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basal ganglia model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#1
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#2
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909006/a-neural-mechanism-for-surprise-related-interruptions-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#3
Jan R Wessel
Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST)...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891086/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-mechanisms-of-depression
#4
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877100/striatal-and-tegmental-neurons-code-critical-signals-for-temporal-difference-learning-of-state-value-in-domestic-chicks
#5
Chentao Wen, Yukiko Ogura, Toshiya Matsushima
To ensure survival, animals must update the internal representations of their environment in a trial-and-error fashion. Psychological studies of associative learning and neurophysiological analyses of dopaminergic neurons have suggested that this updating process involves the temporal-difference (TD) method in the basal ganglia network. However, the way in which the component variables of the TD method are implemented at the neuronal level is unclear. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we trained domestic chicks to associate color cues with food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875755/individual-differences-in-brainstem-and-basal-ganglia-structure-predict-postural-control-and-balance-loss-in-young-and-older-adults
#6
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Sima Chalavi, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Inge Leunissen, Oron Levin, Alice Nieuwboer, Stephan P Swinnen
It remains unclear which specific brain regions are the most critical for human postural control and balance, and whether they mediate the effect of age. Here, associations between postural performance and corticosubcortical brain regions were examined in young and older adults using multiple structural imaging and linear mixed models. Results showed that of the regions involved in posture, the brainstem was the strongest predictor of postural control and balance: lower brainstem volume predicted larger center of pressure deviation and higher odds of balance loss...
November 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875379/the-decision-neuroscience-perspective-on-suicidal-behavior-evidence-and-hypotheses
#7
Alexandre Y Dombrovski, Michael N Hallquist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide attempts are usually regretted by people who survive them. Furthermore, addiction and gambling are over-represented among people who attempt or die by suicide, raising the question whether their decision-making is impaired. Advances in decision neuroscience have enabled us to investigate decision processes in suicidal people and to elucidate putative neural substrates of disadvantageous decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies have linked attempted suicide to poor performance on gambling tasks...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872691/locally-estimated-hemodynamic-response-function-and-activation-detection-sensitivity-in-heroin-cue-reactivity-study
#8
Somayeh Maleki-Balajoo, Gholam-Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamed Ekhtiari
INTRODUCTION: A fixed hemodynamic response function (HRF) is commonly used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. However, HRF may vary from region to region and subject to subject. We investigated the effect of locally estimated HRF (in functionally homogenous parcels) on activation detection sensitivity in a heroin cue reactivity study. METHODS: We proposed a novel exploratory method for brain parcellation based on a probabilistic model to segregate the brain into spatially connected and functionally homogeneous components...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871457/minocycline-is-effective-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-inhibition-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy
#9
Zehan Wu, Xiang Zou, Wei Zhu, Ying Mao, Liang Chen, Fan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable type of stroke and affects millions of people worldwide. Treatment for ICH varies from medicine to surgery, but the rate of mortality and mobility still remains high. Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic increasingly recognized for its neuroprotective potential. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that many secondary injuries caused by ICH could be significantly reduced by injection of minocycline in rat models. The following research investigates the role of minocycline in reducing brain injury...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866799/inhibitory-control-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamocortical-loop-complex-regulation-and-interplay-with-memory-and-decision-processes
#10
Wei Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control...
November 16, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860248/restructuring-of-basal-ganglia-circuitry-and-associated-behaviors-triggered-by-low-striatal-d2-receptor-expression-implications-for-substance-use-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Lauren Dobbs, Julia C Lemos, Veronica A Alvarez
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) consistently emerge as a critical substrate for the etiology of some major psychiatric disorders. Indeed, a central theory of substance use disorders (SUDs) postulates that a reduction in D2R levels in the striatum is a determining factor that confers vulnerability to abuse substances. A large number of clinical and preclinical studies strongly support this link between SUDs and D2Rs; however, identifying the mechanism by which low D2Rs facilitate SUDs has been hindered by the complexity of circuit connectivity, the heterogeneity of D2R expression and the multifaceted constellation of phenotypes observed in SUD patient...
November 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855780/decoding-gripping-force-based-on-local-field-potentials-recorded-from-subthalamic-nucleus-in-humans
#12
Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Keyoumars Ashkan, Alexander L Green, Tipu Aziz, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Marwan Hariz, Peter Brown
The basal ganglia are known to be involved in the planning, execution and control of gripping force and movement vigour. Here we aim to define the nature of the basal ganglia control signal for force and to decode gripping force based on local field potential (LFP) activities recorded from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We found that STN LFP activities in the gamma (55-90 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) bands were most informative about gripping force, and that a first order dynamic linear model with these STN LFP features as inputs can be used to decode the temporal profile of gripping force...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852776/somatic-and-reinforcement-based-plasticity-in-the-initial-stages-of-human-motor-learning
#13
Ananda Sidarta, Shahabeddin Vahdat, Nicolò F Bernardi, David J Ostry
: As one learns to dance or play tennis, the desired somatosensory state is typically unknown. Trial and error is important as motor behavior is shaped by successful and unsuccessful movements. As an experimental model, we designed a task in which human participants make reaching movements to a hidden target and receive positive reinforcement when successful. We identified somatic and reinforcement-based sources of plasticity on the basis of changes in functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI before and after learning...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843705/altered-local-spontaneous-activity-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Li Dong, Hechun Li, Zhongqiong He, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Lin Chen, Pu Wang, Song Tan, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the local spatiotemporal consistency of spontaneous brain activity in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Eyes closed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A novel measure, named FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) was used to assess the spatiotemporal consistency of local spontaneous activity (emphasizing both local temporal homogeneity and regional stability of brain activity states)...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825979/functional-circuit-mapping-of-striatal-output-nuclei-using-simultaneous-deep-brain-stimulation-and-fmri
#15
Nathalie Van Den Berge, Daniel L Albaugh, Andrew Salzwedel, Christian Vanhove, Roel Van Holen, Wei Gao, Garret D Stuber, Yen-Yu Ian Shih
The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and external globus pallidus (GPe) constitute the two major output targets of the rodent striatum. Both the SNr and GPe converge upon thalamic relay nuclei (directly or indirectly, respectively), and are traditionally modeled as functionally antagonistic relay inputs. However, recent anatomical and functional studies have identified unanticipated circuit connectivity in both the SNr and GPe, demonstrating their potential as far more than relay nuclei. In the present study, we employed simultaneous deep brain stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (DBS-fMRI) with cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements to functionally and unbiasedly map the circuit- and network level connectivity of the SNr and GPe...
November 5, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825825/changes-in-sk-channel-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-partial-nigrostriatal-dopamine-lesions-in-rats-functional-consequences
#16
Christiane Mourre, Christine Manrique, Jeremy Camon, Sabrine Aidi-Knani, Thierry Deltheil, Nathalie Turle-Lorenzo, Gaelle Guiraudie-Capraz, Marianne Amalric
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease originating from the loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). The small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels play an essential role in the regulation of midbrain DA neuron activity patterns, as well as excitability of other types of neurons of the basal ganglia. We therefore questioned whether the SK channel expression in the basal ganglia is modified in parkinsonian rats and how this could impact behavioral performance in a reaction time task...
November 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825543/mild-parkinsonian-features-in-dystonia-literature-review-mechanisms-and-clinical-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Lucy Haggstrom, Paul Darveniza, Stephen Tisch
Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder that can be highly stigmatizing and disabling. Substantial evidence from animal models, neuropathological, neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical studies emphasizes the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of dystonia, illustrating possible pathophysiological overlap with parkinsonism. Furthermore, basal ganglia dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of dystonia, and is well established to underlie the manifestations of Parkinson's disease...
October 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823630/ginkgo-biloba-leaf-extract-and-alpha-tocopherol-attenuate-haloperidol-induced-orofacial-dyskinesia-in-rats-possible-implication-of-antiapoptotic-mechanisms-by-preventing-bcl-2-decrease-and-bax-elevation
#18
Hui Mei An, Yun Long Tan, Jing Shi, Zhiren Wang, Meng Han Lv, Jair C Soares, Dongfeng Zhou, Fude Yang, Xiang Yang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious side effect of long-term administration of typical neuroleptics, such as haloperidol. The pathophysiology of TD remains unclear, but the experimental evidence suggests that free radical-induced neuronal apoptosis in the basal ganglia may play an important role. PURPOSE: This study was to investigate changes in Bax and Bcl-2 expression levels in TD-associated brain regions and the effects of the antioxidant EGb761 on Bax and Bcl-2 levels in an animal model of TD...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818626/arousal-rather-than-basic-emotions-influence-long-term-recognition-memory-in-humans
#19
Artur Marchewka, Marek Wypych, Abnoos Moslehi, Monika Riegel, Jarosław M Michałowski, Katarzyna Jednoróg
Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817865/mecr-mutations-cause-childhood-onset-dystonia-and-optic-atrophy-a-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-synthesis-disorder
#20
Gali Heimer, Juha M Kerätär, Lisa G Riley, Shanti Balasubramaniam, Eran Eyal, Laura P Pietikäinen, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Dina Marek-Yagel, Jeffrey Hamada, Allison Gregory, Caleb Rogers, Penelope Hogarth, Martha A Nance, Nechama Shalva, Alvit Veber, Michal Tzadok, Andreea Nissenkorn, Davide Tonduti, Florence Renaldo, Ichraf Kraoua, Celeste Panteghini, Lorella Valletta, Barbara Garavaglia, Mark J Cowley, Velimir Gayevskiy, Tony Roscioli, Jonathon M Silberstein, Chen Hoffmann, Annick Raas-Rothschild, Valeria Tiranti, Yair Anikster, John Christodoulou, Alexander J Kastaniotis, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Susan J Hayflick
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway essential for the function of the respiratory chain and several mitochondrial enzyme complexes. We report here a unique neurometabolic human disorder caused by defective mtFAS. Seven individuals from five unrelated families presented with childhood-onset dystonia, optic atrophy, and basal ganglia signal abnormalities on MRI. All affected individuals were found to harbor recessive mutations in MECR encoding the mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-coenzyme A-reductase involved in human mtFAS...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
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