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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928526/the-growing-season-impacts-the-accumulation-and-composition-of-flavonoids-in-grape-skins-in-two-crop-a-year-viticulture
#1
Lei Zhu, Yu Huang, Yali Zhang, Changmou Xu, Jiang Lu, Ying Wang
The influence of growing season (winter vs. summer) on the flavonoid accumulation and composition was studied in the skins of three grape cultivars for two consecutive years under a two-crop-a-year viticulture practice in Southwest China. The total anthocyanin, flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents in winter berry skins were significantly higher than those in summer berry skins for 'Kyoho' and 'Muscat Hamburg'. Reversely, the content of anthocyanin in 'NW196' winter berry was lower than summer berry. However, the percentage of diglycosylated, trihydroxylated, methylated, and acylated anthocyanins, trihydroxylated and methylated flavonols, and flavan-3-ol polymers were higher in the summer berry skins than the winter berry skins among all the three grape cultivars...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905481/reducing-copper-use-in-the-environment-the-use-of-larixol-and-larixyl-acetate-to-treat-downy-mildew-caused-by-plasmopara-viticola-in-viticulture
#2
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892512/grape-microbiome-as-a-reliable-and-persistent-signature-of-field-origin-and-environmental-conditions-in-cannonau-wine-production
#3
Valerio Mezzasalma, Anna Sandionigi, Ilaria Bruni, Antonia Bruno, Gianni Lovicu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Massimo Labra
Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885695/evaluation-of-grenache-graciano-and-tempranillo-grape-stilbene-content-after-field-applications-of-elicitors-and-nitrogen-compounds
#4
J Portu, R López, P Ewald, P Santamaría, P Winterhalter, T Garde-Cerdán
BACKGROUND: Stilbenes have a significant biological activity and are one of the most important non-flavonoid contributors to grape and wine health-related properties. The accumulation of this class of compounds could be favored by viticultural practices like the application of biostimulants. However, stilbenes concentration also depends on several factors, including e.g. grape variety. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar treatments carried out with elicitors (methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a commercial foliar spray (YD)) and nitrogen compounds (phenylalanine and urea) on the grape stilbene composition of three varieties: Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885582/effect-of-vertical-shoot-positioned-scott-henry-geneva-double-curtain-arch-cane-and-parral-training-systems-on-the-volatile-composition-of-albari%C3%A3-o-wines
#5
Mar Vilanova, Zlatina Genisheva, Miguel Tubio, Katia Álvarez, Jose Ramón Lissarrague, José Maria Oliveira
Viticultural practices influence both grape and wine quality. The influence of training systems on volatile composition was investigated for Albariño wine from Rías Baixas AOC in Northwest Spain. The odoriferous contribution of the compounds to the wine aroma was also studied. Volatile compounds belonging to ten groups (alcohols, C₆-compounds, ethyl esters, acetates, terpenols, C13-norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, volatile fatty acids, lactones and carbonyl compounds) were determined in Albariño wines from different training systems, Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), Scott-Henry (SH), Geneva Double-Curtain (GDC), Arch-Cane (AC), and Parral (P) during 2010 and 2011 vintages...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851221/combined-effects-of-early-season-leaf-removal-and-climatic-conditions-on-aroma-precursors-in-sauvignon-blanc-grapes
#6
Paolo Sivilotti, Rachele Falchi, Jose Carlos Herrera, Branka Škvarč, Lorena Butinar, Melita Sternad Lemut, Marijan Bubola, Paolo Sabbatini, Klemen Lisjak, Andreja Vanzo
Early leaf removal around the cluster zone is a common technique applied in cool climate viticulture, to regulate yield components and improve fruit quality. Despite the increasing amount of information on early leaf removal and its impact on total soluble solids, anthocyanins and polyphenols, less is known regarding aroma compounds. In order to verify the hypothesis that defoliation, applied before or after flowering, could impact the biosynthesis of thiol precursors, we performed a two year (2013 and 2014) experiment on Sauvignon blanc...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843071/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-analysis-of-cppu-treated-grape-berries-and-emission-of-volatile-compounds
#7
Wu Wang, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Jiao Feng, Jianmin Tao
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered to be one of the most popular and widespread fruit crops in the world. Numerous value added products are prepared from grape fruit and investments are being made to establish new viticulture region (Hoff et al., 2017; Imran et al., 2017). CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] is a synthetic cytokine-like plant regulator which promotes grape berry set and development. The influence of CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] on berry development of 'Shine Muscat' (Vitis labruscana Bailey×V vinifera L...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842927/effect-of-pre-bloom-leaf-removal-on-grape-aroma-composition-and-wine-sensory-profile-of-semillon-cultivar
#8
Massimiliano Alessandrini, Fabrizio Battista, Annarita Panighel, Riccardo Flamini, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. RESULTS: Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids...
August 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764015/elicitation-with-methyl-jasmonate-supported-by-precursor-feeding-with-phenylalanine-effect-on-garnacha-grape-phenolic-content
#9
Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Recent works showed that elicitation, supported by precursor feeding, could be a strategy to increase phenolic content. However, these studies have never been conducted in viticulture. This strategy could be of greater interest in Garnacha, a grape variety characterized by its low phenolic content. Therefore, this work studied elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MeJ), supported by precursor feeding with phenylalanine (Phe), in order to improve Garnacha grape phenolic content. Results showed that Phe+MeJ treatment did not improve phenolic content to a greater extent than the corresponding individual treatments...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755408/effects-of-simple-rain-shelter-cultivation-on-fatty-acid-and-amino-acid-accumulation-in-chardonnay-grape-berries
#10
Nan Meng, Zhi-Yuan Ren, Xiao-Fan Yang, Qiu-Hong Pan
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter and open-field cultivation...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741681/climatic-potential-for-summer-and-winter-wine-production
#11
Lucas Eduardo de Oliveira Aparecido, Victor Brunini Moreto, Glauco de Souza Rolim, José Reinaldo da Silva Cabral de Moraes, Taynara Tuany Borges Valeriano, Paulo Sergio de Souza
BACKGROUD: The geoviticultural multicriteria climatic classification (MCC) system provides an efficient guide for assessing the influence of climate on wine varieties. Paraná is one of the three states in southern Brazil that has great potential for the expansion of wine production, mainly due to the conditions that favour two harvests a year. The objective was to apply the geoviticultural MCC system in two production seasons. We used maximum, mean, and minimum air temperature and precipitation for 1990-2015 for the state of Paraná...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736728/the-influence-of-apical-and-basal-defoliation-on-the-canopy-structure-and-biochemical-composition-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-shiraz-grapes-and-wine
#12
Pangzhen Zhang, Xiwen Wu, Sonja Needs, Di Liu, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell
Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well-studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680438/abscisic-acid-is-a-major-regulator-of-grape-berry-ripening-onset-new-insights-into-aba-signaling-network
#13
Stefania Pilati, Giorgia Bagagli, Paolo Sonego, Marco Moretto, Daniele Brazzale, Giulia Castorina, Laura Simoni, Chiara Tonelli, Graziano Guella, Kristof Engelen, Massimo Galbiati, Claudio Moser
Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680428/the-induction-of-noble-rot-botrytis-cinerea-infection-during-postharvest-withering-changes-the-metabolome-of-grapevine-berries-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-garganega
#14
Stefano Negri, Arianna Lovato, Filippo Boscaini, Elisa Salvetti, Sandra Torriani, Mauro Commisso, Roberta Danzi, Maurizio Ugliano, Annalisa Polverari, Giovanni B Tornielli, Flavia Guzzo
The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676813/a-concise-review-on-multi-omics-data-integration-for-terroir-analysis-in-vitis-vinifera
#15
REVIEW
Pastor Jullian Fabres, Cassandra Collins, Timothy R Cavagnaro, Carlos M Rodríguez López
Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is one of the most important fruit crops, both for fresh consumption and wine and spirit production. The term terroir is frequently used in viticulture and the wine industry to relate wine sensory attributes to its geographic origin. Although, it can be cultivated in a wide range of environments, differences in growing conditions have a significant impact on fruit traits that ultimately affect wine quality. Understanding how fruit quality and yield are controlled at a molecular level in grapevine in response to environmental cues has been a major driver of research...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671281/water-status-and-must-composition-in-grapevine-cv-chardonnay-with-different-soils-and-topography-and-a-mini-meta-analysis-of-the-%C3%AE-13-c-water-potentials-correlation
#16
Luca Brillante, Olivier Mathieu, Jean Lévêque, Cornelis van Leeuwen, Benjamin Bois
BACKGROUND: The measurement of carbon isotopic discrimination in grape sugars at harvest (δ(13) C) is an integrated assessment of water status during ripening. It is an efficient alternative to assess variability in the field and discriminate between management zones in precision viticulture, but further work is needed to completely understand the signal. RESULTS: This work, spanning over three years, performed in a hillslope toposequence in Burgundy, delineates the relationships between main soil properties (gravel amount, slope, texture) and the grapevine water status assessed by δ(13) C...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634482/whole-plant-temperature-manipulation-affects-flavonoid-metabolism-and-the-transcriptome-of-grapevine-berries
#17
Chiara Pastore, Silvia Dal Santo, Sara Zenoni, Nushin Movahed, Gianluca Allegro, Gabriele Valentini, Ilaria Filippetti, Giovanni Battista Tornielli
Among environmental factors, temperature is the one that poses serious threats to viticulture in the present and future scenarios of global climate change. In this work, we evaluated the effects on berry ripening of two thermal regimes, imposed from veraison to harvest. Potted vines were grown in two air-conditioned greenhouses with High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) regimes characterized by 26 and 21°C as average and 42 and 35°C as maximum air daily temperature, respectively. We conducted analyses of the main berry compositional parameters, berry skin flavonoids and berry skin transcriptome on HT and LT berries sampled during ripening...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610731/moscatel-vine-shoot-extracts-as-a-grapevine-biostimulant-to-enhance-wine-quality
#18
R Sánchez-Gómez, A Zalacain, F Pardo, G L Alonso, M R Salinas
Non-aromatic vine-shoot extracts (Airén) has been recently proposed as "viticultural biostimulants" when applied to grapevine. In this paper, the application of extracts from non-toasted (MVS) and toasted (MVSToasted) vine-shoots from the well-known aromatic variety such Moscatel were applied on Airén grapevine leaves, observing an increased for grape yield and wines with a lower alcohol degree. All wines at the end of the alcoholic fermentation were characterized by their fruity and floral descriptors, especially MVS wines; and 4 months later, MSV and MVSToasted wines surprised by their higher spicy notes, which correspond with the highest OAVs values for compounds such as norisoprenoids (β-damascenone), vanillin derivatives (vanillin, acetovanillone) and volatile phenols (guaiacol, syringol), compared to control wine...
August 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607551/robust-grape-detector-based-on-svms-and-hog-features
#19
Pavel Škrabánek, Petr Doležel
Detection of grapes in real-life images is a serious task solved by researchers dealing with precision viticulture. In the case of white wine varieties, grape detectors based on SVMs classifiers, in combination with a HOG descriptor, have proven to be very efficient. Simplified versions of the detectors seem to be the best solution for practical applications. They offer the best known performance versus time-complexity ratio. As our research showed, a conversion of RGB images to grayscale format, which is implemented at an image preprocessing level, is ideal means for further improvement of performance of the detectors...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587209/variability-in-the-content-of-trans-resveratrol-trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-and-r2-viniferin-in-grape-cane-of-seven-vitis-vinifera-l-varieties-during-a-three-year-study
#20
Jan Tříska, Naděžda Vrchotová, Josef Balík, Ivo Soural, Radek Sotolář
Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014-2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L...
June 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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