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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128393/rem-sleep-deprivation-and-dopaminergic-d2-receptors-modulation-increase-recognition-memory-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Lais S Rodrigues, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal death in nigrostriatal pathway is the main factor for motor symptoms and recent studies indicate a possible influence in non-motor symptoms as well. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and basal ganglia are closely related anatomically and functionally and, since they are affected by neurodegeneration in PD, they might be involved in recognition memory. To investigate this, we promoted an ibotenic acid lesion within the PPT or a rotenone lesion within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of Wistar rats, followed by 24h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD)...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126889/impaired-glutamatergic-projection-from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#2
Yan-Yan Wang, Yong Wang, Hai-Fei Jiang, Jun-Hua Liu, Jun Jia, Ke Wang, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo, Min-Min Luo, Xiao-Min Wang
The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present...
November 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123945/the-anatomical-basis-for-dystonia-the-motor-network-model
#3
REVIEW
H A Jinnah, Vladimir Neychev, Ellen J Hess
Background: The dystonias include a clinically and etiologically very diverse group of disorders. There are both degenerative and non-degenerative subtypes resulting from genetic or acquired causes. Traditionally, all dystonias have been viewed as disorders of the basal ganglia. However, there has been increasing appreciation for involvement of other brain regions including the cerebellum, thalamus, midbrain, and cortex. Much of the early evidence for these other brain regions has come from studies of animals, but multiple recent studies have been done with humans, in an effort to confirm or refute involvement of these other regions...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123477/the-effects-of-medium-spiny-neuron-morphologcial-changes-on-basal-ganglia-network-under-external-electric-field-a-computational-modeling-study
#4
Xiaohan Zhang, Shenquan Liu, Feibiao Zhan, Jing Wang, Xiaofang Jiang
The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN) from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG) signal regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119634/the-cerebral-basis-of-parkinsonian-tremor-a-network-perspective
#5
Rick C Helmich
Tremor in Parkinson's disease is a poorly understood sign. Although it is one of the clinical hallmarks of the disease, its pathophysiology remains unclear. It is clear that tremor involves different neural mechanisms than bradykinesia and rigidity, the other core motor signs of Parkinson's disease. In particular, the role of dopamine in tremor has been heavily debated given clinical observations that tremor has a variable response to dopaminergic medication. From a neuroscience perspective, tremor is also a special sign; unlike other motor signs, it has a clear electrophysiological signature (frequency, phase, and power)...
November 9, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113946/numerical-and-length-densities-of-microvessels-in-the-human-brain-correlation-with-preferential-orientation-of-microvessels-in-the-cerebral-cortex-subcortical-grey-matter-and-white-matter-pons-and-cerebellum
#6
Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar
To provide basic data on the local differences in density of microvessels between various parts of the human brain, including representative grey and white matter structures of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum, we quantified the numerical density NV and the length density LV of microvessels in two human brains. We aimed to correlate the density of microvessels with previously published data on their preferential orientation (anisotropy). Microvessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for laminin in 32 samples harvested from the following brain regions of two adult individuals: the cortex of the telencephalon supplied by the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery; the basal ganglia (putamen and globus pallidus); the thalamus; the subcortical white matter of the telencephalon; the internal capsule; the pons; the cerebellar cortex; and the cerebellar white matter...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107639/cjun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-mediates-cortico-striatal-signaling-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Giada Spigolon, Anna Cavaccini, Massimo Trusel, Raffaella Tonini, Gilberto Fisone
The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been extensively studied with regard to its involvement in neurodegenerative processes, but little is known about its functions in neurotransmission. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), we show that the pharmacological activation of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) produces a large increase in JNK phosphorylation. This effect is secondary to dopamine depletion, and is restricted to the striatal projection neurons that innervate directly the output structures of the basal ganglia (dSPN)...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107551/caudate-microstimulation-increases-value-of-specific-choices
#8
Samantha R Santacruz, Erin L Rich, Joni D Wallis, Jose M Carmena
Value-based decision-making involves an assessment of the value of items available and the actions required to obtain them. The basal ganglia are highly implicated in action selection and goal-directed behavior [1-4], and the striatum in particular plays a critical role in arbitrating between competing choices [5-9]. Previous work has demonstrated that neural activity in the caudate nucleus is modulated by task-relevant action values [6, 8]. Nonetheless, how value is represented and maintained in the striatum remains unclear since decision-making in these tasks relied on spatially lateralized responses, confounding the ability to generalize to a more abstract choice task [6, 8, 9]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101492/intrinsic-network-connectivity-patterns-underlying-specific-dimensions-of-impulsiveness-in-healthy-young-adults
#9
Katharina M Kubera, Dusan Hirjak, Nadine D Wolf, Fabio Sambataro, Philipp A Thomann, R Christian Wolf
Impulsiveness is a central human personality trait and of high relevance for the development of several mental disorders. Impulsiveness is a multidimensional construct, yet little is known about dimension-specific neural correlates. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are associated with distinct or overlapping neural network activity. In this study, we investigated brain activity at rest and its relationship to distinct dimensions of impulsiveness in 30 healthy young adults (m/f = 13/17; age mean/SD = 26...
November 3, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100059/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-in-the-basal-ganglia-are-independently-associated-with-intracranial-atherosclerosis-in-the-elderly
#10
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enlarged basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVS) are a marker of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The association between enlarged BG-PVS and atherosclerosis has been explored, but knowledge is limited to extracranial vessels. We aimed to assess whether enlarged BG-PVS correlate with carotid siphon calcifications (CSC), used as a surrogate of intracranial atherosclerosis. METHODS: Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years underwent head computed tomography (CT) for assessment of CSC, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of BG-PVS and other imaging markers of SVD...
October 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089995/detecting-dopaminergic-neuronal-degeneration-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-fractional-anisotropy-and-mean-diffusivity-values
#11
Lan-Xiang Liu, Dan Du, Tao Zheng, Yuan Fang, Yan-Sheng Chen, Hui-Ling Yi, Qing-Yuan He, Da-Wei Gao, Qing-Lei Shi
Dopamine content in the basal ganglia is strongly associated with the degree of dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease might not arise until more than 50% of the substantia nigra pars compacta is lost and the dopamine content in the basal ganglia is reduced by more than 80%. Greater diagnostic sensitivity and specificity would allow earlier detection of Parkinson's disease. Diffusion tensor imaging is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging technique that measures mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, and responds to changes in brain microstructure...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076112/reward-and-value-coding-by-dopamine-neurons-in-non-human-primates
#12
REVIEW
Aydin Alikaya, Mackenzie Rack-Wildner, William R Stauffer
Rewards are fundamental to everyday life. They confer pleasure, support learning, and mediate decisions. Dopamine-releasing neurons in the midbrain are critical for reward processing. These neurons receive input from more than 30 brain areas and send widespread projections to the basal ganglia and frontal cortex. Their phasic responses are tuned to rewards. Specifically, dopamine signals code reward prediction error, the difference between received and predicted rewards. Decades of research in awake, behaving non-human primates (NHP), have shown the importance of these neural signals for learning and decision making...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063491/a-possible-correlation-between-the-basal-ganglia-motor-function-and-the-inverse-kinematics-calculation
#13
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
The main hypothesis of this study, based on experimental data showing the relations between the BG activities and kinematic variables, is that BG are involved in computing inverse kinematics (IK) as a part of planning and decision-making. Indeed, it is assumed that based on the desired kinematic variables (such as velocity) of a limb in the workspace, angular kinematic variables in the joint configuration space are calculated. Therefore, in this paper, a system-level computational model of BG is proposed based on geometrical rules, which is able to compute IK...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062887/neuronal-intrinsic-physiology-changes-during-development-of-a-learned-behavior
#14
Matthew T Ross, Diana Flores, Richard Bertram, Frank Johnson, Richard L Hyson
Juvenile male zebra finches learn their songs over distinct auditory and sensorimotor stages, the former requiring exposure to an adult tutor song pattern. The cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) plays a necessary role in both learning stages, as well as the production of adult song. Consistent with neural network models where synaptic plasticity mediates developmental forms of learning, exposure to tutor song drives changes in the turnover, density, and morphology of HVC synapses during vocal development...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061091/exploring-the-spectrum-of-subcortical-hyperintensities-and-cognitive-decline
#15
Yi-Chun Chen, Hsien-Hao Tsao, Yi-Chuan Chu, Jiun-Jie Wang, Jiann-Der Lee, Pi-Yueh Chang, Wen-Chuin Hsu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) include periventricular WMH (pvWMH) and deep WMH. When hyperintensities in the basal ganglia or brainstem are included, the collective term is subcortical hyperintensities. Both WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) are risk factors for cognitive decline. This prospective study enrolled participants aged 50-85 years and followed their neuropsychological assessments annually for 2 years to explore the interactive effects of WMH and MTA on longitudinal clinical decline...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060615/effects-of-the-temporal-pattern-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-neuronal-complexity-in-the-globus-pallidus
#16
Callie Deng, Tony Sun, Manning Zhang, John T Gale, Erwin B Montgomery, Sabato Santaniello
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) but, despite clinical efficacy, the mechanisms of DBS still require investigation. Recent evidence suggests that the temporal pattern of the electrical pulses may be critical to the therapeutic merit of DBS and carefully-designed, non-regular patterns could ameliorate some of the motor symptoms in PD. It is unclear, though, how different stimulation patterns affect the neural activity in the basal ganglia and whether this is related to the pathophysiology of PD...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060276/closed-loop-low-frequency-dbs-restores-thalamocortical-relay-fidelity-in-a-computational-model-of-the-motor-loop
#17
Han D Huang, Sabato Santaniello
Closed-loop modulation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is investigated to automatically adjust the stimulation to the patients' conditions, optimize the clinical outcomes, and reduce the energy requirements. This study proposes a closed-loop control system for real-time adaptation of the STN-DBS amplitude based on the neural activity in the motor thalamus. Population-averaged post-stimulus time histograms are used to measure the average effects of STN-DBS on the thalamocortical neurons and a L2-norm minimization problem is solved to design the control algorithm, while the frequency of stimulation is kept constant...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052954/enlarged-perivascular-spaces-are-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#18
Yan Liang, Min Deng, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chiu-Wing Winnie Chu, Eivind Berge, Wai-Kwong Tang
AIMS: This study explored the association between enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was an observational study of consecutively screened patients with acute ischemic stroke from March 2010 to March 2015. EPVS were rated in the basal ganglia and the centrum semiovale with a validated scale. The HRQoL was assessed 3 months after the stroke onset using the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL)...
October 20, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046477/increased-putamen-hypercapnic-vasoreactivity-in-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#19
Vincent A Jourdain, Katharina A Schindlbeck, Chris C Tang, Martin Niethammer, Yoon Young Choi, Daniel Markowitz, Amir Nazem, Dominic Nardi, Nicholas Carras, Andrew Feigin, Yilong Ma, Shichun Peng, Vijay Dhawan, David Eidelberg
In a rodent model of Parkinson's disease (PD), levodopa-induced involuntary movements have been linked to striatal angiogenesis - a process that is difficult to document in living human subjects. Angiogenesis can be accompanied by localized increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses to hypercapnia. We therefore explored the possibility that, in the absence of levodopa, local hypercapnic CBF responses are abnormally increased in PD patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) but not in their nondyskinetic (NLID) counterparts...
October 19, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038241/sensorimotor-processing-in-the-basal-ganglia-leads-to-transient-beta-oscillations-during-behavior
#20
Amin Mirzaei, Arvind Kumar, Daniel Leventhal, Nicolas Mallet, Ad Aertsen, Joshua Berke, Robert Schmidt
Brief epochs of beta oscillations have been implicated in sensorimotor control in the basal ganglia of task-performing healthy animals. However, which neural processes underlie their generation and how they are affected by sensorimotor processing remains unclear. To determine the mechanisms underlying transient beta oscillations in the local field potential (LFP), we combined computational modeling of the subthalamo-pallidal network for the generation of beta oscillations with realistic stimulation patterns derived from single unit data...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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