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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092750/assessing-common-birds-ecological-requirements-to-address-nature-conservation-in-permanent-crops-lessons-from-italian-vineyards
#1
Giacomo Assandri, Giuseppe Bogliani, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla
Viticulture has contributed to shaping cultural landscapes in several regions across all continents. Recent farming intensification is causing landscape homogenization and biodiversity loss in several of those areas, but knowledge about the impacts on biodiversity in vineyards is still scarce. Simplified agro-ecosystems resulting from intensification host mainly generalist and common species, which still play a key role in the regulation of ecosystems and in the provision of ecosystem services. We assessed the abundance of 11 common bird species at 47 linear transects in a vineyard-dominated landscape in Trentino (NE Italy), in both spring and winter, and analysed abundance variation in relation to three independent groups of predictors: landscape, management, and topographic-climatic variables...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044321/combined-effect-of-virus-infection-and-water-stress-on-water-flow-and-water-economy-in-grapevines
#2
Hanan El Aou-Ouad, Alicia Pou, Magdalena Tomàs, Rafael Montero, Miquel Ribas-Carbo, Hipólito Medrano, Josefina Bota
Water limitation is one of the major threats affecting grapevine production. Thus, improving water use efficiency (WUE) is crucial for a sustainable viticulture industry in Mediterranean regions. Under field conditions, water stress is often combined with viral infections since those are present in major grape-growing areas worldwide. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is one of the most important viruses, affecting grapevines. Indeed, the optimization of water use in a real context of virus infection is an important topic that needs to be understood...
January 3, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999345/combined-use-of-s-pombe-and-l-thermotolerans-in-winemaking-beneficial-effects-determined-through-the-study-of-wines-analytical-characteristics
#3
Ángel Benito, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
The most common way to produce red wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid bacteria for malolactic fermentation. This traditional winemaking methodology produces microbiologically stable red wines. However, under specific conditions off-flavours can occur, wine quality can suffer and human health problems are possible, especially after the second fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria. In warm countries, problems during the malolactic fermentation arise because of the high pH of the must, which makes it very difficult to properly control the process...
December 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983669/towards-automated-large-scale-3d-phenotyping-of-vineyards-under-field-conditions
#4
Johann Christian Rose, Anna Kicherer, Markus Wieland, Lasse Klingbeil, Reinhard Töpfer, Heiner Kuhlmann
In viticulture, phenotypic data are traditionally collected directly in the field via visual and manual means by an experienced person. This approach is time consuming, subjective and prone to human errors. In recent years, research therefore has focused strongly on developing automated and non-invasive sensor-based methods to increase data acquisition speed, enhance measurement accuracy and objectivity and to reduce labor costs. While many 2D methods based on image processing have been proposed for field phenotyping, only a few 3D solutions are found in the literature...
December 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979080/distribution-of-yloid-in-soil-grapevine-system-vitis-vinifera-l-as-tool-for-geographical-characterization-of-agro-food-products-a-two-years-case-study-on-different-grafting-combinations
#5
Antonino Pisciotta, Livia Tutone, Filippo Saiano
The knowledge of a chemistry relationship between the soil and the agricultural products is an important tool for the quality assessment of food. We studied YLOID (Y, La and lanthanoids), recognized as very useful tracers due their coherent and predictable behavior, to trace and evaluate their distribution from soil to the grape in Vitis vinifera L. Because much of the world's viticulture is based on grafting, and rootstocks have proved affect vine growth, yield, fruit and wine quality, we carried out experimental trials to analyse the YLOID distribution of two different red cultivars, grafted onto six different rootstocks, on the same soil...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917288/towards-an-open-grapevine-information-system
#6
REVIEW
A-F Adam-Blondon, M Alaux, C Pommier, D Cantu, Z-M Cheng, G R Cramer, C Davies, S Delrot, L Deluc, G Di Gaspero, J Grimplet, A Fennell, J P Londo, P Kersey, F Mattivi, S Naithani, P Neveu, M Nikolski, M Pezzotti, B I Reisch, R Töpfer, M A Vivier, D Ware, H Quesneville
Viticulture, like other fields of agriculture, is currently facing important challenges that will be addressed only through sustained, dedicated and coordinated research. Although the methods used in biology have evolved tremendously in recent years and now involve the routine production of large data sets of varied nature, in many domains of study, including grapevine research, there is a need to improve the findability, accessibility, interoperability and reusability (FAIR-ness) of these data. Considering the heterogeneous nature of the data produced, the transnational nature of the scientific community and the experience gained elsewhere, we have formed an open working group, in the framework of the International Grapevine Genome Program (www...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890088/fungal-endophytic-communities-associated-to-the-phyllosphere-of-grapevine-cultivars-under-different-types-of-management
#7
Carla Marisa Reis Varanda, Mônica Oliveira, Patrick Materatski, Miguel Landum, Maria Ivone Esteves Clara, Maria do Rosário Félix
Fungal endophytes present in different asymptomatic grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera L.) located in different vineyards within Alentejo, a highly important viticulture region in Portugal, were identified in this study. Sampled grapevine plants included the three most representative cultivars in the region, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Aragonez, growing under two different modes of management, conventional and biological. Sixteen fungal taxa were identified through sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825476/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-lachancea-thermotolerans-typing-and-population-structure-of-wine-associated-isolates
#8
Georgios Banilas, Georgios Sgouros, Aspasia Nisiotou
Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans is an important member of the grape/wine yeast community with great technological potential for the wine industry. Although several molecular marker techniques have been developed for typing different yeast species, no one has been designed so far for L. thermotolerans. Here we present a simple and efficient method based on a multilocus SSR analysis for molecular typing and genetic diversity assessment of L. thermotolerans isolates. Following whole genome screening, five polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected and tested on a panel of grape isolates from different vineyards of two geographically separated viticultural zones, Nemea and Peza, in Greece...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798692/spatial-variability-of-grapevine-bud-burst-percentage-and-its-association-with-soil-properties-at-field-scale
#9
Tao Li, Xinmei Hao, Shaozhong Kang
There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761135/the-influence-of-genotype-and-environment-on-small-rna-profiles-in-grapevine-berry
#10
Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto, Lucio Brancadoro, Silvia Dal Santo, Gabriella De Lorenzis, Mario Pezzotti, Blake C Meyers, Mario E Pè, Erica Mica
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733112/transcriptomic-comparison-between-two-vitis-vinifera-l-varieties-trincadeira-and-touriga-nacional-in-abiotic-stress-conditions
#11
Margarida Rocheta, João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Luísa Carvalho, Jörg D Becker, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Sara Amâncio
BACKGROUND: Predicted climate changes announce an increase of extreme environmental conditions including drought and excessive heat and light in classical viticultural regions. Thus, understanding how grapevine responds to these conditions and how different genotypes can adapt, is crucial for informed decisions on accurate viticultural actions. Global transcriptome analyses are useful for this purpose as the response to these abiotic stresses involves the interplay of complex and diverse cascades of physiological, cellular and molecular events...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714505/grapevine-phenology-and-climate-change-in-georgia
#12
G Cola, O Failla, D Maghradze, L Megrelidze, L Mariani
While the climate of Western Europe has been deeply affected by the abrupt climate change that took place in the late '1980s of the twentieth century, a similar signal is detected only few years later, in 1994, in Georgia. Grapevine phenology is deeply influenced by climate and this paper aimed to analyze how phenological timing changed before and after the climatic change of 1994. Availability of thermal resources in the two climatic phases for the five altitudinal belts in the 0-1250-m range was analyzed...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693907/an-infrared-diagnostic-system-to-detect-causal-agents-of-grapevine-trunk-diseases
#13
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia, Hugo Malaurie, Nathalie Mailhac
In most vineyards worldwide, agents of grapevine trunk diseases represent a real threat for viticulture and are responsible for significant economic loss to the wine industry. The conventional microbiological isolation technique used to diagnose this disease is tedious and frequently leads to false negatives. Thus, a dire need exists for an alternative method to detect this disease. One possible way involves infrared spectroscopy, which is a rapid, nondestructive analytical tool that is commonly used for quality control of feed stuffs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601053/a-novel-fuzzy-expert-system-to-assess-the-sustainability-of-the-viticulture-at-the-wine-estate-scale
#14
L Lamastra, M Balderacchi, A Di Guardo, M Monchiero, M Trevisan
The wine industry is definitely committed in sustainability: the stakeholders' interest for the topic is constantly growing and a wide number of sustainability programs have been launched in recent years. Most of these programs are focusing on the environmental aspects as environmental sustainability indicators, greenhouse gases emissions and the use of Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Among the environmental indicators the carbon and the water footprint are often used. These indicators, while being useful to assess the sustainability performance of the winegrowing farms, do not take into account important aspects related to the agronomic management of the vineyard...
September 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593461/exploring-the-genetic-variability-in-water-use-efficiency-evaluation-of-inter-and-intra-cultivar-genetic-diversity-in-grapevines
#15
Ignacio Tortosa, José Mariano Escalona, Josefina Bota, Magdalena Tomás, Esther Hernández, Enrique García Escudero, Hipólito Medrano
Genetic improvement of crop Water Use Efficiency (WUE) is a general goal because the increasing water scarcity and the trend to a more sustainable agriculture. For grapevines, this subject is relevant and need an urgent response because their wide distribution in semi-arid areas. New cultivars are difficult to introduce in viticulture due to the narrow dependency of consumer appreciation often linked to a certain particular wine taste. Clones of reputed cultivars would presumably be more accepted but little is known on the intra-cultivar genetic variability of the WUE...
October 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513550/copper-accumulation-in-vineyard-soils-rhizosphere-processes-and-agronomic-practices-to-limit-its-toxicity
#16
REVIEW
Gustavo Brunetto, George Wellington Bastos de Melo, Roberto Terzano, Daniele Del Buono, Stefania Astolfi, Nicola Tomasi, Youry Pii, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco
Viticulture represents an important agricultural practice in many countries worldwide. Yet, the continuous use of fungicides has caused copper (Cu) accumulation in soils, which represent a major environmental and toxicological concern. Despite being an important micronutrient, Cu can be a potential toxicant at high concentrations since it may cause morphological, anatomical and physiological changes in plants, decreasing both food productivity and quality. Rhizosphere processes can, however, actively control the uptake and translocation of Cu in plants...
November 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500638/yeast-biodiversity-in-vineyard-environments-is-increased-by-human-intervention
#17
João Drumonde-Neves, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Teresa Lima, Dorit Schuller, Célia Pais
One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500633/are-epiphytic-microbial-communities-in-the-carposphere-of-ripening-grape-clusters-vitis-vinifera-l-different-between-conventional-organic-and-biodynamic-grapes
#18
Elizabeth Kecskeméti, Beate Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Annette Reineke
Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478736/effects-of-a-warming-trend-on-cool-climate-viticulture-in-michigan-usa
#19
Steven R Schultze, Paolo Sabbatini, Lifeng Luo
Historically, Michigan's climate had mainly three challenges for grape production: growing season temperatures were too low, the growing season was too short and there was too much rain near harvest. However, climate change in the past decades has led to a vastly different landscape that is evolving to meet the new climate. Recently, there has been a significant move from Vitis labrusca (North American) grape plantings to Vitis vinifera (wine grapes) as a consequence of Michigan's shifting climate. The goal of this study was to analyze the historical shift in climate and its potential future impact on the grape industry...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451171/-1-h-nmr-foodomics-reveals-that-the-biodynamic-and-the-organic-cultivation-managements-produce-different-grape-berries-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-sangiovese
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gianfranco Picone, Alessia Trimigno, Paola Tessarin, Silvia Donnini, Adamo Domenico Rombolà, Francesco Capozzi
The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
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