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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713970/human-chorionic-gonadotropin%C3%A2-%C3%AE-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-in-human-ovarian-cancer
#1
Na Liu, Shu-Min Peng, Guang-Xi Zhan, Jing Yu, Wei-Min Wu, Hao Gao, Xiao-Feng Li, Xiao-Qing Guo
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) is a well-known and accurate marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors and ovarian germ cell tumors. Recently, β-hCG has been found to be closely related to poor prognosis and metastasis in various other malignant tumors, while its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer is still unclear. In the present study, lentiviral‑mediated transfection and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to alter β-hCG expression in the ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and SKOV3, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704957/chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-models-of-viral-genome-release-from-the-telomere-and-impacts-on-human-health
#2
REVIEW
Michael L Wood, Nicola J Royle
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release...
July 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693262/axin1-protects-against-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#3
Hailiang Xu, Yunyun Feng, Zhankui Jia, Jinjian Yang, Xueren Lu, Jun Li, Mingliang Xia, Chunru Wu, Yonggang Zhang, Jianhua Chen
Axis inhibition protein 1 (AXIN1) is characterized as a tumor suppressor in numerous types of cancer. However, the functional role of AXIN1 in the testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) remains unclear. The human embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line NTera2 was transfected with a recombinant AXIN1 expression vector (pcDNA3.1-AXIN1) and/or a small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against AXIN1 (siAXIN). Following transfection, the mRNA and protein levels of AXIN1 were determined via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blotting, respectively...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677532/establishment-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-9-year-old-male-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#4
Eszter Varga, Csilla Nemes, István Bock, Zsuzsanna Táncos, Sára Berzsenyi, György Lévay, Viktor Román, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from a clinically characterized patient with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by spontaneous in vitro differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to study the pathomechanism of ASD, also for drug testing, early biomarker discovery and gene therapy studies...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677530/establishment-of-a-rabbit-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-rbipsc-line-using-lentiviral-delivery-of-human-pluripotency-factors
#5
Zsuzsanna Táncos, Csilla Nemes, Eszter Varga, István Bock, Sasitorn Rungarunlert, Theerawat Tharasanit, Mongkol Techakumphu, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Rabbit Embryonic Fibroblast (RbEF) cells (from Hycole hybrid rabbit foetus) were reprogrammed by lentiviral delivery of a self-silencing hOKSM polycistronic vector. The pluripotency of the newly generated RbiPSC was verified by the expression of pluripotency-associated markers and by in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Furthermore, the spontaneous differentiation potential of the iPSC was also tested in vivo by teratoma assay. The iPSC line showed normal karyotype. The advantages of using RbiPSC are the easy access to primary material and the possibility to study the efficacy and safety of the iPSC-based therapies on a non-rodent animal model...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676534/expression-patterns-of-henmt1-and-piwil1-in-human-testis-implications-for-transposon-expression
#6
Anna-Lena Hempfling, Shu Ly Lim, David Adelson, Jemma Evans, Anne E O'Connor, Zhipeng Qu, Sabine Kliesch, Wolfgang Weidner, M K O'Bryan, Martin Bergmann
This study aimed to define the expression patterns of HENMT1 and PIWI proteins in human testis and investigate their association with transposon expression, infertility sub-type or development of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). Testis biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis were used to identify normal localization patterns of HENMT1 and PIWIL1 by immunolocalisation and RT-PCR after laser microdissection. 222 testis biopsies representing normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrests, Sertoli cell-only (SCO) and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) were analysed by RT-qPCR for expression of HENMT1/PIWIL1/PIWIL2/PIWIL3/PIWIL4 and LINE-1...
July 4, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669576/histone-h2a-monoubiquitination-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Anshika Srivastava, Brian McGrath, Stephanie L Bielas
Covalent histone modifications play an essential role in gene regulation and cellular specification required for multicellular organism development. Monoubiquitination of histone H2A (H2AUb1) is a reversible transcriptionally repressive mark. Exchange of histone H2A monoubiquitination and deubiquitination reflects the succession of transcriptional profiles during development required to produce cellular diversity from pluripotent cells. Germ-line pathogenic variants in components of the H2AUb1 regulatory axis are being identified as the genetic basis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders...
June 29, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652201/incorporation-of-in-vitro-digestive-enzymes-in-an-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-model-for-protein-hazard-identification
#8
Lauren K Markell, Stephanie M Wezalis, Jason M Roper, Cindi Zimmermann, Bryan Delaney
Relatively few proteins in nature produce adverse effects following oral exposure. Of those that do, effects are often observed in the gut, particularly on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Previous studies reported that addition of protein toxins to IEC lines disrupted monolayer integrity but innocuous dietary proteins did not. Studies presented here investigated the effects of innocuous (bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, RuBisCO, fibronectin) or hazardous (phytohaemagglutinin-E, concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, melittin) proteins that either were untreated or exposed to digestive enzymes prior to addition to Caco-2 human IEC line monolayers...
June 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#9
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650991/distinguishing-functional-polymorphism-from-random-variation-in-the-sequences-of-10-000-hla-a-b-and-c-alleles
#10
James Robinson, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Nezih Cereb, Soo Young Yang, Paul J Norman, Steven G E Marsh, Peter Parham
HLA class I glycoproteins contain the functional sites that bind peptide antigens and engage lymphocyte receptors. Recently, clinical application of sequence-based HLA typing has uncovered an unprecedented number of novel HLA class I alleles. Here we define the nature and extent of the variation in 3,489 HLA-A, 4,356 HLA-B and 3,111 HLA-C alleles. This analysis required development of suites of methods, having general applicability, for comparing and analyzing large numbers of homologous sequences. At least three amino-acid substitutions are present at every position in the polymorphic α1 and α2 domains of HLA-A, -B and -C...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626364/ex-vivo-generation-of-genetically-modified-macrophages-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Mania Ackermann, Alexandra Kuhn, Jessica Kunkiel, Sylvia Merkert, Ulrich Martin, Thomas Moritz, Nico Lachmann
BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have the capacity to differentiate towards all three germ layers and have been highlighted as an attractive cell source for the field of regenerative medicine. Thus, stable expression of therapeutic transgenes in iPSCs, as well as thereof derived progeny of hematopoietic lineage, may lay the foundation for innovative cell replacement therapies. METHODS: We have utilized human iPSC lines genetically modified by lentiviral vector technology or targeted integration of reporter genes to evaluate transgene expression during hematopoietic specification and differentiation towards macrophages...
June 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612512/the-germline-factor-ddx4-functions-in-blood-derived-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#12
Natalie Schudrowitz, Satoshi Takagi, Gary M Wessel, Mamiko Yajima
DDX4 (the human ortholog of Drosophila Vasa) is an RNA helicase and is present in the germ lines of all metazoans tested. It was historically thought to be expressed specifically in germline cells, but with additional organisms studied, it is now clear that in some animals DDX4/Vasa functions outside of the germline, in a variety of somatic cells in the embryo and adult. In this report, we document that DDX4 is widely expressed in soma-derived cancer cell lines, including myeloma (IM-9) and leukemia (THP-1) cells...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607084/systems-guided-forward-genetic-screen-reveals-a-critical-role-of-the-replication-stress-response-protein-etaa1-in-t-cell-clonal-expansion
#13
Lisa A Miosge, Yovina Sontani, Aaron Chuah, Keisuke Horikawa, Tiffany A Russell, Yan Mei, Mayura V Wagle, Debbie R Howard, Anselm Enders, David C Tscharke, Christopher C Goodnow, Ian A Parish
T-cell immunity requires extremely rapid clonal proliferation of rare, antigen-specific T lymphocytes to form effector cells. Here we identify a critical role for ETAA1 in this process by surveying random germ line mutations in mice using exome sequencing and bioinformatic annotation to prioritize mutations in genes of unknown function with potential effects on the immune system, followed by breeding to homozygosity and testing for immune system phenotypes. Effector CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell formation following immunization, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) infection was profoundly decreased despite normal immune cell development in adult mice homozygous for two different Etaa1 mutations: an exon 2 skipping allele that deletes Gly78-Leu119, and a Cys166Stop truncating allele that eliminates most of the 877-aa protein...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600283/inhibition-of-pcsk9-does-not-improve-lipopolysaccharide-induced-mortality-in-mice
#14
Jean-Mathieu Berger, Angel Loza Valdes, Jesper Gromada, Norma Anderson, Jay D Horton
PCSK9 is a secreted protein that targets LDL receptors (LDLR) for degradation in liver. Blocking the interaction of PCSK9 with the LDLR potently reduces plasma LDL-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular events. Recently, it has been suggested that inhibition of PCSK9 might also improve outcomes in mice and humans with sepsis, possibly by increasing LDL receptor (LDLR)-mediated clearance of endotoxins. Sepsis is a complication of a severe microbial infection that has shared pathways with lipid metabolism. Here, we tested whether anti-PCSK9 antibodies prevent death from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588016/commensal-microbes-provide-first-line-defense-against-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#15
Simone Becattini, Eric R Littmann, Rebecca A Carter, Sohn G Kim, Sejal M Morjaria, Lilan Ling, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Emily Fontana, Ying Taur, Ingrid M Leiner, Eric G Pamer
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis and chorioamnionitis and is associated with high mortality. Immunocompetent humans and animals, however, can tolerate high doses of L. monocytogenes without developing systemic disease. The intestinal microbiota provides colonization resistance against many orally acquired pathogens, and antibiotic-mediated depletion of the microbiota reduces host resistance to infection. Here we show that a diverse microbiota markedly reduces Listeria monocytogenes colonization of the gut lumen and prevents systemic dissemination...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582519/x-chromosome-inactivation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-human-development-back-to-the-drawing-board
#16
Mieke Geens, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells...
June 5, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574707/new-ustilaginoidins-from-rice-false-smut-balls-caused-by-villosiclava-virens-and-their-phytotoxic-and-cytotoxic-activities
#17
Weibo Sun, Ali Wang, Dan Xu, Weixuan Wang, Jiajia Meng, Jungui Dai, Yang Liu, Daowan Lai, Ligang Zhou
Ustilaginoidins are a class of bis-naphtho-γ-pyrones, typically produced by Villosiclava virens, the pathogen of the rice false smut (RFS), which has been one of the most destructive rice fungal diseases. Previously, we found that ustilaginoidins identified from the culture of V. virens on rice medium were less polar than those reported from the RFS balls in general. In this study, we reinvestigated the high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-HRMS) profile of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the RFS balls and found several interesting peaks that correspond to new ustilaginoidins...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569402/lrwd1-regulates-microtubule-nucleation-and-proper-cell-cycle-progression-in-the-human-testicular-embryonic-carcinoma-cells
#18
Chia-Yih Wang, Yu-Han Hong, Jhih-Siang Syu, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Xiu-Ying Liu, Ting-Yu Chen, Yin-Mei Su, Pao-Lin Kuo, Yung-Ming Lin, Yen-Ni Teng
Leucine-rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing protein 1 (LRWD1) is a testis-specific protein that mainly expressed in the sperm neck where centrosome is located. By using microarray analysis, LRWD1 is identified as a putative gene that involved in spermatogenesis. However, its role in human male germ cell development has not been extensively studied. When checking in the semen of patients with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, and asthenoteratozoospermia, the level of LRWD1 in the sperm neck was significantly reduced with a defective neck or tail...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544640/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-demonstrates-the-potential-of-neoplastic-human-germ-cells-to-influence-the-tumour-microenvironment
#19
B Klein, H-C Schuppe, M Bergmann, M P Hedger, B E Loveland, K L Loveland
Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT...
May 23, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543417/toward-public-bioethics
#20
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
This issue of the Hastings Center Report (May-June 2017) features a couple of interesting takes on the governance challenges of emerging technologies. In an essay on the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine report published this February on human germ-line gene editing, Eric Juengst, a philosopher at the University of North Carolina, argues that the NASEM committee did not manage to rethink the rules. Juengst reaches what he calls an "eccentric conclusion": "The committee's 2017 consensus report has been widely interpreted as 'opening the door' to inheritable human genetic modification and holding a line against enhancement interventions...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
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