation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether primary auditory cortex (A1) plasticity can be generated more quickly by shortening the interval between VNS-tone pairing events or by delivering fewer VNS-tone pairing events...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123468/a-model-based-approach-for-separating-the-cochlear-microphonic-from-the-auditory-nerve-neurophonic-in-the-ongoing-response-using-electrocochleography
#8
Tatyana E Fontenot, Christopher K Giardina, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Electrocochleography (ECochG) is a potential clinically valuable technique for predicting speech perception outcomes in cochlear implant (CI) recipients, among other uses. Current analysis is limited by an inability to quantify hair cell and neural contributions which are mixed in the ongoing part of the response to low frequency tones. Here, we used a model based on source properties to account for recorded waveform shapes and to separate the combined signal into its components. The model for the cochlear microphonic (CM) was a sinusoid with parameters for independent saturation of the peaks and the troughs of the responses...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112481/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-central-auditory-pathways-in-patients-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss-a-systematic-review
#9
Osama Tarabichi, Elliott D Kozin, Vivek V Kanumuri, Samuel Barber, Satra Ghosh, Kevin R Sitek, Katherine Reinshagen, Barbara Herrmann, Aaron K Remenschneider, Daniel J Lee
Objective The radiologic evaluation of patients with hearing loss includes computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to highlight temporal bone and cochlear nerve anatomy. The central auditory pathways are often not studied for routine clinical evaluation. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an emerging MRI-based modality that can reveal microstructural changes in white matter. In this systematic review, we summarize the value of DTI in the detection of structural changes of the central auditory pathways in patients with sensorineural hearing loss...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107413/modelling-firing-regularity-in-the-ventral-cochlear-nucleus-mechanisms-and-effects-of-stimulus-level-and-synaptopathy
#10
Dan F M Goodman, Ian M Winter, Agnès C Léger, Alain de Cheveigné, Christian Lorenzi
The auditory system processes temporal information at multiple scales, and disruptions to this temporal processing may lead to deficits in auditory tasks such as detecting and discriminating sounds in a noisy environment. Here, a modelling approach is used to study the temporal regularity of firing by chopper cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus, in both the normal and impaired auditory system. Chopper cells, which have a strikingly regular firing response, divide into two classes, sustained and transient, based on the time course of this regularity...
September 20, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099442/prospective-evaluation-of-patients-undergoing-translabyrinthine-excision-of-vestibular-schwannoma-with-concurrent-cochlear-implantation
#11
Meredith A Rooth, Margaret T Dillon, Kevin D Brown
OBJECTIVE: Translabyrinthine (TL) vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection may be accomplished with preservation of the cochlear nerve, permitting successful, concurrent cochlear implantation. In this single institution, Food and Drug Administration-approved feasibility study, we wished to determine the success and outcomes of concurrent cochlear implantation at the time of TL resection of VS. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093666/radiate-and-planar-multipolar-neurons-of-the-mouse-anteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-intrinsic-excitability-and-characterization-of-their-auditory-nerve-input
#12
Ruili Xie, Paul B Manis
Radiate and planar neurons are the two major types of multipolar neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Both cell types receive monosynaptic excitatory synaptic inputs from the auditory nerve, but have different responses to sound and project to different target regions and cells. Although the intrinsic physiology and synaptic inputs to planar neurons have been previously characterized, the radiate neurons are less common and have not been as well studied. We studied both types of multipolar neurons and characterized their properties including intrinsic excitability, synaptic dynamics of their auditory nerve inputs, as well as their neural firing properties to auditory nerve stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084289/neuronal-differentiation-of-hair-follicle-bulge-derived-stem-cells-co-cultured-with-mouse-cochlear-modiolus-explants
#13
Timo Schomann, Laura Mezzanotte, John C M J De Groot, Marcelo N Rivolta, Sanne H Hendriks, Johan H M Frijns, Margriet A Huisman
Stem-cell-based repair of auditory neurons may represent an attractive therapeutic option to restore sensorineural hearing loss. Hair-follicle-bulge-derived stem cells (HFBSCs) are promising candidates for this type of therapy, because they (1) have migratory properties, enabling migration after transplantation, (2) can differentiate into sensory neurons and glial cells, and (3) can easily be harvested in relatively high numbers. However, HFBSCs have never been used for this purpose. We hypothesized that HFBSCs can be used for cell-based repair of the auditory nerve and we have examined their migration and incorporation into cochlear modiolus explants and their subsequent differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080147/non-invasive-intraoperative-monitoring-of-cochlear-function-by-cochlear-microphonics-during-cerebellopontine-angle-surgery
#14
Blandine Lourenço, Béatriz Madero, Stéphane Tringali, Xavier Dubernard, Toufic Khalil, André Chays, Arnaud Bazin, Thierry Mom, Paul Avan
In vestibular-schwannoma (VS) surgery, hearing-preservation rate remains low. Besides damage to the cochlear nerve, intraoperative cochlear ischemia is a potential cause of hearing loss. Here, we used non-invasive cochlear microphonic (CM) recordings to detect the cochlear vascular events of VS surgery. Continuous intraoperative CM monitoring, in response to 80-95 dB SPL, 1-kHz tone-bursts, was performed in two samples of patients undergoing retrosigmoid cerebellopontine-angle surgery: one for VS (n = 31) and one for vestibular neurectomy or vasculo-neural conflict causing intractable trigeminal neuralgia, harmless to hearing (n = 19, control group)...
October 27, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079887/preoperative-determination-of-nerve-of-origin-in-patients-with%C3%A2-vestibular%C3%A2-schwannoma
#15
T Rahne, S Plößl, S K Plontke, C Strauss
BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign tumor that develops in the internal auditory canal and the cerebellopontine angle, potentially diminishing hearing or balance. Most VS tumors arise from one of two vestibular branches: the superior or inferior vestibular nerve. Determining the specific nerve of origin could improve patient management in terms of preoperative counseling, treatment selection, and surgical decision-making and planning. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel scoring system that was designed to determine the nerve of origin...
October 27, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076926/usefulness-of-electrical-auditory-brainstem-responses-to-assess-the-functionality-of-the-cochlear-nerve-using-an-intracochlear-test-electrode
#16
Luis Lassaletta, Marek Polak, Jan Huesers, Miguel Díaz-Gómez, Miryam Calvino, Isabel Varela-Nieto, Javier Gavilán
OBJECTIVE: To use an intracochlear test electrode to assess the integrity and the functionality of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients and to compare electrical auditory brainstem responses (eABR) via the test electrode with the eABR responses with the CI. SETTING: Otolaryngology department, tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS: Ten subjects (age at implantation 55 yr, range, 19-72) were subsequently implanted with a MED-EL CONCERTO CI on the side without any useful residual hearing...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065088/preventing-facial-nerve-stimulation-by-triphasic-pulse-stimulation-in-cochlear-implant-users-intraoperative-recordings
#17
Andreas Bahmer, Youssef Adel, Uwe Baumann
HYPOTHESIS: Triphasic pulse stimulation of the auditory nerve can prevent unintended facial nerve stimulation (FNS) due to a different electromyographic (EMG) input-output function compared with biphasic pulses. BACKGROUND: FNS is sometimes observed in cochlear implant (CI) users as an unpleasant side effect of electrical stimulation using biphasic pulse patterns (BPP). Clinical remedies to alleviate FNS are 1) to extend stimulus phase duration or 2) to completely deactivate the electrode...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064830/evaluation-of-vascular-variations-at-cerebellopontine-angle-by-3d-t2wi-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-vertigo
#18
Fatma Beyazal Celiker, Engin Dursun, Metin Celiker, Tugba Durakoglugil, Mehmet Beyazal, Mehmet Fatih Inecikli, Abdulkadir Ozgur, Suat Terzi
BACKGROUND: Vascular loops of the anterior-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are considered related to auditory-vestibular symptoms. Clinical association of these anatomical aberrations, which can be grouped together as vascular compression syndromes, is controversial. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to visualize this anatomical region, given its high sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the clinical relationship of vertigo symptoms with vascular loop compression syndrome by evaluating the neurovascular contacts of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VCN) and AICA at the CPA and internal auditory canal via high-resolution MRI...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063191/analysis-of-a-purely-conductance-based-stochastic-nerve-fibre-model-as-applied-to-compound-models-of-populations-of-human-auditory-nerve-fibres-used-in-cochlear-implant-simulations
#19
Werner Badenhorst, Tania Hanekom, Johan J Hanekom
The study presents the application of a purely conductance-based stochastic nerve fibre model to human auditory nerve fibres within finite element volume conduction models of a semi-generic head and user-specific cochleae. The stochastic, threshold and temporal characteristics of the human model are compared and successfully validated against physiological feline results with the application of a mono-polar, bi-phasic, cathodic first stimulus. Stochastic characteristics validated include: (i) the log(Relative Spread) versus log(fibre diameter) distribution for the discharge probability versus stimulus intensity plots and (ii) the required exponential membrane noise versus transmembrane voltage distribution...
October 24, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057182/anterior-inferior-cerebellar-arteries-juxtaposed-with-the-internal-acoustic-meatus-and-their-relationship-to-the-cranial-nerve-vii-viii-complex
#20
Fernando Alonso, Mohammad W Kassem, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, Amin Demerdash, R Shane Tubbs
Vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and their relationship to cranial nerves have been used to explain neurological symptoms. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) has variable branches producing vascular loops that can compress the facial cranial nerve (CN) VII and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves. AICA compression of the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex can lead to various clinical presentations, including hemifacial spasm (HFS), tinnitus, and hemiataxia. The formation of arterial loops inside or outside of the internal auditory meatus (IAM) can cause abutment or compression of CN VII and CN VIII...
August 16, 2017: Curēus
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