Read by QxMD icon Read

basal ganglia model

Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Brianna Marie Lutz, Shaogen Wu, Xiyao Gu, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Zhen Li, Brandon M Fox, David M Pollock, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Sickle cell disease is associated with acute painful episodes and chronic intractable pain. Endothelin-1, a known pain inducer, is elevated in the blood plasma of both sickle cell patients and mouse models of sickle cell disease. We show here that the levels of endothelin-1 and its endothelin type A receptor are increased in the dorsal root ganglia of a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Pharmacologic inhibition or neuron-specific knockdown of endothelin type A receptors in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion alleviated basal and post-hypoxia evoked pain hypersensitivities in sickle cell mice...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Meaghan Creed
Neuromodulation therapies such as deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown promise in reducing symptoms of addiction when applied to the prefontal cortex, nucleus accumbens or subthalamic nucleus. Pre-clinical investigations implicate modulation of the cortico-basal ganglia network in these therapeutic effects, and this mechanistic understanding is necessary to optimize stimulation paradigms. Recently, the principle that neuromodulation can reverse drug-evoked synaptic plasticity and reduce behavioral symptoms of addiction has inspired novel stimulation paradigms that have long-term effects in animal models...
March 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Ryo Oda, Tetsuro Yamazaki, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Shunji Yamada, Masaki Tanaka, Toshikazu Kubo
Although treatment protocols are available, patients experience both acute neuropathic pain and chronic neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the brain regions activated after peripheral nerve injury using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequentially and assess the relevance of the imaging results using histological findings. To model peripheral nerve injury in male Sprague-Dawley rats, the right sciatic nerve was crushed using an aneurysm clip, under general anesthesia...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
William I A Haynes, Anne-Hélène Clair, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Bahar Gholipour, Margot Morgiève, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Current neurocognitive models suppose dysfunctions of associative and limbic cortico-basal ganglia circuits to be at the core of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As little is known about the state of underlying anatomical connections, we investigated whether these connections were reduced and/or not properly organised in OCD patients compared to control. METHODS: Diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained in 37 OCD patients with predominant checking symptoms and 37 matched healthy controls...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Teresa Mann, Jens Kurth, Alexander Hawlitschka, Jan Stenzel, Tobias Lindner, Stefan Polei, Alexander Hohn, Bernd J Krause, Andreas Wree
Intrastriatal injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) results in improved motor behavior of hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats, an animal model for Parkinson's disease. The caudate-putamen (CPu), as the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia loop, is fundamentally involved in motor function and directly interacts with the dopaminergic system. To determine receptor-mediated explanations for the BoNT-A effect, we analyzed the dopamine D₂/D₃ receptor (D₂/D₃R) in the CPu of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemi-PD rats by [18 F]fallypride-PET/CT scans one, three, and six months post-BoNT-A or -sham-BoNT-A injection...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rong-Jun Ni, Zhao-Huan Huang, Yu-Mian Shu, Yu Wang, Tao Li, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The striatum and globus pallidus are principal nuclei of the basal ganglia. Nissl- and acetylcholinesterase-stained sections of the tree shrew brain showed the neuroanatomical features of the caudate nucleus (Cd), internal capsule (ic), putamen (Pu), accumbens, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus. The ic separated the dorsal striatum into the Cd and Pu in the tree shrew, but not in rats and mice. In addition, computer-based 3D images allowed a better understanding of the position and orientation of these structures...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Véronique Sgambato, Léon Tremblay
The MPTP monkey model of Parkinson's disease (PD) has allowed huge advances regarding the understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PD and L-DOPA-induced adverse effects. Among the main findings were the imbalance between the efferent striatal pathways in opposite directions between the hypokinetic and hyperkinetic states of PD. In both normal and parkinsonian monkeys, the combination of behavioral and anatomical studies has allowed the deciphering of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits involved in both movement and behavioral disorders...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Barbara Picconi, Elvira De Leonibus, Paolo Calabresi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the midbrain. The gold-standard therapy for PD is the restoration of dopamine (DA) levels through the chronic administration of the DA precursor levodopa (L-DOPA). Although levodopa therapy is the main therapeutic approach for PD, its use is limited by the development of very disabling dyskinetic movements, mainly due to the fluctuation of DA cerebral content. Experimental animal models of PD identified in DA D1/ERK-signaling pathway aberrant activation, occurring in striatal projection neurons, coupled with structural spines abnormalities, the molecular and neuronal basis of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LIDs) occurrence...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Suneeti Gupta, Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj, Gabrielle Carlson, Emily Trumpower, Ronald E Dechert, Subrata Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Asphyxiated infants treated with therapeutic cooling can have persistent oral feeding difficulty because of involvement of neural pathways in the brainstem, cortex, and basal ganglia. The goal is to predict the composite adverse outcome of death or persistent oral feeding difficulty using precooling/cooling attributes, and the severity and distribution of hypoxic-ischemic lesions, especially brainstem lesions on post-cooling brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Retrospective review of 86 asphyxiated infants cooled from January 2006 to August 2014...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Vincenzo G Fiore, Tobias Nolte, Francesco Rigoli, Peter Smittenaar, Xiaosi Gu, Raymond J Dolan
The external part of the globus pallidus (GPe) is a core nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG) whose activity is disrupted under conditions of low dopamine release, as in Parkinson's disease. Current models assume decreased dopamine release in the dorsal striatum results in deactivation of dorsal GPe, which in turn affects motor expression via a regulatory effect on other nuclei of the BG. However, recent studies in healthy and pathological animal models have reported neural dynamics that do not match with this view of the GPe as a relay in the BG circuit...
February 23, 2018: NeuroImage
Maxime Assous, James M Tepper
The striatum constitutes the main input structure of the basal ganglia and receives two major excitatory glutamatergic inputs, from the cortex and the thalamus. Excitatory cortico- and thalamo-striatal connections innervate the principal neurons of the striatum, the spiny projection neurons (SPNs), which constitute the main cellular input as well as the only output of the striatum. In addition, corticostriatal and thalamostriatal inputs also innervate striatal interneurons. Some of these inputs have been very well studied, e...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera
INTRODUCTION: Recent guidelines suggest that a blood pressure cutoff of 130/80 mmHg should be used to define arterial hypertension. This contrasts with the previously accepted cutoff of 140/90 mmHg. AIM: Using the Atahualpa Project cohort, we aimed to assess the cutoff that better correlates with signatures of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), which are related to arterial hypertension. METHODS: Of 437 Atahualpa residents aged ≥ 60 years, 363 (83%) underwent brain MRI and blood pressure determinations...
February 23, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Robert Lindroos, Matthijs C Dorst, Kai Du, Marko Filipović, Daniel Keller, Maya Ketzef, Alexander K Kozlov, Arvind Kumar, Mikael Lindahl, Anu G Nair, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner, Gilad Silberberg, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Margaret I Davis, Jill R Crittenden, Austin Y Feng, David A Kupferschmidt, Alipi Naydenov, Nephi Stella, Ann M Graybiel, David M Lovinger
Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R) bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch) and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs)...
2018: PloS One
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Zhejia Yang, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun
Based on a classical model of the basal ganglia thalamocortical network, in this paper, we employed a type of the deep brain stimulus voltage on the subthalamic nucleus to study the control mechanism of absence epilepsy seizures. We found that the seizure can be well controlled by turning the period and the duration of current stimulation into suitable ranges. It is the very interesting bidirectional periodic adjustment phenomenon. These parameters are easily regulated in clinical practice, therefore, the results obtained in this paper may further help us to understand the treatment mechanism of the epilepsy seizure...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Georgios Naros, Florian Grimm, Daniel Weiss, Alireza Gharabaghi
BACKGROUND: Both the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit and the basal ganglia/cortical motor loop have been postulated to be generators of tremor in PD. The recent suggestion that the basal ganglia trigger tremor episodes and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulates tremor amplitude combines both competing hypotheses. However, the role of the STN in tremor generation and the impact of proprioceptive feedback on tremor suppression during voluntary movements have not been considered in this model yet...
February 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
Arun Singh
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that maintains the balance within the basal ganglia between the direct pathway, which promotes movement, and the indirect pathway, which inhibits movement. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra increases the influence of the indirect pathway, resulting in motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). The direct and indirect pathways are composed of cortical areas, basal ganglia, and thalamic nuclei, which are interconnected via independent parallel loop circuits and often referred to as cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic (CBT) neural circuits...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
J Vincent Filoteo, W Todd Maddox, F Gregory Ashby
OBJECTIVE: To provide a select review of our applications of quantitative modeling to highlight the utility of such approaches to better understand the neuropsychological deficits associated with various neurologic and psychiatric diseases. METHOD: We review our work examining category learning in various patient populations, including individuals with basal ganglia disorders (Huntington's Disease and Parkinson's disease), amnesia and Eating Disorders. RESULTS: Our review suggests that the use of quantitative models has enabled a better understanding of the learning deficits often observed in these conditions and has allowed us to form novel hypotheses about the neurobiological bases of their deficits...
November 2017: Neuropsychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"