keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Human germ line

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887790/polyspecificity-of-anti-lipid-a-antibodies-and-its-relevance-to-the-development-of-autoimmunity
#1
Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Susannah M L Gagnon, Sven Müller-Loennies, Stephen V Evans
The process of natural selection favours germ-line gene segments that encode CDRs that have the ability to recognize a range of structurally related antigens. This presents an immunological advantage to the host, as it can confer protection against a common pathogen and still cope with new or changing antigens. Cross-reactive and polyspecific antibodies also play a central role in autoimmune responses, and a link has been shown to exist between auto-reactive B cells and certain bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates have been implicated in the progression of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864988/long-term-effects-of-the-periconception-period-on-embryo-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-stress-and-how-this-effect-is-mediated
#2
James Ord, Alireza Fazeli, Penelope J Watt
Stress represents an unavoidable aspect of human life, and pathologies associated with dysregulation of stress mechanisms - particularly psychiatric disorders - represent a significant global health problem. While it has long been observed that levels of stress experienced in the periconception period may greatly affect the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet comprehensively understood. In order to address this question, this chapter will take a 'top-down' approach, by first defining stress and associated concepts, before exploring the mechanistic basis of the stress response in the form of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and how dysregulation of the HPA axis can impede our mental and physical health, primarily via imbalances in glucocorticoids (GCs) and their corresponding receptors (GRs) in the brain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827725/estimating-the-human-mutation-rate-from-autozygous-segments-reveals-population-differences-in-human-mutational-processes
#3
Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Raheleh Rahbari, Aylwyn Scally, Arthur Wuster, Dan Mason, Yali Xue, John Wright, Richard C Trembath, Eamonn R Maher, David A van Heel, Adam Auton, Matthew E Hurles, Chris Tyler-Smith, Richard Durbin
Heterozygous mutations within homozygous sequences descended from a recent common ancestor offer a way to ascertain de novo mutations across multiple generations. Using exome sequences from 3222 British-Pakistani individuals with high parental relatedness, we estimate a mutation rate of 1.45 ± 0.05 × 10(-8) per base pair per generation in autosomal coding sequence, with a corresponding non-crossover gene conversion rate of 8.75 ± 0.05 × 10(-6) per base pair per generation. This is at the lower end of exome mutation rates previously estimated in parent-offspring trios, suggesting that post-zygotic mutations contribute little to the human germ-line mutation rate...
August 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797648/overview-of-transcriptomic-analysis-of-all-human-proteases-non-proteolytic-homologs-and-inhibitors-organ-tissue-and-ovarian-cancer-cell-line-expression-profiling-of-the-human-protease-degradome-by-the-clip-chip%C3%A2-dna-microarray
#4
REVIEW
Reinhild Kappelhoff, Xose S Puente, Claire H Wilson, Arun Seth, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Christopher M Overall
The protease degradome is defined as the complete repertoire of proteases and inhibitors, and their nonfunctional homologs present in a cell, tissues or organism at any given time. We review the tissue distribution of virtually the entire degradome in 23 different human tissues and 6 ovarian cancer cell lines. To do so, we developed the CLIP-CHIP™, a custom microarray based on a 70-mer oligonucleotide platform, to specifically profile the transcripts of the entire repertoire of 473 active human proteases, 156 protease inhibitors and 92 non-proteolytically active homologs known at the design date using one specific oligonucleotide per transcript...
August 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772063/the-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-extends-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan-via-nhr-49-ppar%C3%AE-and-oxidation-to-oxylipins
#5
Wenbo Qi, Gloria E Gutierrez, Xiaoli Gao, Hong Dixon, Joe A McDonough, Ann M Marini, Alfred L Fisher
The dietary intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been linked to a reduction in the incidence of aging-associated disease including cardiovascular disease and stroke. Additionally, long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 germ line-less mutant animals show a number of changes in lipid metabolism including the increased production of the ω-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA). Here, we show that the treatment of C. elegans with ALA produces a dose-dependent increase in lifespan. The increased longevity of the glp-1 mutant animals is known to be dependent on both the NHR-49/PPARα and SKN-1/Nrf2 transcription factors, although the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood...
October 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768903/microrna-143-145-loss-induces-ras-signaling-to-promote-aggressive-pten-deficient-basal-like-breast-cancer
#6
Sharon Wang, Jeff C Liu, YoungJun Ju, Giovanna Pellecchia, Veronique Voisin, Dong-Yu Wang, Rajwinder Leha L, Yaacov Ben-David, Gary D Bader, Eldad Zacksenhaus
The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently inactivated in breast and other cancers; yet, germ-line mutations in this gene induce nonmalignant hamartomas, indicating dependency on additional cooperating events. Here we show that most tumors derived from conditional deletion of mouse pten in mammary epithelium are highly differentiated and lack transplantable tumor-initiating cells (TICs) capable of seeding new tumors following orthotopic injection of FACS-sorted or tumorsphere cells. A rare group of poorly differentiated tumors did harbor transplantable TICs...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759574/differential-regulation-of-germ-line-apoptosis-and-germ-cell-differentiation-by-cpeb-family-members-in-c-elegans
#7
Kapil Dev Singh, Xue Zheng, Stuart Milstein, Martin Keller, Bernd Roschitzki, Jonas Grossmann, Michael O Hengartner
Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding (CPEB) proteins are evolutionary conserved RNA-binding proteins that control mRNA polyadenylation and translation. Orthologs in humans and other vertebrates are mainly involved in oogenesis. This is also the case for the C. elegans CPEB family member CPB-3, whereas two further CPEB proteins (CPB-1 and FOG-1) are involved in spermatogenesis. Here we describe the characterisation of a new missense allele of cpb-3 and show that loss of cpb-3 function leads to an increase in physiological germ cell death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751376/kinetic-analyses-of-single-strand-break-repair-by-human-dna-ligase-iii-isoforms-reveals-biochemical-differences-from-dna-ligase-i
#8
Justin R McNally, Patrick J O'Brien
Humans have three genes encoding DNA ligases with conserved structural features and activities, but they also have notable differences. The LIG3 gene encodes a ubiquitous isoform in all tissues (LIG3α) and a germ line-specific splicing isoform (LIG3β) that differ in the C-terminal domain. Both isoforms are found in the nucleus and the mitochondria. Here, we determined the kinetics and thermodynamics of single-strand break ligation by LIG3α and LIG3β, and compared this framework to that of LIG1, the nuclear replicative ligase...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713970/human-chorionic-gonadotropin%C3%A2-%C3%AE-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-in-human-ovarian-cancer
#9
Na Liu, Shu-Min Peng, Guang-Xi Zhan, Jing Yu, Wei-Min Wu, Hao Gao, Xiao-Feng Li, Xiao-Qing Guo
Human chorionic gonadotropin β (β-hCG) is a well-known and accurate marker for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy, trophoblastic tumors and ovarian germ cell tumors. Recently, β-hCG has been found to be closely related to poor prognosis and metastasis in various other malignant tumors, while its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer is still unclear. In the present study, lentiviral‑mediated transfection and small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to alter β-hCG expression in the ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2 and SKOV3, respectively...
July 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704957/chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-models-of-viral-genome-release-from-the-telomere-and-impacts-on-human-health
#10
REVIEW
Michael L Wood, Nicola J Royle
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release...
July 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693262/axin1-protects-against-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#11
Hailiang Xu, Yunyun Feng, Zhankui Jia, Jinjian Yang, Xueren Lu, Jun Li, Mingliang Xia, Chunru Wu, Yonggang Zhang, Jianhua Chen
Axis inhibition protein 1 (AXIN1) is characterized as a tumor suppressor in numerous types of cancer. However, the functional role of AXIN1 in the testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) remains unclear. The human embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line NTera2 was transfected with a recombinant AXIN1 expression vector (pcDNA3.1-AXIN1) and/or a small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against AXIN1 (siAXIN). Following transfection, the mRNA and protein levels of AXIN1 were determined via reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blotting, respectively...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677532/establishment-of-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-9-year-old-male-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#12
Eszter Varga, Csilla Nemes, István Bock, Zsuzsanna Táncos, Sára Berzsenyi, György Lévay, Viktor Román, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from a clinically characterized patient with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by spontaneous in vitro differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to study the pathomechanism of ASD, also for drug testing, early biomarker discovery and gene therapy studies...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677530/establishment-of-a-rabbit-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-rbipsc-line-using-lentiviral-delivery-of-human-pluripotency-factors
#13
Zsuzsanna Táncos, Csilla Nemes, Eszter Varga, István Bock, Sasitorn Rungarunlert, Theerawat Tharasanit, Mongkol Techakumphu, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Rabbit Embryonic Fibroblast (RbEF) cells (from Hycole hybrid rabbit foetus) were reprogrammed by lentiviral delivery of a self-silencing hOKSM polycistronic vector. The pluripotency of the newly generated RbiPSC was verified by the expression of pluripotency-associated markers and by in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Furthermore, the spontaneous differentiation potential of the iPSC was also tested in vivo by teratoma assay. The iPSC line showed normal karyotype. The advantages of using RbiPSC are the easy access to primary material and the possibility to study the efficacy and safety of the iPSC-based therapies on a non-rodent animal model...
May 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676534/expression-patterns-of-henmt1-and-piwil1-in-human-testis-implications-for-transposon-expression
#14
Anna-Lena Hempfling, Shu Ly Lim, David Adelson, Jemma Evans, Anne E O'Connor, Zhipeng Qu, Sabine Kliesch, Wolfgang Weidner, M K O'Bryan, Martin Bergmann
This study aimed to define the expression patterns of HENMT1 and PIWI proteins in human testis and investigate their association with transposon expression, infertility sub-type or development of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT). Testis biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis were used to identify normal localization patterns of HENMT1 and PIWIL1 by immunolocalisation and RT-PCR after laser microdissection. 222 testis biopsies representing normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrests, Sertoli cell-only (SCO) and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) were analysed by RT-qPCR for expression of HENMT1/PIWIL1/PIWIL2/PIWIL3/PIWIL4 and LINE-1...
July 4, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669576/histone-h2a-monoubiquitination-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Anshika Srivastava, Brian McGrath, Stephanie L Bielas
Covalent histone modifications play an essential role in gene regulation and cellular specification required for multicellular organism development. Monoubiquitination of histone H2A (H2AUb1) is a reversible transcriptionally repressive mark. Exchange of histone H2A monoubiquitination and deubiquitination reflects the succession of transcriptional profiles during development required to produce cellular diversity from pluripotent cells. Germ-line pathogenic variants in components of the H2AUb1 regulatory axis are being identified as the genetic basis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders...
August 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652201/incorporation-of-in-vitro-digestive-enzymes-in-an-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-model-for-protein-hazard-identification
#16
Lauren K Markell, Stephanie M Wezalis, Jason M Roper, Cindi Zimmermann, Bryan Delaney
Relatively few proteins in nature produce adverse effects following oral exposure. Of those that do, effects are often observed in the gut, particularly on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). Previous studies reported that addition of protein toxins to IEC lines disrupted monolayer integrity but innocuous dietary proteins did not. Studies presented here investigated the effects of innocuous (bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, RuBisCO, fibronectin) or hazardous (phytohaemagglutinin-E, concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, melittin) proteins that either were untreated or exposed to digestive enzymes prior to addition to Caco-2 human IEC line monolayers...
October 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#17
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650991/distinguishing-functional-polymorphism-from-random-variation-in-the-sequences-of-10-000-hla-a-b-and-c-alleles
#18
James Robinson, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Nezih Cereb, Soo Young Yang, Paul J Norman, Steven G E Marsh, Peter Parham
HLA class I glycoproteins contain the functional sites that bind peptide antigens and engage lymphocyte receptors. Recently, clinical application of sequence-based HLA typing has uncovered an unprecedented number of novel HLA class I alleles. Here we define the nature and extent of the variation in 3,489 HLA-A, 4,356 HLA-B and 3,111 HLA-C alleles. This analysis required development of suites of methods, having general applicability, for comparing and analyzing large numbers of homologous sequences. At least three amino-acid substitutions are present at every position in the polymorphic α1 and α2 domains of HLA-A, -B and -C...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626364/ex-vivo-generation-of-genetically-modified-macrophages-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#19
Mania Ackermann, Alexandra Kuhn, Jessica Kunkiel, Sylvia Merkert, Ulrich Martin, Thomas Moritz, Nico Lachmann
BACKGROUND: Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have the capacity to differentiate towards all three germ layers and have been highlighted as an attractive cell source for the field of regenerative medicine. Thus, stable expression of therapeutic transgenes in iPSCs, as well as thereof derived progeny of hematopoietic lineage, may lay the foundation for innovative cell replacement therapies. METHODS: We have utilized human iPSC lines genetically modified by lentiviral vector technology or targeted integration of reporter genes to evaluate transgene expression during hematopoietic specification and differentiation towards macrophages...
June 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612512/germline-factor-ddx4-functions-in-blood-derived-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#20
Natalie Schudrowitz, Satoshi Takagi, Gary M Wessel, Mamiko Yajima
DDX4 (the human ortholog of Drosophila Vasa) is an RNA helicase and is present in the germ lines of all metazoans tested. It was historically thought to be expressed specifically in germline, but with additional organisms studied, it is now clear that in some animals DDX4/Vasa functions outside of the germline, in a variety of somatic cells in the embryo and in the adult. In this report, we document that DDX4 is widely expressed in soma-derived cancer cell lines, including myeloma (IM-9) and leukemia (THP-1) cells...
August 2017: Cancer Science
keyword
keyword
76751
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"