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Wine science

Wei Zhu, Yi-Fang Meng, Yan Wu, Ming Xu, Jiong Lu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The associations of alcohol intake with DR risk have demonstrated contradictory results. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science) until May 2016. We identified a total of 12,875 DR cases among 37,285 participants in 15 observational studies. The pooled estimation of all the included observational studies was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06) in a random-effect model...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Mario Lucio Lopes, Silene Cristina de Lima Paulillo, Alexandre Godoy, Rudimar Antonio Cherubin, Marcel Salmeron Lorenzi, Fernando Henrique Carvalho Giometti, Claudemir Domingues Bernardino, Henrique Berbert de Amorim Neto, Henrique Vianna de Amorim
In the last 40 years, several scientific and technological advances in microbiology of the fermentation have greatly contributed to evolution of the ethanol industry in Brazil. These contributions have increased our view and comprehension about fermentations in the first and, more recently, second-generation ethanol. Nowadays, new technologies are available to produce ethanol from sugarcane, corn and other feedstocks, reducing the off-season period. Better control of fermentation conditions can reduce the stress conditions for yeast cells and contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts...
December 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Le Zhang, Yunshan Zhao, Zhipeng A Wang, Kunhua Wei, Bin Qiu, Chunhong Zhang, QiYan Wang-Müller, Minhui Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chen-Lu Liu, Wen-Tian Sun, Wen Liao, Wen-Xin Lu, Qi-Wen Li, Yunho Jeong, Jun Liu, Zhi-He Zhao
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. The colour changes (ΔE*) were calculated on the basis of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* colour system (CIE L*a*b*), and the results were then converted into National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Christian Coelho, Franck Bagala, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Capillary electrophoresis appeared to be a powerful and reliable technique to analyze the diversity of wine compounds. Wine presents a great variety of natural chemicals coming from the grape berry extraction and the fermentation processes. The first and more abundant after water, ethanol has been quantified in wines via capillary electrophoresis. Other families like organic acids, neutral and acid sugars, polyphenols, amines, thiols, vitamins, and soluble proteins are electrophoretically separated from the complex matrix...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Xiaoqian Wang, Xinying Zhao, Pinduo Liu, Qiang Wei, Feng Qu
This paper reviews the capillary electrophoresis (CE) in 2015. The literatures searched from ISI Web of Science ranged in 2015. 1. 1-2015. 12. 31 are classified and introduced based on CE-MS method, methodology research, detection and enrichment, chiral separation and basic applications of CE. Six international and two national conferences are included and the important reports are introduced briefly. In the end, the standards of CE method for the analyses of monoclonal antibodies, water, wines and food approved in China and some other countries are listed...
February 2016: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Victor Vinciguerra, Ross Stevenson, Karine Pedneault, André Poirier, Jean-François Hélie, David Widory
The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Silvia Tejada, William N Setzer, Olga Gortzi, Antoni Sureda, Nady Braidy, Maria Daglia, Azadeh Manayi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
BACKGROUND: At present, much attention has been focused on the beneficial effects of natural products on the human health due to their high efficacy and low adverse effects. Among them, polyphenolic compounds are known as one of the most important and common classes of natural products which possess multiple range of health-promotion effects including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. A plethora of scientific evidences has shown that polyphenolic compounds possess beneficial effects on the central nervous system...
March 25, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Francesco Contò, Cristina Santini, Piermichele La Sala, Mariantonietta Fiore
BACKGROUND: Market orientation plays a crucial role in reinforcing firm's competitive advantage; nevertheless, marketing myopia can negatively affect a clear perception of the market. METHODS: An organization that defines itself by product rather than by market terms is probably affected by marketing myopia, a narrowness of mind towards any newness - newness respect to firms' convincement and routines - coming from the external environment. In that context some scientific relevant developments that comes from recent patents have been considered...
2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Wayne F Wargo
Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance...
January 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Alexander Scholz, Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz, Manuela Garcia de la Hera, Daniel Gimenez-Monzo, Sandra Gonzalez-Palacios, Desirée Valera-Gran, Laura Torres-Collado, Jesus Vioque
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between consumption of different alcoholic beverages and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the baseline data of the DiSA-UMH study, an ongoing cohort study with Spanish health science students (n=1098) aged 17-35 years. Dietary information was collected by a validated 84-item food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped into non-drinkers, exclusive beer and/or wine drinkers and drinkers of all types of alcoholic beverages...
March 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Nathalie Perrot, Cédric Baudrit, Jean Marie Brousset, Philippe Abbal, Hervé Guillemin, Bruno Perret, Etienne Goulet, Laurence Guerin, Gérard Barbeau, Daniel Picque
Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent...
2015: PloS One
Colette Charlot
Linking pharmacy and oenology seems to be paradox. The school of Medicine and Pharmacy owe their fame to the historical context of the Languedocian Universities. The role of their naturalist professors is less known. Dr Chaptal's thesis discusses the wine chemical constituents. In 1801 he published a book entitled "the Art of making, managing and perfecting wine", inventor of a distillation machine, his name become an eponym "the chaptalisation", which is specific process, for regions less exposed to sunlight, showing that sugar in the must is needed to obtain alcohol...
January 2015: Revue D'histoire de la Pharmacie
Marta Sancho, Núria Mach
INTRODUCTION: Cancer has become in the recent decades one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The search for effective prevention has become a priority for the basic and clinical science. Wine polyphenols have been proposed as alternative therapy for induction and on maintaining remission of cancer. OBJECTIVE: To review current scientific evidence of cancer and the efficacy of dietary supplement therapy (especially wine polyphenols). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive search of scientific publications was performed in specialized electronic databases: NBCI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus and Science Direct...
October 3, 2014: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Stuart Wine, Sara A Gagné, Ross K Meentemeyer
The coyote (Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans...
January 2015: Environmental Management
Miia R Mäkelä, Nicole Donofrio, Ronald P de Vries
Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general...
November 2014: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Daniel F Jarosz, Jessica C S Brown, Gordon A Walker, Manoshi S Datta, W Lloyd Ung, Alex K Lancaster, Assaf Rotem, Amelia Chang, Gregory A Newby, David A Weitz, Linda F Bisson, Susan Lindquist
In experimental science, organisms are usually studied in isolation, but in the wild, they compete and cooperate in complex communities. We report a system for cross-kingdom communication by which bacteria heritably transform yeast metabolism. An ancient biological circuit blocks yeast from using other carbon sources in the presence of glucose. [GAR(+)], a protein-based epigenetic element, allows yeast to circumvent this "glucose repression" and use multiple carbon sources in the presence of glucose. Some bacteria secrete a chemical factor that induces [GAR(+)]...
August 28, 2014: Cell
Zheng Huang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was started in the People's Republic of China in the early 1980s after domestically produced hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) became available. Since then, numerous photosensitizers have been synthesized and evaluated. Several promising ones have undergone clinical investigations and a few have entered into formal clinical trials. Various lasers and non-coherent light sources have been developed in China to facilitate domestic photosensitizers and clinical PDT applications. Chinese pioneered PDT protocols for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), liver carcinoma, port-wine stains (PWS) and urethral condylomata acuminata...
June 2006: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Zheng Huang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was started in the People's Republic of China in the early 1980s after domestically produced hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) became available. Since then, numerous photosensitizers have been synthesized and evaluated. Several promising ones have undergone clinical investigations and a few have entered into formal clinical trials. Various lasers and non-coherent light sources have been developed in China to facilitate domestic photosensitizers and clinical PDT applications. Chinese pioneered PDT protocols for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma, liver carcinoma, port-wine stains (PWS) and urethral condylomata acuminata...
March 2006: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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