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Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Margarida Rocheta, João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Luísa Carvalho, Jörg D Becker, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Sara Amâncio
BACKGROUND: Predicted climate changes announce an increase of extreme environmental conditions including drought and excessive heat and light in classical viticultural regions. Thus, understanding how grapevine responds to these conditions and how different genotypes can adapt, is crucial for informed decisions on accurate viticultural actions. Global transcriptome analyses are useful for this purpose as the response to these abiotic stresses involves the interplay of complex and diverse cascades of physiological, cellular and molecular events...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
G Cola, O Failla, D Maghradze, L Megrelidze, L Mariani
While the climate of Western Europe has been deeply affected by the abrupt climate change that took place in the late '1980s of the twentieth century, a similar signal is detected only few years later, in 1994, in Georgia. Grapevine phenology is deeply influenced by climate and this paper aimed to analyze how phenological timing changed before and after the climatic change of 1994. Availability of thermal resources in the two climatic phases for the five altitudinal belts in the 0-1250-m range was analyzed...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Hugo Malaurie, Nathalie Mailhac
In most vineyards worldwide, agents of grapevine trunk diseases represent a real threat for viticulture and are responsible for significant economic loss to the wine industry. The conventional microbiological isolation technique used to diagnose this disease is tedious and frequently leads to false negatives. Thus, a dire need exists for an alternative method to detect this disease. One possible way involves infrared spectroscopy, which is a rapid, nondestructive analytical tool that is commonly used for quality control of feed stuffs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
L Lamastra, M Balderacchi, A Di Guardo, M Monchiero, M Trevisan
The wine industry is definitely committed in sustainability: the stakeholders' interest for the topic is constantly growing and a wide number of sustainability programs have been launched in recent years. Most of these programs are focusing on the environmental aspects as environmental sustainability indicators, greenhouse gases emissions and the use of Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Among the environmental indicators the carbon and the water footprint are often used. These indicators, while being useful to assess the sustainability performance of the winegrowing farms, do not take into account important aspects related to the agronomic management of the vineyard...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ignacio Tortosa, José Mariano Escalona, Josefina Bota, Magdalena Tomás, Esther Hernández, Enrique García Escudero, Hipólito Medrano
Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE...
October 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Gustavo Brunetto, George Wellington Bastos de Melo, Roberto Terzano, Daniele Del Buono, Stefania Astolfi, Nicola Tomasi, Youry Pii, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco
Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants...
November 2016: Chemosphere
João Drumonde-Neves, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Teresa Lima, Dorit Schuller, Célia Pais
One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis...
2016: PloS One
Elizabeth Kecskeméti, Beate Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Annette Reineke
Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Steven R Schultze, Paolo Sabbatini, Lifeng Luo
Historically, Michigan's climate had mainly three challenges for grape production: growing season temperatures were too low, the growing season was too short and there was too much rain near harvest. However, climate change in the past decades has led to a vastly different landscape that is evolving to meet the new climate. Recently, there has been a significant move from Vitis labrusca (North American) grape plantings to Vitis vinifera (wine grapes) as a consequence of Michigan's shifting climate. The goal of this study was to analyze the historical shift in climate and its potential future impact on the grape industry...
2016: SpringerPlus
Gianfranco Picone, Alessia Trimigno, Paola Tessarin, Silvia Donnini, Adamo Domenico Rombolà, Francesco Capozzi
The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Silvia Donnini, Paola Tessarin, Alejandra Ribera-Fonseca, Michele Di Foggia, Giuseppina Paola Parpinello, Adamo Domenico Rombolà
Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Barbara Bovo, Chiara Nadai, Chiara Vendramini, Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos Junior, Milena Carlot, Andrea Skelin, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Angela Capece, Lisa Granchi, Simona Guerrini, Silvia Mangani, Rossana Romaniello, Massimo Vincenzini, Patrizia Romano
Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Markus Rienth, Laurent Torregrosa, Gautier Sarah, Morgane Ardisson, Jean-Marc Brillouet, Charles Romieu
BACKGROUND: Fruit composition at harvest is strongly dependent on the temperature during the grapevine developmental cycle. This raises serious concerns regarding the sustainability of viticulture and the socio-economic repercussions of global warming for many regions where the most heat-tolerant varieties are already cultivated. Despite recent progress, the direct and indirect effects of temperature on fruit development are far from being understood. Experimental limitations such as fluctuating environmental conditions, intra-cluster heterogeneity and the annual reproductive cycle introduce unquantifiable biases for gene expression and physiological studies with grapevine...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Jonathan R Mosedale, Kirsten E Abernethy, Richard Smart, Robert J Wilson, Ilya M D Maclean
The cultivation of grapevines for winemaking, known as viticulture, is widely cited as a climate-sensitive agricultural system that has been used as an indicator of both historic and contemporary climate change. Numerous studies have questioned the viability of major viticulture regions under future climate projections. We review the methods used to study the impacts of climate change on viticulture in the light of what is known about the effects of climate and weather on the yields and quality of vineyard harvests...
July 2, 2016: Global Change Biology
S Bertin, V Cavalieri, I Gribaudo, D Sacco, C Marzachì, D Bosco
Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nicholas A Bokulich, Thomas S Collins, Chad Masarweh, Greg Allen, Hildegarde Heymann, Susan E Ebeler, David A Mills
UNLABELLED: Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California...
2016: MBio
Luca Brillante, Nicola Belfiore, Federica Gaiotti, Lorenzo Lovat, Luigi Sansone, Stefano Poni, Diego Tomasi
Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE) without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin) and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene), traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control...
2016: PloS One
Laura Millán, M Carmen Sampedro, Alicia Sánchez, Cédric Delporte, Pierre Van Antwerpen, M Aranzazu Goicolea, Ramón J Barrio
Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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