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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324036/entomological-opportunities-and-challenges-for-sustainable-viticulture-in-a-global-market
#1
Kent M Daane, Charles Vincent, Rufus Isaacs, Claudio Ioriatti
Viticulture has experienced dramatic global growth in acreage and value. As the international exchange of goods has increased, so too has the market demand for sustainably produced products. Both elements redefine the entomological challenges posed to viticulture and have stimulated significant advances in arthropod pest control programs. Vineyard managers on all continents are increasingly combating invasive species, resulting in the adoption of novel insecticides, semiochemicals, and molecular tools to support sustainable viticulture...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314841/grape-berry-acclimation-to-excessive-solar-irradiance-leads-to-repartitioning-between-major-flavonoid-groups
#2
Noam Reshef, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait
Warm viticulture regions are associated with inferior wines, resulting from the interaction between microclimate and fruit biochemistry. Solar irradiance triggers biosynthetic processes in the fruit, and dominates its thermal balance. Therefore, deciphering its impact on fruit metabolism is pivotal to develop strategies for fruit protection, and ameliorate its quality traits. Here, we modified light quality and intensity in the fruit-zone and integrated micrometeorology with grape and wine metabolomics, allowing a complete assessment, from field to bottle...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297133/assessment-of-cu-applications-in-two-contrasting-soils-effects-on-soil-microbial-activity-and-the-fungal-community-structure
#3
Katharina M Keiblinger, Martin Schneider, Markus Gorfer, Melanie Paumann, Evi Deltedesco, Harald Berger, Lisa Jöchlinger, Axel Mentler, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Gerhard Soja, Franz Zehetner
Copper (Cu)-based fungicides have been used in viticulture to prevent downy mildew since the end of the 19th century, and are still used today to reduce fungal diseases. Consequently, Cu has built up in many vineyard soils, and it is still unclear how this affects soil functioning. The present study aimed to assess the short and medium-term effects of Cu contamination on the soil fungal community. Two contrasting agricultural soils, an acidic sandy loam and an alkaline silt loam, were used for an eco-toxicological greenhouse pot experiment...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261692/grapevine-botryosphaeria-dieback-fungi-have-specific-aggressiveness-factor-repertory-involved-in-wood-decay-and-stilbene-metabolization
#4
Elodie Stempien, Mary-Lorène Goddard, Kim Wilhelm, Céline Tarnus, Christophe Bertsch, Julie Chong
Grapevine trunk diseases: Eutypa dieback, esca and Botryosphaeria dieback, which incidence has increased recently, are associated with several symptoms finally leading to the plant death. In the absence of efficient treatments, these diseases are a major problem for the viticulture; however, the factors involved in disease progression are not still fully identified. In order to get a better understanding of Botryosphaeria dieback development in grapevine, we have investigated different factors involved in Botryosphaeriaceae fungi aggressiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258165/control-of-scaphoideus-titanus-with-natural-products-in-organic-vineyards
#5
Federico Tacoli, Nicola Mori, Alberto Pozzebon, Elena Cargnus, Sarah Da Vià, Pietro Zandigiacomo, Carlo Duso, Francesco Pavan
The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the vector of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis', the causal agent of Flavescence dorée (FD) a key disease for European viticulture. In organic vineyards, the control of S. titanus relies mostly on the use of pyrethrins that have suboptimal efficacy. During 2016, three field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of kaolin, orange oil, insecticidal soap and spinosad against S. titanus nymphs, in comparison with pyrethrins. The activity of kaolin was evaluated also in the laboratory...
December 16, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206058/resveratrol-human-health-and-winemaking-perspectives
#6
Raúl Francisco Pastor, Patrizia Restani, Chiara Di Lorenzo, Francesca Orgiu, Pierre-Louis Teissedre, Creina Stockley, Jean Claude Ruf, Claudia Inés Quini, Nuria Garcìa Tejedor, Raquel Gargantini, Carla Aruani, Sebastián Prieto, Marcelo Murgo, Rodolfo Videla, Alicia Penissi, Roberto Héctor Iermoli
Resveratrol, (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a non-flavonoid polyphenol stilbene synthesized by plants when damaged by infectious diseases or ionizing radiation. Although present in more than seventy plant species, grapes and wine are the major dietary contributors of resveratrol, responsible for 98% of the daily intake. In 1992, Renaud and De Lorgeril first linked wine polyphenols, including resveratrol, to the potential health benefits ascribed to regular and moderate wine consumption (the so called "French Paradox")...
December 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194640/the-microvine-a-plant-model-to-study-the-effect-of-vine-shoot-extract-on-the-accumulation-of-glycosylated-aroma-precursors-in-grapes
#7
Rosario Sánchez-Gómez, Laurent Torregrosa, Amaya Zalacain, Hernán Ojeda, Virginie Bouckenooghe, Rémi Schneider, Gonzalo L Alonso, M Rosario Salinas
BACKGROUND: Microvine plant model displays an unique reproductive organ behaviors and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies: allow to undertake studies until 5 times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts on wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the vine-shoot extract foliar application effect on twenty-one stages of grapes development...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176986/dissecting-the-variations-of-ripening-progression-and-flavonoid-metabolism-in-grape-berries-grown-under-double-cropping-system
#8
Wei-Kai Chen, Xian-Jin Bai, Mu-Ming Cao, Guo Cheng, Xiong-Jun Cao, Rong-Rong Guo, Yu Wang, Lei He, Xiao-Hui Yang, Fei He, Chang-Qing Duan, Jun Wang
A double cropping system has been commercially adopted in southern China, where there is abundant sunshine and heat resources. In this viticulture system, the first growing season normally starts as a summer cropping cycle; then, the vine is pruned and forced, resulting in a second crop in winter. Due to climate differences between the summer and winter growing seasons, grape ripening progression and flavonoid metabolism vary greatly. Here, the metabolites and transcriptome of flavonoid pathways were analyzed in grapes grown under two growing seasons at different stages...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140987/dating-the-beginning-of-the-roman-viticultural-model-in-the-western-mediterranean-the-case-study-of-chianti-central-italy
#9
Riccardo Aversano, Boris Basile, Mauro Paolo Buonincontri, Francesca Carucci, Domenico Carputo, Luigi Frusciante, Gaetano Di Pasquale
Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120764/effects-of-a-combination-of-elicitation-and-precursor-feeding-on-grape-amino-acid-composition-through-foliar-applications-to-garnacha-vineyard
#10
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Javier Portu, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
Vine foliar applications of phenylalanine (Phe) or methyl jasmonate (MeJ) could improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there are no reports focusing on the effects of elicitation supported by precursor feeding on must amino acid composition in grapevines. The aim of this research was to study the effect of the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) supported by phenylalanine (Phe) as a precursor feeding (MeJ+Phe) and its application individually on must amino acid composition. Results showed that foliar Phe and MeJ treatments decreased the concentration of most of the studied amino acids with respect to the control (p≤0...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118776/design-of-a-custom-rt-qpcr-array-for-assignment-of-abiotic-stress-tolerance-in-traditional-portuguese-grapevine-varieties
#11
Luísa C Carvalho, Marília Silva, João L Coito, Margarida P Rocheta, Sara Amâncio
Widespread agricultural losses attributed to drought, often combined with high temperatures, frequently occur in the field, namely in Mediterranean climate areas, where the existing scenarios for climate change indicate an increase in the frequency of heat waves and severe drought events in summer. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most cultivated fruit species in the world and the most valuable one and is a traditional Mediterranean species. Currently, viticulture must adjust to impending climate changes that are already pushing vine-growers toward the use of ancient and resilient varieties...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105800/biocontrol-ability-of-killer-yeasts-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-isolated-from-wine-against-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-on-grape
#12
Zongling Liu, Shuang Du, Yi Ren, Yanlin Liu
A total of 216 killer yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated from wine, were evaluated in controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a pre-harvest anthracnose agent of grape. Three of these yeast isolates were tested positive for antagonizing C. gloeosporioides and were further evaluated for their mechanisms as biological control agents (BCAs): production of antifungal compounds, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of C. gloeosporioides conidia germination, colonization on grape berry, and efficiency in controlling anthracnose of grape...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089133/modeling-ecotoxicity-impacts-in-vineyard-production-addressing-spatial-differentiation-for-copper-fungicides
#13
Nancy Peña, Assumpció Antón, Andreas Kamilaris, Peter Fantke
Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture...
October 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016677/study-on-the-presence-of-ochratoxin-%C3%AE-in-cultures-of-ochratoxigenic-and-non-ochratoxigenic-strains-of-aspergillus-carbonarius
#14
M Rosa Bragulat, Alba Eustaquio, F Javier Cabañes
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen which is found in a wide variety of common foods and beverages and it is produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Ochratoxin α (OTα), a major metabolite of OTA, has also been reported to occur in cultures of OTA-producing species. However there is some controversial about the participation of OTα in the biosynthesis of OTA, mainly because its biosynthesis pathway has not yet been completely characterized. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in food commodities such as wine, grapes or dried vine fruits from main viticultural regions worldwide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946713/comparison-of-dilution-filtration-and-microwave-digestion-sample-pretreatments-in-elemental-profiling-of-wine-by-icp-ms
#15
Joshua Godshaw, Helene Hopfer, Jenny Nelson, Susan E Ebeler
Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported...
September 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945988/bacteria-and-smoke-water-extract-improve-growth-and-induce-the-synthesis-of-volatile-defense-mechanisms-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#16
María Victoria Salomon, Patricia Piccoli, Iván Funes Pinter, Wendy Ann Stirk, Manoj Kulkarni, Johannes van Staden, Rubén Bottini
Sustainable agricultural practices have been developed as alternative to the use of agrochemicals, and viticulture is not exempt of that. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and smoke water extracts (SW) are environmentally-friendly alternative to those agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the single or combined effects of SW and the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and Bacillus licheniformis (Bl) on the physiology and biochemistry of grapevines plants. After 38 days, single applications of SW solutions and bacterial suspensions increase rooting and root length...
September 19, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928526/the-growing-season-impacts-the-accumulation-and-composition-of-flavonoids-in-grape-skins-in-two-crop-a-year-viticulture
#17
Lei Zhu, Yu Huang, Yali Zhang, Changmou Xu, Jiang Lu, Ying Wang
The influence of growing season (winter vs. summer) on the flavonoid accumulation and composition was studied in the skins of three grape cultivars for two consecutive years under a two-crop-a-year viticulture practice in Southwest China. The total anthocyanin, flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents in winter berry skins were significantly higher than those in summer berry skins for 'Kyoho' and 'Muscat Hamburg'. Reversely, the content of anthocyanin in 'NW196' winter berry was lower than summer berry. However, the percentage of diglycosylated, trihydroxylated, methylated, and acylated anthocyanins, trihydroxylated and methylated flavonols, and flavan-3-ol polymers were higher in the summer berry skins than the winter berry skins among all the three grape cultivars...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905481/reducing-copper-use-in-the-environment-the-use-of-larixol-and-larixyl-acetate-to-treat-downy-mildew-caused-by-plasmopara-viticola-in-viticulture
#18
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892512/grape-microbiome-as-a-reliable-and-persistent-signature-of-field-origin-and-environmental-conditions-in-cannonau-wine-production
#19
Valerio Mezzasalma, Anna Sandionigi, Ilaria Bruni, Antonia Bruno, Gianni Lovicu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Massimo Labra
Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885695/evaluation-of-grenache-graciano-and-tempranillo-grape-stilbene-content-after-field-applications-of-elicitors-and-nitrogen-compounds
#20
Javier Portu, Rosa López, Philipp Ewald, Pilar Santamaría, Peter Winterhalter, Teresa Garde-Cerdán
BACKGROUND: Stilbenes have a significant biological activity and are one of the most important non-flavonoid contributors to grape and wine health-related properties. The accumulation of this class of compounds could be favored by viticultural practices such as the application of biostimulants. However, stilbene concentration also depends on several factors, including, for example, grape variety. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar treatments carried out with elicitors (methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and a commercial foliar spray (YD)) and nitrogen compounds (phenylalanine and urea) on the grape stilbene composition of three varieties: Grenache, Graciano and Tempranillo...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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