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Ifrah Zawar, Mario A Caro, Lara Feldman, Xavier F Jimenez
Objective Psychosomatic medicine psychiatrists are often tasked with the evaluation and treatment of complex neuropsychiatric states which may be motoric in phenotype. Little energy has been dedicated to understanding acute movement disorders in the hospital environment. Method Recognizing the importance of frontal-subcortical (corticostriatothalamocortical) circuitry and basal ganglia structures, we present a case series of acute movement disorder phenotypes resulting from underlying medical conditions, commonly-administered medications, or the interaction of both...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Yuncheng Zhu, Daoliang Yang, Weidong Ji, Tianming Huang, Lianxue Xue, Xixi Jiang, Liangliang Chen, Fang Wang
The prefrontal cortex is the superlative structure of brain that needs the longest developmental and maturational duration that highlights the region of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in neuroimaging studies. Prefrontal cortex functions generate enormously complex and its abundant feedback neurocircuitries with subcortical structures such as striatum and thalamus established through dual neural fibers. These microneurocircuitries are called corticostriatothalamocortical (CSTC) circuits. The CSTC circuits paly an essential role in flexible behaviors...
2016: BioMed Research International
Won Kim, Nader Pouratian
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a movement disorder characterized by repetitive stereotyped motor and phonic movements with varying degrees of psychiatric comorbidity. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapeutic intervention for patients with refractory Tourette syndrome. Since 1999, more than 100 patients have undergone DBS at various targets within the corticostriatothalamocortical network thought to be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome. Future multicenter clinical trials and the use of a centralized online database to compare the results are necessary to determine the efficacy of DBS for Tourette syndrome...
January 2014: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Michelle Hampson, Dustin Scheinost, Maolin Qiu, Jitendra Bhawnani, Cheryl M Lacadie, James F Leckman, R Todd Constable, Xenophon Papademetris
Recent studies have reported that biofeedback of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging data can enable people to gain control of activity in specific parts of their brain and can alter functional connectivity between brain areas. Here we describe a study using biofeedback of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging data to train healthy subjects to control activity in their supplementary motor area (SMA), a region of interest in Tourette syndrome (TS). Although a significant increase in control over the SMA during biofeedback was not found, subjects were able to exert significant control over the SMA in later biofeedback sessions despite not having control in the first biofeedback session...
2011: Brain Connectivity
A Del Casale, G D Kotzalidis, C Rapinesi, D Serata, E Ambrosi, A Simonetti, M Pompili, S Ferracuti, R Tatarelli, P Girardi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling psychiatric disorder that usually emerges during childhood or adolescence. This paper aims to review the literature on functional neuroimaging in OCD, analysing the reported dysfunctional connectivity in the corticostriatothalamocortical circuitry. METHOD: This study included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional imaging in OCD...
2011: Neuropsychobiology
Philippe Rigoard, Kévin Buffenoir, Nemhat Jaafari, Jean P Giot, Jean L Houeto, Patrick Mertens, Stéphane Velut, Benoit Bataille
BACKGROUND: The fiber-dissection technique provides unique 3-dimensional anatomic knowledge of the white matter. OBJECTIVE: To better identify the frontostriatal pathways in the human brain, we used a fiber-dissection technique to reconstruct neural connections between the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), which is the most ventral extent of the striatum. METHODS: Thirty previously frozen, formalin-fixed human brains were dissected under the operating microscope using a modified fiber-dissection technique, primarily reported by Klingler...
April 2011: Neurosurgery
Clelia Pellicano, Antonio Gallo, Xiaobai Li, Vasiliki N Ikonomidou, Iordanis E Evangelou, Joan M Ohayon, Susan K Stern, Mary Ehrmantraut, Fredric Cantor, Henry F McFarland, Francesca Bagnato
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies reported that damage of the corticostriatothalamocortical circuit is critical in its occurrence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between fatigue in MS and regional cortical and subcortical gray matter atrophy. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Institutes of Health. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four patients with MS and 24 matched healthy volunteers who underwent 3...
April 2010: Archives of Neurology
Göran Starck, Maria Ljungberg, Marie Nilsson, Lars Jönsson, Stefan Lundberg, Tord Ivarsson, Susanne Ribbelin, Sven Ekholm, Arvid Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Maria L Carlsson
1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) studies exploring brain metabolites, especially glutamine + glutamate (Glx), in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are of vital interest for trying to understand more about the pathophysiology of OCD. Therefore, we conducted the present 1H MRS study with the aims of (1) comparing MRS metabolites in a group of adult patients with OCD and a group of healthy controls, and (2) examining the relationship between MRS metabolite concentrations and symptom severity in the patient group...
July 2008: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kendra Harris, Harvey S Singer
The neuroanatomy and neurochemistry underlying tic disorders are thought to involve corticostriatothalamocortical circuits and dysregulation of their component neurotransmitter systems. Tourette syndrome is a tic disorder that begins in childhood and follows a waxing and waning course of tic severity. Although it is generally believed to have a genetic component, its etiology has not been fully elucidated. The clinical entity pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) has led some to suggest that the pathophysiology of tics in some individuals might involve a postinfectious autoimmune component...
August 2006: Journal of Child Neurology
A Carlsson
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia is still almost entirely based on pharmacologic evidence. Even though a disturbed dopamine function has not yet been established beyond doubt in schizophrenia, recent basic research on dopaminergic mechanisms opens up possibilities for the development of more sophisticated pharmacologic tools, capable of discovering subtypes of dopamine receptors, which may turn out to be abnormal in schizophrenia. Such tools may also prove therapeutically useful. Schizophrenia is probably a heterogeneous group of disorders with mixed biopathology...
September 1988: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M Carlsson, A Carlsson
It was shown in the present study that the selective non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-imin e] caused a pronounced and dose-dependent increase in locomotion in mice pretreated with a combination of reserpine and alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine. Haloperidol pretreatment did not antagonize the MK-801-induced stimulation of locomotion. The findings are discussed in relation to the concept of a corticostriatothalamocortical negative feedback loop serving to protect the cortex from an overload of information and hyperarousal...
1989: Journal of Neural Transmission
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