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basal ganglia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339052/neurophysiological-effects-in-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamic-circuits-of-antidyskinetic-treatment-with-5-ht1a-receptor-biased-agonists
#1
Ivani Brys, Pär Halje, Robson Scheffer-Teixeira, Mark Varney, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Per Petersson
Recently, the biased and highly selective 5-HT1A agonists, NLX-112, F13714 and F15599, have been shown to alleviate dyskinesia in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease, while marginally interfering with antiparkinsonian effects of levodopa. To provide more detailed information on the processes underlying the alleviation of dyskinesia, we have here investigated changes in the spectral contents of local field potentials in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits following treatment with this novel group of 5-HT1A agonists or the prototypical agonist, 8-OH-DPAT...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335072/rebound-excitability-mediates-motor-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Jeongjin Kim, Daesoo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder resulting from loss of dopamine neurons. In dopamine deficient state, the basal ganglia increases inhibitory synaptic outputs to the thalamus. This increased inhibition by the basal ganglia output is known to reduce firing rate of thalamic neurons that relay motor signals to the motor cortex. This 'rate model' suggests that the reduced excitability of thalamic neurons is the key for inducing motor abnormalities in PD patients. We reveal that in response to inhibition, thalamic neurons generate rebound firing at the end of inhibition...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326137/expression-changes-in-lactate-and-glucose-metabolism-and-associated-transporters-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-piglets
#3
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes in the basal ganglia of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury piglet model...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317247/development-of-stereotaxic-recording-system-for-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#4
Masahiro Wakabayashi, Daisuke Koketsu, Hideki Kondo, Shigeki Sato, Kiichi Ohara, Zlata Polyakova, Satomi Chiken, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu
The common marmoset has been proposed as a potential alternative to macaque monkey as a primate model for neuroscience and medical research. Here, we have newly developed a stereotaxic neuronal recording system for awake marmosets under the head-fixed condition by modifying that for macaque monkeys. Using this system, we recorded neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex of awake marmosets and successfully identified the primary motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Neuronal activities of deep brain structures, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum, in awake marmosets were also successfully recorded referring to magnetic resonance images...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316559/enlarged-basal-ganglia-perivascular-spaces-are-associated-with-pulsatile-components-of-blood-pressure
#5
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathogenetic mechanisms involved in enlargement of basal ganglia perivascular spaces (BG-PVSs) are controversial. Here, we assessed whether pulsatile or steady components of blood pressure (BP) are associated with enlarged BG-PVS. METHODS: We evaluated the association between BG-PVS and pulsatile and steady components of BP in Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years, by the use of regression models and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, after taking into account the effect of demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and other signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD)...
January 9, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316490/local-and-long-range-circuit-elements-for-cerebellar-function
#6
REVIEW
Le Xiao, Peter Scheiffele
The view of cerebellar functions has been extended from controlling sensorimotor processes to processing 'contextual' information and generating predictions for a diverse range of behaviors. These functions rely on the computation of the local cerebellar microcircuits and long-range connectivity that relays cerebellar output to various brain areas. In this review, we discuss recent work on two of the circuit elements, which are thought to be fundamental for a wide range of non-sensorimotor behaviors: The role for cerebellar granule cells in multimodal integration in the cerebellar cortex and the long-range connectivity between the deep cerebellar nuclei and the basal ganglia...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315951/four-way-multimodal-fusion-of-7%C3%A2-t-imaging-data-using-an-mcca-jica-model-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#7
Kristin K Lottman, David M White, Nina V Kraguljac, Meredith A Reid, Vince D Calhoun, Fabio Catao, Adrienne C Lahti
Acquisition of multimodal brain imaging data for the same subject has become more common leading to a growing interest in determining the intermodal relationships between imaging modalities to further elucidate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Multimodal data have previously been individually analyzed and subsequently integrated; however, these analysis techniques lack the ability to examine true modality inter-relationships. The utilization of a multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) model for data fusion allows shared or distinct abnormalities between modalities to be examined...
January 9, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306636/clinical-correlates-of-cerebral-white-matter-abnormalities-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Bibet L Ten Harmsen, Anouke van Rumund, Marjolein B Aerts, Mayra I Bergkamp, Rianne A J Esselink, Edo Richard, Frederick J A Meijer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Daniel J van Wamelen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if autonomic dysfunction, cognitive disorders or axial disability are associated with white matter lesions (WML) in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional review study on 204 consecutive PD patients who underwent cerebral MRI in our center between January 2012 and July 2016. For each patient, we scored the severity of WML and PV (periventricular) WML using the Fazekas score and using the ARWMC scale for WML and BG (basal ganglia) and clinical characteristics such as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and cognitive function...
December 27, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298733/progressive-striatonigral-degeneration%C3%A2-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-multiple-system-atrophy-translational-implications-for-interventional-therapies
#9
Violetta Refolo, Francesco Bez, Alexia Polissidis, Daniela Kuzdas-Wood, Edith Sturm, Martina Kamaratou, Werner Poewe, Leonidas Stefanis, M Angela Cenci, Marina Romero-Ramos, Gregor K Wenning, Nadia Stefanova
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions of filamentous α-synuclein, and neuronal loss in autonomic centres, basal ganglia and cerebellar circuits. It has been suggested that primary oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy may represent a trigger in the pathogenesis of MSA, but the mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability and disease progression are unclear. The post-mortem analysis of MSA brains provides a static final picture of the disease neuropathology, but gives no clear indication on the sequence of pathogenic events in MSA...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291546/nonlinear-predictive-control-for-adaptive-adjustments-of-deep-brain-stimulation-parameters-in-basal-ganglia-thalamic-network
#10
Fei Su, Jiang Wang, Shuangxia Niu, Huiyan Li, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Xile Wei
The efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) depends in part on the post-operative programming of stimulation parameters. Closed-loop stimulation is one method to realize the frequent adjustment of stimulation parameters. This paper introduced the nonlinear predictive control method into the online adjustment of DBS amplitude and frequency. This approach was tested in a computational model of basal ganglia-thalamic network. The autoregressive Volterra model was used to identify the process model based on physiological data...
December 7, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259243/a-hippocampo-cerebellar-centred-network-for-the-learning-and-execution-of-sequence-based-navigation
#11
Benedicte M Babayan, Aurélie Watilliaux, Guillaume Viejo, Anne-Lise Paradis, Benoît Girard, Laure Rondi-Reig
How do we translate self-motion into goal-directed actions? Here we investigate the cognitive architecture underlying self-motion processing during exploration and goal-directed behaviour. The task, performed in an environment with limited and ambiguous external landmarks, constrained mice to use self-motion based information for sequence-based navigation. The post-behavioural analysis combined brain network characterization based on c-Fos imaging and graph theory analysis as well as computational modelling of the learning process...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248630/cortical-slow-wave-activity-correlates-with-striatal-synaptic-strength-in-normal-but-not-in-parkinsonian-rats
#12
Salvatore Galati, Song Wei, Gergely Orban, Andreas R Luft, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Urethane-induced cortical slow wave activity (SWA) spreads into the basal ganglia in dopamine (DA)-depleted rat models of Parkinson's disease (PD). During physiological sleep, SWA is powerfully expressed at the beginning of night and progressively reduced during sleep-time reflecting the sleep need. However, its underlying slow oscillations may contribute directly to modulate cortical plasticity. In order to determine the impact of the SWA on synaptic strength and its interplay with DA, we simultaneously recorded the electrocorticogram (ECoG) and the corticocortical- and corticostriatal-evoked potentials (CC-EPs, CS-EPs) during eight hours of robust urethane-induced SWA in both normal and PD animals...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247070/mixed-location-cerebral-hemorrhage-microbleeds-underlying-microangiopathy-and-recurrence-risk
#13
Marco Pasi, Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Eitan Auriel, Alison Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan, Leonardo Pantoni, Steven M Greenberg, M Edip Gurol
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predominant type of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and recurrence risk in patients who present with a combination of lobar and deep intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)/microbleed locations (mixed ICH). METHODS: Of 391 consecutive patients with primary ICH enrolled in a prospective registry, 75 (19%) had mixed ICH. Their demographics, clinical/laboratory features, and SVD neuroimaging markers were compared to those of 191 patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-ICH) and 125 with hypertensive strictly deep microbleeds and ICH (HTN-ICH)...
December 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236724/the-role-of-cortical-oscillations-in-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-the-basal-ganglia
#14
Zafeirios Fountas, Murray Shanahan
Although brain oscillations involving the basal ganglia (BG) have been the target of extensive research, the main focus lies disproportionally on oscillations generated within the BG circuit rather than other sources, such as cortical areas. We remedy this here by investigating the influence of various cortical frequency bands on the intrinsic effective connectivity of the BG, as well as the role of the latter in regulating cortical behaviour. To do this, we construct a detailed neural model of the complete BG circuit based on fine-tuned spiking neurons, with both electrical and chemical synapses as well as short-term plasticity between structures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230633/alteration-of-the-pac1-receptor-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-mptp-induced-parkinsonian-macaque-monkeys
#15
M Feher, B Gaszner, A Tamas, A L Gil-Martinez, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero, D Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-known neuropeptide with strong neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. PACAP exerts its protective actions via three G protein-coupled receptors: the specific Pac1 receptor (Pac1R) and the Vpac1/Vpac2 receptors, the neuroprotective effects being mainly mediated by the Pac1R. The protective role of PACAP in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is now well-established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. PACAP and its receptors occur in the mammalian brain, including regions associated with Parkinson's disease...
December 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#16
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220863/a-small-dose-of-apomorphine-counteracts-the-deleterious-effects-of-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-different-models
#17
F Mastroiacovo, A Gaglione, C L Busceti, L Ryskalin, G Bozza, F Nicoletti, F Orzi, F Fornai
The present manuscript investigates in two animal species by using two different experimental models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (permanent and transient), the neuroprotective effects of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. These effects were evaluated by measuring the infarct volume and by counting muscle strength at different time points following the ischemic insult. Apomorphine at the dose of 3 mg/Kg when adminsitered at two hours following the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was able to reduce significantly the infarct volume in the cortex of mice and the ischemic volume of the basal ganglia perfused by the perforant branches of the middle cerebral artery in the rat...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200724/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-neuroprotective-fatty-acids-from-nigella-sativa-against-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced-neurotoxicity
#18
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Hoda Monaghash, Farahnaz Ahmadi, Nastaran Ghiasvand, Yalda Shokoohinia
Objective: Parkinson's disease, a slowly progressive neurological disease, is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The main aspects of researches are the protection of normal neurons against degeneration. Fatty acids (FAs), the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are carboxylic straight chains and notable parameters in nutritional and industrial usefulness of a plant. Materials and Methods: Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs which were extracted using hexane...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196213/ifngr1-and-stat1-mediated-canonical-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-drives-nigrostriatal-degeneration
#19
Michael R Strickland, Emily J Koller, Doris Z Deng, Carolina Ceballos-Diaz, Todd E Golde, Paramita Chakrabarty
Brain expression of AAV-Ifn-γ leads to reactive gliosis, nigrostriatal degeneration and midbrain calcification in wild type mice. This mouse model phenocopies idiopathic basal ganglia calcification which is associated with Parkinsonian symptoms. To understand how the nigro-striatal pathway is selectively vulnerable to Ifn-γ, we determined if the phenotype is driven by canonical signaling intermediates, Ifngr1 and Stat1. Using focused bioinformatic analysis and rotarod testing, we show that neuroinflammation and motor abnormalities precede the appearance of midbrain neuropathologies in the brains of Ifn-γ mouse model...
November 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196026/long-term-changes-in-the-nigrostriatal-pathway-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Dongping Huang, Zishan Wang, Jiabin Tong, Mo Wang, Jinghui Wang, Jing Xu, Xiaochen Bai, Heng Li, Yulu Huang, Yufei Wu, Yuanyuan Ma, Mei Yu, Fang Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD is widely used to study the progression of this disease. Behavior impairment is closely related to the damage of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia. Here, MPTP-induced changes in mouse behavior and glial activation were evaluated at different time points after the treatment and the long-term changes in the nigrostriatal pathway were analyzed. We found that mice exposed to MPTP displayed a full recovery in the rotarod test and the pole test but not in the wire hanging test at 65 days post-injection...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
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