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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#1
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752589/novelty-modulates-human-striatal-activation-and-prefrontal-striatal-effective-connectivity-during-working-memory-encoding
#2
Lena S Geiger, Carolin Moessnang, Axel Schäfer, Zhenxiang Zang, Maria Zangl, Hengyi Cao, Tamar R van Raalten, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
The functional role of the basal ganglia (BG) in the gating of suitable motor responses to the cortex is well established. Growing evidence supports an analogous role of the BG during working memory encoding, a task phase in which the "input-gating" of relevant materials (or filtering of irrelevant information) is an important mechanism supporting cognitive capacity and the updating of working memory buffers. One important aspect of stimulus relevance is the novelty of working memory items, a quality that is understudied with respect to its effects on corticostriatal function and connectivity...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746398/dystonia-as-a-network-disorder-a-concept-in-evolution
#3
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This survey takes into consideration the most recent advances in both human degenerative ataxias, disorders with a well established cerebellar origin, and discoveries from dystonia rodent models aimed at discussing the pathogenesis of dystonia. RECENT FINDINGS: One common recurrent term that emerges when describing dystonia is heterogeneity. Indeed, dystonia encompasses a wide group of 'hyperkinetic' movement disorders, with heterogeneous causes, classification, anatomical and physiological substrates...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742425/gat-3-dysfunction-generates-tonic-inhibition-in-external-globus-pallidus-neurons-in-parkinsonian-rodents
#4
Marine Chazalon, Elena Paredes-Rodriguez, Stéphanie Morin, Audrey Martinez, Sofia Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sandra Vaz, Ana Sebastiao, Aude Panatier, Eric Boué-Grabot, Cristina Miguelez, Jérôme Baufreton
The external globus pallidus (GP) is a key GABAergic hub in the basal ganglia (BG) circuitry, a neuronal network involved in motor control. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the rate and pattern of activity of GP neurons are profoundly altered and contribute to the motor symptoms of the disease. In rodent models of PD, the striato-pallidal pathway is hyperactive, and extracellular GABA concentrations are abnormally elevated in the GP, supporting the hypothesis of an alteration of neuronal and/or glial clearance of GABA...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728527/disrupted-hypothalamic-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-pd-and-autonomic-dysfunction
#5
Eran Dayan, Miriam Sklerov, Nina Browner
OBJECTIVE: To test whether symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease (PD) are associated with alterations in intrinsic hypothalamic functional connectivity, given the regulatory role of the hypothalamus (HTH) in the autonomic nervous system. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI scans from patients with PD were analyzed, comparing patients with the highest (n = 24) and lowest (n = 28) quartile scores in a questionnaire assessing autonomic dysfunction in PD (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic [SCOPA-AUT]), obtained from a larger pool of patients (n = 93)...
May 4, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727632/the-oscillatory-boundary-conditions-of-different-frequency-bands-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Bing Hu, Qianqian Shi, Yu Guo, Xiyezi Diao, Heng Guo, Jinsong Zhang, Liang Yu, Hao Dai, Luonan Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is common in the elderly population. The most important pathological change in PD is the degeneration and death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain, which results in a decrease in the dopamine (DA) content of the striatum. The exact cause of this pathological change is still unknown. Numerous studies have shown that the evolution of PD is associated with abnormal oscillatory activities in the basal ganglia, with different oscillation frequency ranges, such as the typical beta band (13-30 Hz), the alpha band (8-12 Hz), the theta band (4-7 Hz) and the delta band (1-3 Hz)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727596/the-accessory-olfactory-system-innately-specialized-or-microcosm-of-mammalian-circuitry
#7
Timothy E Holy
In mammals, the accessory olfactory system is a distinct circuit that has received attention for its role in detecting and responding to pheromones. While the neuroscientific investigation of this system is comparatively new, recent advances and its compact size have made it an attractive model for developing an end-to-end understanding of such questions as regulation of essential behaviors, plasticity, and individual recognition. Recent discoveries have indicated a need to reevaluate our conception of this system, suggesting that (a) physical principles-rather than biological necessity-play an underappreciated role in its raison d'être and that (b) the anatomy of downstream projections is not dominated by unique specializations but instead consists of an abbreviated cortical/basal ganglia motif reminiscent of other sensorimotor systems...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722299/the-adjustment-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-a-tonic-subunits-in-huntington-s-disease-from-transcription-to-translation-to-synaptic-levels-into-the-neostriatum
#8
REVIEW
Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Argel Estrada-Mondragón, Carola A Mantellero, Carlos Tejeda-Guzmán, Maite A Castro
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), plays a key role in all stages of life, also is considered the main inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA activates two kind of membrane receptors known as GABAA and GABAB , the first one is responsible to render tonic inhibition by pentameric receptors containing α4-6, β3, δ, or ρ1-3 subunits, they are located at perisynaptic and/or in extrasynaptic regions. The biophysical properties of GABAA tonic inhibition have been related with cellular protection against excitotoxic injury and cell death in presence of excessive excitation...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706874/sensorimotor-and-neurocognitive-dysfunctions-parallel-early-telencephalic-neuropathology-in-fucosidosis-mice
#9
Stijn Stroobants, Heike Wolf, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Thomas Dierks, Torben Lübke, Rudi D'Hooge
Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by lysosomal α-L-fucosidase deficiency. Insufficient α-L-fucosidase activity triggers accumulation of undegraded, fucosylated glycoproteins and glycolipids in various tissues. The human phenotype is heterogeneous, but progressive motor and cognitive impairments represent the most characteristic symptoms. Recently, Fuca1-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting techniques, constituting a novel animal model for human fucosidosis. These mice display widespread LSD pathology, accumulation of secondary storage material and neuroinflammation throughout the brain, as well as progressive loss of Purkinje cells...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704671/apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-distinct-clinical-profiles-and-neural-correlates
#10
Fiona Kumfor, Alice Zhen, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Muireann Irish
OBJECTIVE: Apathy is the most prevalent and disabling non-cognitive symptom of dementia and affects 90% of patients across the disease course. Despite its pervasiveness, how apathy manifests across dementia syndromes and the neurobiological mechanisms driving these symptoms are poorly understood. Here, we applied the multidimensional ABC model of apathy, which recognizes Affective, Behavioural and Cognitive apathy, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)...
March 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704061/on-the-neuronal-circuitry-mediating-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#11
REVIEW
M Angela Cenci, Henrik Jörntell, Per Petersson
With the advent of rodent models of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a growing literature has linked molecular changes in the striatum to the development and expression of abnormal involuntary movements. Changes in information processing at the striatal level are assumed to impact on the activity of downstream basal ganglia nuclei, which in turn influence brain-wide networks, but very little is actually known about systems-level mechanisms of dyskinesia. As an aid to approach this topic, we here review the anatomical and physiological organisation of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, and the changes affecting these circuits in animal models of parkinsonism and LID...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700692/mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-reduce-swelling-and-modulate-inflammatory-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
David L Schreibman, Caron M Hong, Kaspar Keledjian, Svetlana Ivanova, Solomiya Tsymbalyuk, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) leaves most survivors dependent at follow-up. The importance of promoting M2-like microglial responses is increasingly recognized as a key element to ameliorate brain injury following ICH. The osmotherapeutic agents, mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS), which are routinely used to reduce intracranial pressure, have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic and traumatic brain injury, but anti-inflammatory effects of osmotherapies have not been investigated in ICH...
April 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698732/dopamine-substitution-alters-effective-connectivity-of-cortical-prefrontal-premotor-and-motor-regions-during-complex-bimanual-finger-movements-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Felix Sebastian Nettersheim, Philipp Alexander Loehrer, Immo Weber, Fabienne Jung, Till Anselm Dembek, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Haidar Salimi Dafsari, Carlo Andreas Huber, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
Bimanual coordination is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD), affecting patients' quality of life. Besides dysfunction of the basal ganglia network, alterations of cortical oscillatory coupling, particularly between prefrontal and (pre-)motoric areas, are thought to underlie this impairment. Here, we studied 16 PD patients OFF and ON medication and age-matched healthy controls recording high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) during performance of spatially coupled and uncoupled bimanual finger movements...
April 23, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696500/spatial-correlation-and-segregation-of-multimodal-mri-abnormalities-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#14
Myung Jun Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim, Chi-Woong Mun, Hae Kyung Shin, Jongsang Son, Jae-Hyeok Lee
OBJECTIVE: The variability of the severity and regional distribution of pathological process in basal ganglia (BG) and brainstem-cerebellar systems results in clinical heterogeneity and represents the motor subtype of multiple system atrophy (MSA). This study aimed to quantify spatial patterns of multimodal MRI abnormalities in BG and stem-CB regions and define structural MRI findings that correlate with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We simultaneously measured R2*, mean diffusivity (MD), and volume in the subcortical structures (BG, thalamus, brainstem-cerebellar regions) of 39 probable MSA and 22 control subjects...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694842/baseline-striatal-and-nigral-interneuronal-protein-levels-in-two-distinct-mice-strains-differ-in-accordance-with-their-mptp-susceptibility
#15
Bidisha Bhaduri, P L Abhilash, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Epidemiological studies reveal an ethnicity-based bias in prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), deriving from the differences that exist between Caucasians and African or Asian populations. Experimental mice models provide a scope to analyse the cellular mechanisms of differential susceptibility to PD. C57BL/6 J mice, for instance, are more susceptible to MPTP-induced Parkinsonism whereas CD-1 mice are resistant. In PD-pathogenesis, interneuronal contribution is also likely, although they comprise only 5-10% of the striatal cells...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694280/model-based-deconstruction-of-cortical-evoked-potentials-generated-by-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#16
Karthik Kumaravelu, Chintan S Oza, Christina E Behrend, Warren M Grill
Parkinson's disease is associated with altered neural activity in the motor cortex. High frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) suppresses parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity. However, the anatomical pathways responsible for STN DBS mediated cortical modulation remain unclear. Cortical evoked potentials (cEP) generated by STN DBS reflect the response of cortex to subcortical stimulation, and the goal was to determine the neural origin of cEP using a two-step approach...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#17
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687960/bidirectional-scaling-of-vocal-variability-by-an-avian-cortico-basal-ganglia-circuit
#18
Jonathan B Heston, Joseph Simon, Nancy F Day, Melissa J Coleman, Stephanie A White
Behavioral variability is thought to be critical for trial and error learning, but where such motor exploration is generated in the central nervous system is unclear. The zebra finch songbird species offers a highly appropriate model in which to address this question. The male song is amenable to detailed measurements of variability, while the brain contains an identified cortico-basal ganglia loop that underlies this behavior. We used pharmacogenetic interventions to separately interrogate cortical and basal ganglia nodes of zebra finch song control circuitry...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685540/resting-state-functional-connectivity-mri-analysis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-subjects-a-pilot-study
#19
Simone Corgiolu, Luigi Barberini, Jasjit S Suri, Antonella Mandas, Diego Costaggiu, Paola Piano, Fulvio Zaccagna, Pierleone Lucatelli, Antonella Balestrieri, Luca Saba
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection's role on cognitive impairment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is still debated and functional neuroimaging evaluation on this matter is lacking. To provide further insight about HCV's neuro-effects on HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), we performed a pilot resting state (RS) functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) study to find eventual functional connectivity alteration that could reflect HCV related cognitive performance degradation...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680709/parkinson-s-disease-like-burst-firing-activity-in-subthalamic-nucleus-induced-by-aav-%C3%AE-synuclein-is-normalized-by-lrrk2-modulation
#20
Michael Aagaard Andersen, Kenneth Vielsted Christensen, Lassina Badolo, Garrick Paul Smith, Ross Jeggo, Poul Henning Jensen, Kathrine Just Andersen, Florence Sotty
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects motor function through degenerative processes and synaptic transmission impairments in the basal ganglia. None of the treatments available delays or stops the progression of the disease. While α-synuclein pathological accumulation represents a hallmark of the disease in its idiopathic form, leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is genetically associated with familial and sporadic forms of PD. The genetic information suggests that LRRK2 kinase activity plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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