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Human germ line

Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Halima Albalushi, Magdalena Kurek, Leif Karlsson, Luise Landreh, Kristín Rós Kjartansdóttir, Olle Söder, Outi Hovatta, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells represent an important tool to study early cell development. The previously described use of human recombinant laminin (LN) 521 represented a step forward in generating clinically safe culture conditions. To test the short-term effect of LN521 on cultured hES cells, five male hES cell lines were cultured on human foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs), Matrigel, LN521, and LN121 and characterized by qPCR, immunofluorescence analysis, as well as their potential for three-germ layer differentiation...
2018: Stem Cells International
Jan Hauke, Judit Horvath, Eva Groß, Andrea Gehrig, Ellen Honisch, Karl Hackmann, Gunnar Schmidt, Norbert Arnold, Ulrike Faust, Christian Sutter, Julia Hentschel, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Mateja Smogavec, Bernhard H F Weber, Nana Weber-Lassalle, Konstantin Weber-Lassalle, Julika Borde, Corinna Ernst, Janine Altmüller, Alexander E Volk, Holger Thiele, Verena Hübbel, Peter Nürnberg, Katharina Keupp, Beatrix Versmold, Esther Pohl, Christian Kubisch, Sabine Grill, Victoria Paul, Natalie Herold, Nadine Lichey, Kerstin Rhiem, Nina Ditsch, Christian Ruckert, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Bernd Auber, Andreas Rump, Dieter Niederacher, Thomas Haaf, Juliane Ramser, Bernd Dworniczak, Christoph Engel, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Eric Hahnen
The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Victoria Gröger, Holger Cynis
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of retroviral germ line infections of human ancestors and make up ~8% of the human genome. Under physiological conditions, these elements are frequently inactive or non-functional due to deactivating mutations and epigenetic control. However, they can be reactivated under certain pathological conditions and produce viral transcripts and proteins. Several disorders, like multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with increased HERV expression...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adam Vigil, Angeles Estélles, Lawrence M Kauvar, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Michael Wittekind
Although antibodies that effectively neutralize a broad set of influenza viruses exist in the human antibody repertoire, they are rare. We used a single cell screening technology to identify rare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognized a broad set of influenza B viruses (IBV). The screen yielded 23 mAbs with diverse germ line origins that recognized hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from influenza strains of both the Yamagata and Victoria lineages of IBV. Of the 23 mAbs, three exhibited low expression in a transient transfection system, four were neutralizers that bound to the HA head region, eleven were stalk-binding non-neutralizers, and five were stalk-binding neutralizers with four of these five representing unique antibody sequences...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kenta Sasaki, Mana Ono, Kaori Takabe, Atsushi Suzuki, Yasuyuki Kurihara
DAZAP1 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein expressed in many tissues in mice and humans. DAZAP1-knockout mice carrying a partial loss-of-function (hypomorphic) allele exhibited severe deficiencies in spermatogenesis and cell growth, indicating that DAZAP1 plays a pivotal role in the development of germ and somatic cells. We have identified cox6c mRNA, which encodes a subunit of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, as a target transcript regulated by DAZAP1. We found that DAZAP1 bound to cox6c mRNA derived from either the genomic DNA or a genome-type expression vector in cells, but not to cox6c mRNA derived from an intronless expression vector...
March 2, 2018: Gene
Ekaterina Perminov, Sara Mangosing, Alexandra Confer, Olga Gonzalez, Jason R Crawford, Natalia Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Shyamesh Kumar, Edward Dick
Disorders of sexual development are rare in non-human primates. We report a case of true hermaphroditism in a 19-year-old, nulliparous, female baboon (Papio spp.). At necropsy, the animal was obese with adequate muscle mass and hydration. Reproductive organs appeared normal with the exception of 2 firm nodular structures in the myometrium (1-1.5 cm diameter) and a thickened, dark endocervical mucosa. Histologically, both gonads were ovotestes and contained discrete areas of ovarian and testicular tissue. There were follicles in various stages of development surrounded by ovarian stroma...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Yingying Peng, Menghan Xie, Xingxiang Duan, Liang Hu, Juan Yu, Sicong Zeng, Yang Wang, Qi Ouyang, Guangxiu Lu, Ge Lin, Yi Sun
The human embryonic stem cell line NERCe002-A-2 was generated by transduction of NERCe002-A cells with an expression vector carrying the luciferase gene. The stem cells labelled with luciferase can be transplanted into animals and detected by the bioluminescence imaging technology. This provides optimal prospects of application to in vivo stem cell tracing. Luciferin served as a substrate to detect the activity of luciferase, and luciferase expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Characterization assays suggested that the NERCe002-A-2 cell line expresses typical markers of pluripotency and can form the 3 germ layers in vivo...
February 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Yujing Gao, Gabrielle R Wilson, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Andrew G Elefanty, Edouard G Stanley, Mirella Dottori, Paul J Lockhart
Mutations in RAB39B are a known cause of X-linked early onset Parkinson's disease. Isogenic human embryonic stem cell lines carrying two independent deletions of RAB39B were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool. The deletions were confirmed by PCR and direct sequence analysis in two edited stem cell lines. Both cell lines showed pluripotency and displayed a normal karyotype. Further, they were able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and express markers indicative of differentiation to the three germ layers...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Christopher S Navara, Shital Chaudhari, John R McCarrey
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the possibility of cell replacement therapies using patient-matched cells to treat otherwise intractable diseases and debilitations. To successfully realize this potential, several factors must be optimized including i) selection of the appropriate cell type and numbers to transplant, ii) determination of the means of transplantation and the location into which the transplanted cells should be delivered, and iii) demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the cell replacement protocol to mitigate each targeted disease state...
2018: PloS One
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Norbert Bannert, Henning Hofmann, Adriana Block, Oliver Hohn
Initial indications that retroviruses are connected to neoplastic transformation were seen more than a century ago. This concept has also been tested for endogenized retroviruses (ERVs) that are abundantly expressed in many transformed cells. In healthy cells, ERV expression is commonly prevented by DNA methylation and other epigenetic control mechanisms. ERVs are remnants of former exogenous forms that invaded the germ line of the host and have since been vertically transmitted. Several examples of ERV-induced genomic recombination events and dysregulation of cellular genes that contribute to tumor formation have been well documented...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marta Trevisan, Vanessa Barbaro, Silvia Riccetti, Giulia Masi, Luisa Barzon, Patrizia Nespeca, Gualtiero Alvisi, Enzo Di Iorio, Giorgio Palù
Transgene free UNIPDi002-A-human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line was generated by Sendai Virus Vectors reprogramming from human oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (hOMESCs) of a patient affected by ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC)-syndrome, carrying a mutation in exon 8 of the TP63 gene (R304Q). The UNIPDi002-A-hiPSC line retained the mutation of the parental R304Q-hOMESCs and displayed a normal karyotype. No residual expression of transgenes nor Sendai virus vector sequences were detected in the line at passage 8...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Eris Bidollari, Giovannina Rotundo, Daniela Ferrari, Ornella Candido, Laura Bernardini, Federica Consoli, Alessandro De Luca, Iolanda Santimone, Giuseppe Lamorte, Andrea Ilari, Ferdinando Squitieri, Angelo Luigi Vescovi, Jessica Rosati
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, autosomal dominant, hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that typically manifests itself in midlife. This pathology is linked to the deregulation of multiple, as yet unknown, cellular processes starting before HD onset. A human iPS cell line was generated from skin fibroblasts of a subject at the presymptomatic life stage, carrying a polyglutamine expansion in HTT gene codifying Huntingtin protein. The iPSC line contained the expected CAG expansion, expressed the expected pluripotency markers, displayed in vivo differentiation potential to the three germ layers and had a normal karyotype...
February 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Marta Trevisan, Enzo Di Iorio, Giulia Masi, Silvia Riccetti, Luisa Barzon, Gualtiero Alvisi, Luciana Caenazzo, Vanessa Barbaro, Giorgio Palù
Oral mucosa epithelial stem cells from a patient affected by Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-Clefting (EEC) syndrome carrying the R279H mutation in the TP63 gene were reprogrammed into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with episomal vectors. The generated UNIPDi003-A-hPSC line retained the mutation of the parental cells and showed a normal karyotype upon long term culture. Analysis of residual transgenes expression showed that the episomal vectors were eliminated from the cell line. UNIPDi003-A-hiPSCs expressed the undifferentiated state marker alkaline phosphatase along with a panel of pluripotency markers, and formed embryoid bodies capable of expressing markers belonging to all the three germ layers...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Charline Jansch, Katharina Günther, Jonas Waider, Georg C Ziegler, Andrea Forero, Sina Kollert, Evgeniy Svirin, Dirk Pühringer, Chee Keong Kwok, Reinhard Ullmann, Anna Maierhofer, Julia Flunkert, Thomas Haaf, Frank Edenhofer, Klaus-Peter Lesch
Fibroblasts were isolated from a skin biopsy of a clinically diagnosed 51-year-old female attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patient carrying a duplication of SLC2A3, a gene encoding neuronal glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). Patient fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus, a single-stranded RNA virus, to generate transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). SLC2A3-D2-iPSCs showed expression of pluripotency-associated markers, were able to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers in vitro and had a normal female karyotype...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Lara Al-Olabi, Satyamaanasa Polubothu, Katherine Dowsett, Katrina A Andrews, Paulina Stadnik, Agnel P Joseph, Rachel Knox, Alan Pittman, Graeme Clark, William Baird, Neil Bulstrode, Mary Glover, Kristiana Gordon, Darren Hargrave, Susan M Huson, Thomas S Jacques, Gregory James, Hannah Kondolf, Loshan Kangesu, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Amjad Khan, Marjorie J Lindhurst, Mark Lipson, Sahar Mansour, Justine O'Hara, Caroline Mahon, Anda Mosica, Celia Moss, Aditi Murthy, Juling Ong, Victoria E Parker, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Julie C Sapp, Neil J Sebire, Rahul Shah, Branavan Sivakumar, Anna Thomas, Alex Virasami, Regula Waelchli, Zhiqiang Zeng, Leslie G Biesecker, Alex Barnacle, Maya Topf, Robert K Semple, E Elizabeth Patton, Veronica A Kinsler
BACKGROUND: Sporadic vascular malformations (VMs) are complex congenital anomalies of blood vessels that lead to stroke, life-threatening bleeds, disfigurement, overgrowth, and/or pain. Therapeutic options are severely limited and multi-disciplinary management remains challenging, particularly for high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVM). METHODS: To investigate the pathogenesis of sporadic intracranial and extracranial VMs in 160 children in which known genetic causes had been excluded, we sequenced DNA from affected tissue and optimised analysis for detection of low mutant allele frequency...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Isha S Dhande, Stacy M Cranford, Yaming Zhu, Sterling C Kneedler, M John Hicks, Scott E Wenderfer, Michael C Braun, Peter A Doris
High blood pressure exerts its deleterious effects on health largely through acceleration of end-organ diseases. Among these, progressive loss of renal function is particularly important, not only for the direct consequences of kidney damage but also because loss of renal function is associated with amplification of other adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Genetic susceptibility to hypertension and associated end-organ disease is non-Mendelian in both humans and in a rodent model, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)...
February 5, 2018: Hypertension
De-Yong Gao, Yun Ling, Xiao-Li Lou, Ying-Ying Wang, Liang-Ming Liu
The gametocyte-specific factor 1 (GTSF1) gene participates in DNA methylation and retrotransposon activation in germ cells, particularly during cell proliferation. The present study aimed to assess the level of GTSF1 gene expression in liver cancer tumor tissues, and its role in human hepatoma cell lines in vitro and in a nude mouse model in vivo. GTSF1 gene expression was detected in liver cancer tumor tissues, compared with in healthy controls, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Nilüfer Gülmen Imir, Esra Aydemir, Ece Şimşek
Avemar, a derivative of fermented wheat germ extract, is a non-toxic and natural compound that is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Avemar has numerous biological activities, and several recent studies have reported that it may also have metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects. In the present study, the mechanism of the anti-angiogenic effect of Avemar on human cancer cells was investigated. The human cell lines NCI-N87 (gastric tubular adenocarcinoma), PC3 (prostate carcinoma), HeLa (endocervical adenocarcinoma) and A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) were treated with various doses (400, 800, 1,600 and 3,200 µg/ml) of Avemar, and the changes in mRNA and protein levels of two important markers of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
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