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Giovanni Agati, Kamel Soudani, Lorenza Tuccio, Elisa Fierini, Naima Ben Ghozlen, El Mostafa Fadaili, Annalisa Romani, Zoran G Cerovic
We analyzed the potential of non-destructive optical sensing of grape skin anthocyanins for selective harvesting in precision viticulture. We measured anthocyanins by a hand-held fluorescence optical sensor on a 7-ha Sangiovese vineyard plot in central Italy. Optical indices obtained by the sensor were calibrated for the transformation in units of anthocyanins per berry mass, i.e. mg g-1 berry fresh weight. A full protocol for optimal data filtration, interpolation and homogenous zones delineation based on a very large number of optical measurements was proposed...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Antoine Bigard, Dargie T Berhe, Eleonora Maoddi, Yannick Sire, Jean-Michel Boursiquot, Hernan Ojeda, Jean-Pierre Péros, Agnès Doligez, Charles Romieu, Laurent Torregrosa
The wine industry is facing critical issues due to climate changes since production is established on very tight Genotype × Environment interaction bases. While, some cultivation practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vines, e.g., the use of irrigation to mitigate drought, the deleterious impacts of warming on fruit development are difficult to manage. Elevated temperature alters grapevine fruit growth and composition, with a critical increase of the sugars/organic acids ratio. Select grapes with improved metabolite balances to offset high temperature effects is a valuable option to sustain viticulture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Luigi Mariani, Gabriele Cola, David Maghradze, Osvaldo Failla, Franco Zavatti
The objective of this work is to investigate the Holocenic climate cycles that may have influenced the domestication of grapevine in the Subcaucasian area and its subsequent spread in Eurasia. The analysis covered the longitudinal belt ranging from the Iberian Peninsula to Japan, seen as the preferential pathway for the Holocenic spread of grapevine and many other crops in Eurasia. Spectral analysis was considered as the criterion of investigation and the Holocenic cycles were analyzed considering different geochemical and biological proxies, of which seven are directly referred to vine...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
João Drumonde-Neves, Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Eugénia Vieira, Inês Mendes, Teresa Lima, Dorit Schuller, Célia Pais
Aiming to elucidate the roles that ecology and geography play in shaping the differentiation of fermentative grape-associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations, several locations on six islands of the Azores Archipelago were surveyed. A total of 249 strains were isolated from spontaneous fermentations of grape samples from several varieties of two distinct grapevine species (Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L.), in vineyards that are under regular cultivation or in abandoned vineyards. Strains were genetically analyzed using a set of nine microsatellite loci, and also phenotypically characterized using relevant physiological/biotechnological tests...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Marco Aurélio Siqueira Gama, Rosa Ramos Mariano, Wilson José Silva Júnior, Antônio Roberto Gomes Farias, Maria Angélica Guimarães Barbosa, Marisa A S V Ferreira, César Raimundo Lima Costa Júnior, Liliana A Santos, Elineide B Souza
Grapevine bacterial canker, which is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, is one of the most important grapevine diseases in the northeastern region of Brazil. This disease causes severe damage and represents a high potential risk to the development of Brazilian viticulture. In turn, pigmented isolates pathogenic to cashew plant, making cashew fruit unfit for sale, also have been detected in Northeastern Brazil. Given that the taxonomic position of these bacteria is unclear, the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) technique, average nucleotide identity (ANI) values and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA) were used to analyze their phylogenetic relationship in relation to other Xanthomonas species...
April 24, 2018: Phytopathology
Olaf J Schelezki, Katja Šuklje, Paul K Boss, David W Jeffery
This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Laura Rustioni, Gabriele Cola, Josh VanderWeide, Patrick Murad, Osvaldo Failla, Paolo Sabbatini
Phenolic ripening represents a major interest for quality wine producers. Nevertheless, climatic or genotypical limitations can often prevent optimal maturation process. During winemaking seeds can be easily separated and technologically processed to improve their quality. Relying on the key role of oxidation for phenolic ripening, a freeze-thaw treatment was proposed to improve the fruit quality for potential use in challenging growing conditions. The experiment was carried on in two distinctive viticultural areas, Michigan and Italy...
September 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Emmanuelle Vaudour, Zoran G Cerovic, Dav M Ebengo, Gwendal Latouche
For adequate crop and soil management, rapid and accurate techniques for monitoring soil properties are particularly important when a farmer starts up his activities and needs a diagnosis of his cultivated fields. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of fluorescence measured directly on 146 whole soil solid samples, for predicting key soil properties at the scale of a 6 ha Mediterranean wine estate with contrasting soils. UV-Vis fluorescence measurements were carried out in conjunction with reflectance measurements in the Vis-NIR-SWIR range...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
Kubilay Yıldırım, Adem Yağcı, Seda Sucu, Sümeyye Tunç
Roots are the major interface between the plant and various stress factors in the soil environment. Alteration of root system architecture (RSA) (root length, spread, number and length of lateral roots) in response to environmental changes is known to be an important strategy for plant adaptation and productivity. In light of ongoing climate changes and global warming predictions, the breeding of drought-tolerant grapevine cultivars is becoming a crucial factor for developing a sustainable viticulture. Root-trait modeling of grapevine rootstock for drought stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, may provide a valuable background for breeding studies in viticulture...
March 31, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vicken Hillis, Mark Lubell, Matthew Hoffman
Agricultural regions in the United States are experimenting with sustainability partnerships that, among other goals, seek to improve growers' ability to manage their vineyards sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the association between winegrape grower participation in sustainability partnership activities and practice adoption in three winegrowing regions of California. Using data gathered from a survey of 822 winegrape growers, we find a positive association between participation and adoption of sustainable practices, which holds most strongly for practices in which the perceived private benefits outweigh the costs, and for growers with relatively dense social networks...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bojana Stanimirovic, Dragan Vujovic, Boris Pejin, Jelena Popovic Djordjevic, Radojka Maletic, Petar Raicevic, Zivoslav Tesic
The elemental profile of the leaf samples of three Cabernet Franc clone candidates recently developed in Serbia (Nos. 02, 010 and 012) obtained in the last phase of clonal selection was examined within this study by ICP-OES. Optimal content of Al, Fe, Cu and Zn, the metals well known for their links with a number of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, has actually highlighted the potential of the leaf sample No. 10 to afford a novel food supplement of natural origin possessing well balanced metal ingredients...
March 30, 2018: Natural Product Research
Yu Wang, Lei He, Qiuhong Pan, Changqing Duan, Jun Wang
Basal defoliation, as one of the most common viticulture management practices to modify fruit zone microclimates, has been widely applied aiming at improving wine quality. Wine aroma contributes greatly to wine quality, yet the effects of basal defoliation on wine aromas show discrepancies according to previous studies. This study is a meta-analysis performed to dissect the factors related to the influence of basal defoliation on volatile compounds in wine. Timing of basal defoliation plays an important role in the concentration of varietal aromas in wine...
March 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Adrian Spisso, Federico J V Gomez, María Fernanda Silva
Rising interest in ellagic acid (EA) present in functional foods is supported by its antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial and antioxidative effects. The present approach presents for the first time the determination of ellagic acid and other phenolics in wines by miniaturized solid phase extraction prior to capillary zone electrophoresis with UV. The extraction was performed using a home-made miniaturized pipette-tip column. The procedure allowed a significant reduction in conditioning/sample/washing/elution volumes...
March 23, 2018: Electrophoresis
Paulo A A Ferreira, Carina Marchezan, Carlos A Ceretta, Camila P Tarouco, Cledimar R Lourenzi, Leandro S Silva, Hilda H Soriani, Fernando T Nicoloso, Stefano Cesco, Tanja Mimmo, Gustavo Brunetto
Soil contamination with copper (Cu)-based agrochemicals used in vineyards for pest control is a growing problem. In this context, the application of soil amendment to limit Cu toxicity, especially for young plants after the replanting of vineyards, has been a concern for winemakers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how different amendments can contribute to the decrease in Cu availability in areas vocated to viticulture. Furthermore, the aim was to evaluate to the effect of Cu on the biochemical and physiological changes in the development of the young vine plants, both at the shoot and the root level...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Pengfei Wang, Ling Su, Huanhuan Gao, Xilong Jiang, Xinying Wu, Yi Li, Qianqian Zhang, Yongmei Wang, Fengshan Ren
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
G Gutiérrez-Gamboa, M Carrasco-Quiroz, A M Martínez-Gil, E P Pérez-Álvarez, T Garde-Cerdán, Y Moreno-Simunovic
Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines...
March 2018: Food Research International
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Marioli Carrasco-Quiroz, Eva Pilar Pérez-Álvarez, Ana María Martínez-Gil, María Del Alamo-Sanza, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic
BACKGROUND: Carignan noir is one of the minor and ancient varieties from the Chilean wine scenario that has had a resurgence as a result of to its rediscovered oenological potential when cultivated under the conditions of the interior dryland area. Under these growing conditions Carignan noir wines stand out as fruit driven and fresh compared to those originating from other growing areas. On the other hand, it is well known that wine aroma composition depends mainly on variety, viticultural management and winemaking...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Salvador Gutiérrez, María P Diago, Juan Fernández-Novales, Javier Tardaguila
The high impact of irrigation in crop quality and yield in grapevine makes the development of plant water status monitoring systems an essential issue in the context of sustainable viticulture. This study presents an on-the-go approach for the estimation of vineyard water status using thermal imaging and machine learning. The experiments were conducted during seven different weeks from July to September in season 2016. A thermal camera was embedded on an all-terrain vehicle moving at 5 km/h to take on-the-go thermal images of the vineyard canopy at 1...
2018: PloS One
Michael Meier, Jürg Fuhrer, Annelie Holzkämper
Late spring frost is a severe risk during early plant development. It may cause important economic damage to grapevine production. In a warming climate, late frost risk either could decline due to the reduction in frost days and an advancement of the last day of frost or increase due to a more pronounced shift forward of the start of the active growing period of the plants. These possibilities were analyzed in a case study for two locations in the lower Swiss Rhone Valley (Sion, Aigle) where viticulture is an important part of agriculture...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Kent M Daane, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Ioriatti
Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
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