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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140987/dating-the-beginning-of-the-roman-viticultural-model-in-the-western-mediterranean-the-case-study-of-chianti-central-italy
#1
Riccardo Aversano, Boris Basile, Mauro Paolo Buonincontri, Francesca Carucci, Domenico Carputo, Luigi Frusciante, Gaetano Di Pasquale
Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120764/effects-of-a-combination-of-elicitation-and-precursor-feeding-on-grape-amino-acid-composition-through-foliar-applications-to-garnacha-vineyard
#2
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Vine foliar applications of phenylalanine (Phe) or methyl jasmonate (MeJ) could improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there are no reports focusing on the effects of elicitation supported by precursor feeding on must amino acid composition in grapevines. The aim of this research was to study the effect of the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) supported by phenylalanine (Phe) as a precursor feeding (MeJ+Phe) and its application individually on must amino acid composition. Results showed that foliar Phe and MeJ treatments decreased the concentration of most of the studied amino acids with respect to the control (p≤0...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118776/design-of-a-custom-rt-qpcr-array-for-assignment-of-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-traditional-portuguese-grapevine-varieties
#3
Luísa C Carvalho, Marília Silva, João L Coito, Margarida P Rocheta, Sara Amâncio
Widespread agricultural losses attributed to drought, often combined with high temperatures, frequently occur in the field, namely in Mediterranean climate areas, where the existing scenarios for climate change indicate an increase in the frequency of heat waves and severe drought events in summer. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most cultivated fruit species in the world and the most valuable one and is a traditional Mediterranean species. Currently, viticulture must adjust to impending climate changes that are already pushing vine-growers toward the use of ancient and resilient varieties...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105800/biocontrol-ability-of-killer-yeasts-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-isolated-from-wine-against-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-on-grape
#4
Zongling Liu, Shuang Du, Yi Ren, Yanlin Liu
A total of 216 killer yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated from wine, were evaluated in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a pre-harvest anthracnose agent of grape. Three of these yeast isolates were tested positive for antagonizing C. gloeosporioides and were further evaluated for their mechanisms as biological control agents (BCAs): production of antifungal compounds, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of C. gloeosporioides conidia germination, colonization on grape berry, and efficiency in controlling anthracnose of grape...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089133/modeling-ecotoxicity-impacts-in-vineyard-production-addressing-spatial-differentiation-for-copper-fungicides
#5
Nancy Peña, Assumpció Antón, Andreas Kamilaris, Peter Fantke
Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016677/study-on-the-presence-of-ochratoxin-%C3%AE-in-cultures-of-ochratoxigenic-and-non-ochratoxigenic-strains-of-aspergillus-carbonarius
#6
M Rosa Bragulat, Alba Eustaquio, F Javier Cabañes
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen which is found in a wide variety of common foods and beverages and it is produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin α (OTα), a major metabolite of OTA, has also been reported to occur in cultures of OTA-producing species. However there is some controversial about the participation of OTα in the biosynthesis of OTA, mainly because its biosynthesis pathway has not yet been completely characterized. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in food commodities such as wine, grapes or dried vine fruits from main viticultural regions worldwide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946713/comparison-of-dilution-filtration-and-microwave-digestion-sample-pretreatments-in-elemental-profiling-of-wine-by-icp-ms
#7
Joshua Godshaw, Helene Hopfer, Jenny Nelson, Susan E Ebeler
Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported...
September 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945988/bacteria-and-smoke-water-extract-improve-growth-and-induce-the-synthesis-of-volatile-defense-mechanisms-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#8
María Victoria Salomon, Patricia Piccoli, Iván Funes Pinter, Wendy Ann Stirk, Manoj Kulkarni, Johannes van Staden, Rubén Bottini
Sustainable agricultural practices have been developed as alternative to the use of agrochemicals, and viticulture is not exempt of that. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and smoke water extracts (SW) are environmentally-friendly alternative to those agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the single or combined effects of SW and the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) on the physiology and biochemistry of grapevines plants. After 38 days, single applications of SW solutions and bacterial suspensions increase rooting and root length...
September 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928526/the-growing-season-impacts-the-accumulation-and-composition-of-flavonoids-in-grape-skins-in-two-crop-a-year-viticulture
#9
Lei Zhu, Yu Huang, Yali Zhang, Changmou Xu, Jiang Lu, Ying Wang
The influence of growing season (winter vs. summer) on the flavonoid accumulation and composition was studied in the skins of three grape cultivars for two consecutive years under a two-crop-a-year viticulture practice in Southwest China. The total anthocyanin, flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents in winter berry skins were significantly higher than those in summer berry skins for 'Kyoho' and 'Muscat Hamburg'. Reversely, the content of anthocyanin in 'NW196' winter berry was lower than summer berry. However, the percentage of diglycosylated, trihydroxylated, methylated, and acylated anthocyanins, trihydroxylated and methylated flavonols, and flavan-3-ol polymers were higher in the summer berry skins than the winter berry skins among all the three grape cultivars...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905481/reducing-copper-use-in-the-environment-the-use-of-larixol-and-larixyl-acetate-to-treat-downy-mildew-caused-by-plasmopara-viticola-in-viticulture
#10
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892512/grape-microbiome-as-a-reliable-and-persistent-signature-of-field-origin-and-environmental-conditions-in-cannonau-wine-production
#11
Valerio Mezzasalma, Anna Sandionigi, Ilaria Bruni, Antonia Bruno, Gianni Lovicu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Massimo Labra
Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885695/evaluation-of-grenache-graciano-and-tempranillo-grape-stilbene-content-after-field-applications-of-elicitors-and-nitrogen-compounds
#12
Javier Portu, Rosa López, Philipp Ewald, Pilar Santamaría, Peter Winterhalter, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
BACKGROUND: Stilbenes have a significant biological activity and are one of the most important non-flavonoid contributors to grape and wine health-related properties. The accumulation of this class of compounds could be favored by viticultural practices such as the application of biostimulants. However, stilbene concentration also depends on several factors, including, for example, grape variety. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar treatments carried out with elicitors (methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a commercial foliar spray (YD)) and nitrogen compounds (phenylalanine and urea) on the grape stilbene composition of three varieties: Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885582/effect-of-vertical-shoot-positioned-scott-henry-geneva-double-curtain-arch-cane-and-parral-training-systems-on-the-volatile-composition-of-albari%C3%A3-o-wines
#13
Mar Vilanova, Zlatina Genisheva, Miguel Tubio, Katia Álvarez, Jose Ramón Lissarrague, José Maria Oliveira
Viticultural practices influence both grape and wine quality. The influence of training systems on volatile composition was investigated for Albariño wine from Rías Baixas AOC in Northwest Spain. The odoriferous contribution of the compounds to the wine aroma was also studied. Volatile compounds belonging to ten groups (alcohols, C₆-compounds, ethyl esters, acetates, terpenols, C13-norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, volatile fatty acids, lactones and carbonyl compounds) were determined in Albariño wines from different training systems, Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), Scott-Henry (SH), Geneva Double-Curtain (GDC), Arch-Cane (AC), and Parral (P) during 2010 and 2011 vintages...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851221/combined-effects-of-early-season-leaf-removal-and-climatic-conditions-on-aroma-precursors-in-sauvignon-blanc-grapes
#14
Paolo Sivilotti, Rachele Falchi, Jose Carlos Herrera, Branka Škvarč, Lorena Butinar, Melita Sternad Lemut, Marijan Bubola, Paolo Sabbatini, Klemen Lisjak, Andreja Vanzo
Early leaf removal around the cluster zone is a common technique applied in cool climate viticulture, to regulate yield components and improve fruit quality. Despite the increasing amount of information on early leaf removal and its impact on total soluble solids, anthocyanins, and polyphenols, less is known regarding aroma compounds. In order to verify the hypothesis that defoliation, applied before or after flowering, could impact the biosynthesis of thiol precursors, we performed a two year (2013 and 2014) experiment on Sauvignon blanc...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843071/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-analysis-of-cppu-treated-grape-berries-and-emission-of-volatile-compounds
#15
Wu Wang, Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Jiao Feng, Jianmin Tao
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered to be one of the most popular and widespread fruit crops in the world. Numerous value added products are prepared from grape fruit and investments are being made to establish new viticulture region (Hoff et al., 2017; Imran et al., 2017). CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] is a synthetic cytokine-like plant regulator which promotes grape berry set and development. The influence of CPPU [forchlorfenuron N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea] on berry development of 'Shine Muscat' (Vitis labruscana Bailey×V vinifera L...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842927/effect-of-pre-bloom-leaf-removal-on-grape-aroma-composition-and-wine-sensory-profile-of-semillon-cultivar
#16
Massimiliano Alessandrini, Fabrizio Battista, Annarita Panighel, Riccardo Flamini, Diego Tomasi
BACKGROUND: Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. RESULTS: Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids...
August 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764015/elicitation-with-methyl-jasmonate-supported-by-precursor-feeding-with-phenylalanine-effect-on-garnacha-grape-phenolic-content
#17
Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Recent works showed that elicitation, supported by precursor feeding, could be a strategy to increase phenolic content. However, these studies have never been conducted in viticulture. This strategy could be of greater interest in Garnacha, a grape variety characterized by its low phenolic content. Therefore, this work studied elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MeJ), supported by precursor feeding with phenylalanine (Phe), in order to improve Garnacha grape phenolic content. Results showed that Phe+MeJ treatment did not improve phenolic content to a greater extent than the corresponding individual treatments...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755408/effects-of-simple-rain-shelter-cultivation-on-fatty-acid-and-amino-acid-accumulation-in-chardonnay-grape-berries
#18
Nan Meng, Zhi-Yuan Ren, Xiao-Fan Yang, Qiu-Hong Pan
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter and open-field cultivation...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741681/climatic-potential-for-summer-and-winter-wine-production
#19
Lucas Eduardo de Oliveira Aparecido, Victor Brunini Moreto, Glauco de Souza Rolim, José Reinaldo da Silva Cabral de Moraes, Taynara Tuany Borges Valeriano, Paulo Sergio de Souza
BACKGROUD: The geoviticultural multicriteria climatic classification (MCC) system provides an efficient guide for assessing the influence of climate on wine varieties. Paraná is one of the three states in southern Brazil that has great potential for the expansion of wine production, mainly due to the conditions that favour two harvests a year. The objective was to apply the geoviticultural MCC system in two production seasons. We used maximum, mean, and minimum air temperature and precipitation for 1990-2015 for the state of Paraná...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736728/the-influence-of-apical-and-basal-defoliation-on-the-canopy-structure-and-biochemical-composition-of-vitis-vinifera-cv-shiraz-grapes-and-wine
#20
Pangzhen Zhang, Xiwen Wu, Sonja Needs, Di Liu, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell
Defoliation is a commonly used viticultural technique to balance the ratio between grapevine vegetation and fruit. Defoliation is conducted around the fruit zone to reduce the leaf photosynthetic area, and to increase sunlight exposure of grape bunches. Apical leaf removal is not commonly practiced, and therefore its influence on canopy structure and resultant wine aroma is not well-studied. This study quantified the influences of apical and basal defoliation on canopy structure parameters using canopy cover photography and computer vision algorithms...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
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