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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161648/derivation-and-characterization-of-the-nyscfe003-a-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line
#1
Ana Sevilla, Eliana Forero, Matthew Zimmer, Hector Martinez, Katie Reggio, Daniel Paull, Dieter Egli, Scott Noggle
The human embryonic stem cell line NYSCFe003-A was derived from a day 5 to day 6 blastocyst in feeder-free and antibiotic free conditions. The blastocyst was voluntarily donated for research as surplus after in vitro fertilization treatment following informed consent. The NYSCFe003-A line expresses all the pluripotency markers and has the potential to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. The line presents normal karyotype and is mycoplasma free.
November 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158577/vgf-function-in-depression-and-antidepressant-efficacy
#2
C Jiang, W-J Lin, M Sadahiro, B Labonté, C Menard, M L Pfau, C A Tamminga, G Turecki, E J Nestler, S J Russo, S R Salton
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and antidepressant responses. Here, we show that VGF (non-acronymic), which is robustly regulated by BDNF/TrkB signaling, is downregulated in hippocampus (male/female) and upregulated in nucleus accumbens (NAc) (male) in depressed human subjects and in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre-mediated Vgf ablation in floxed VGF mice, in dorsal hippocampus (dHc) or NAc, led to pro-depressant or antidepressant behaviors, respectively, while dHc- or NAc-AAV-VGF overexpression induced opposite outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158412/induced-gnas-r201h-expression-from-the-endogenous-gnas-locus-causes-fibrous-dysplasia-by-up-regulating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#3
Sanjoy Kumar Khan, Prem Swaroop Yadav, Gene Elliott, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Ruoshi Xu, Yingzi Yang
Fibrous dysplasia (FD; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 174800) is a crippling skeletal disease caused by activating mutations of the GNAS gene, which encodes the stimulatory G protein Gαs FD can lead to severe adverse conditions such as bone deformity, fracture, and severe pain, leading to functional impairment and wheelchair confinement. So far there is no cure, as the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown and the lack of appropriate animal models has severely hampered FD research...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157935/a-quiet-space-during-rush-hour-quiescence-in-primordial-germ-cells
#4
Nathalie Oulhen, Gary Wessel
Quiescence is a common character in stem cells. Low cellular activity in these cells may function to minimize the potential damaging effects of oxidative stress, reduce the number of cells needed for tissue replenishment, and as a consequence, perhaps occupy unique niches. Quiescent stem cells are found in many adult human tissues, the hematopoietic stem cells are paradigmatic, and more recently it appears that stem cell of the germ line in many animals display quiescence characters. Here we explore the diversity of quiescence phenotypes in primordial germ cells, leveraging the diverse mechanisms of germ cell formation to extract evolutionary significance to common processes...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146461/resveratrol-supports-and-alpha-naphthoflavone-disrupts-growth-of-human-ovarian-follicles-in-an-in-vitro-tissue-culture-model
#5
Jie Hao, Astrud R Tuck, Marcus O D Sjödin, Johan Lindberg, Anna Sand, Boel Niklasson, Maria Argyraki, Outi Hovatta, Pauliina Damdimopoulou
Infertility is a global health problem with an estimated incidence of 15%. Exposure to chemicals is a potential causal factor, and there is a lack of studies examining the effects on female germ cells. Here, we have studied the impact of different aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) modulators on human ovarian follicles using a human ovarian tissue culture model. Expression of AHR was analyzed in tissue samples, and effects of the selected ligands resveratrol (RSVL), 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ), and alpha-naphthoflavone (aNF) on AHR transactivation studied in a granulosa cell tumor line...
November 13, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143560/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-from-human-amnion-in-chemically-defined-conditions
#6
Jaroslav Slamecka, Steven McClellan, Anna Wilk, Javier Laurini, Elizabeth Manci, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber, Laurie Owen
Fetal stem cells are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been suggested to be broadly multipotent with some features of pluripotency. Their clinical potential has been documented but their upgrade to full pluripotency could open up a wide range of cell-based therapies particularly suited for pediatric tissue engineering, longitudinal studies or disease modeling. Here we describe episomal reprogramming of mesenchymal stem cells from the human amnion to pluripotency (AM-iPSC) in chemically defined conditions...
November 16, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136563/generation-of-human-ipsc-line-from-a-patient-with-laterality-defects-and-associated-congenital-heart-anomalies-carrying-a-dand5-missense-alteration
#7
Fernando Cristo, José M Inácio, Graça Rosas, Isabel Marques Carreira, Joana Barbosa Melo, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Patrícia Mendes, Duarte Saraiva Martins, José Maio, Rui Anjos, José A Belo
A human iPSC line was generated from exfoliated renal epithelial (ERE) cells of a patient affected with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) and Laterality Defects carrying tshe variant p.R152H in the DAND5 gene. The transgene-free iPSCs were generated with the human OSKM transcription factor using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The established iPSC line had the specific heterozygous alteration, a stable karyotype, expressed pluripotency markers and generated embryoid bodies that can differentiate towards the three germ layers in vitro...
October 31, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118853/identification-of-a-novel-herv-k-hml10-comprehensive-characterization-and-comparative-analysis-in-non-human-primates-provide-insights-about-hml10-proviruses-structure-and-diffusion
#8
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Maria Paola Pisano, Francesca Esposito, Jonas Blomberg, Enzo Tramontano
Background: About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107593/escape-from-pluripotency-via-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-bmp-and-activation-of-wnt-signaling-accelerates-differentiation-and-aging-in-hpsc-progeny-cells
#9
Koki Fujimori, Takuya Matsumoto, Fumihiko Kisa, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Wado Akamatsu
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a potentially valuable cell source for applications in cell replacement therapy, drug development, and disease modeling. For all these uses, it is necessary to develop reproducible and robust protocols for differentiation into desired cell types. However, differentiation protocols remain unstable and inefficient, which makes minimizing the differentiation variance among hPSC lines and obtaining purified terminally differentiated cells extremely time consuming. Here, we report a simple treatment with three small molecules-SB431542, dorsomorphine, and CHIR99021-that enhanced hPSC differentiation into three germ layers with a chemically transitional embryoid-body-like state (CTraS)...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107382/human-monoclonal-antibodies-neutralizing-influenza-virus-a-h1n1pdm09-and-seasonal-a-h1n1-strains-distinct-ig-gene-repertoires-with-a-similar-action-mechanism
#10
Satoshi Hiroi, Motoki Kuhara, Yoshiro Kishi, Ken-Ichiro Ono, Shun Matsuzawa, Naomasa Yamamoto, Jun Komano
Influenza virus causes acute respiratory infection in humans, and is a major public health concern globally. Antibodies play a central role in host protection against influenza virus. We isolated human monoclonal antibodies (hMAb) 206-2-4 and 201-6-8 by a human hybridoma protocol that neutralized various but distinct influenza virus (IFV) A/H1N1 strains, including 2009 pandemic strains. The half-inhibitory concentration of 206-2-4 and 201-6-8 against A/H1N1pdm09 strains was 2-100ng/mL and 5-20μg/mL, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095993/mael-promoter-hypermethylation-is-associated-with-de-repression-of-line-1-in-human-hypospermatogenesis
#11
Yu-Sheng Cheng, Shi-Kae Wee, Tsung-Yen Lin, Yung-Ming Lin
STUDY QUESTION: Does the hypermethylation of the maelstrom spermatogenic transposon silencer (MAEL) promoter and subsequent de-repression of transposable elements represent one of the causes of spermatogenic failure in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Experimental hypermethylation of a specific region (-131 to +177) of the MAEL promoter leads to decreased expression of MAEL with increased expression of the transposable element LINE-1 (L1) and in infertile men methylation of the MAEL promoter is associated with the severity of spermatogenic failure...
October 31, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093719/interaction-of-thp-1-monocytes-with-conidia-and-hyphae-of-different-curvularia-strains
#12
Eszter Judit Tóth, Éva Boros, Alexandra Hoffmann, Csilla Szebenyi, Mónika Homa, Gábor Nagy, Csaba Vágvölgyi, István Nagy, Tamás Papp
Interaction of the human monocytic cell line, THP-1 with clinical isolates of three Curvularia species were examined. Members of this filamentous fungal genus can cause deep mycoses emerging in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It was found that monocytes reacted only to the hyphal form of Curvularia lunata. Cells attached to the germ tubes and hyphae and production of elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 and a low level of TNF-α were measured. At the same time, monocytes failed to produce IL-6...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091993/germline-competency-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-depends-on-eomesodermin
#13
Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Anastasia Lukianchikov, Grace Hancock, Jill Zimmerman, Matthew Lowe, Rachel Kim, Zoran Galic, Naoko Irie, M Azim Surani, Steven E Jacobsen, Amander T Clark
In humans, germline competency and the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) are thought to occur in a restricted developmental window during early embryogenesis. Despite the importance of specifying the appropriate number of PGCs for human reproduction, the molecular mechanisms governing PGC formation remain largely unexplored. Here, we compared PGC-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation from eighteen independently derived human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, and discovered that the expression of primitive streak genes were positively associated with hESC germline competency...
October 30, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091160/gene-therapy-advances-challenges-and-perspectives
#14
Giulliana Augusta Rangel Gonçalves, Raquel de Melo Alves Paiva
The ability to make site-specific modifications to the human genome has been an objective in medicine since the recognition of the gene as the basic unit of heredity. Thus, gene therapy is understood as the ability of genetic improvement through the correction of altered (mutated) genes or site-specific modifications that target therapeutic treatment. This therapy became possible through the advances of genetics and bioengineering that enabled manipulating vectors for delivery of extrachromosomal material to target cells...
July 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069290/potent-suppression-of-both-spontaneous-and-carcinogen-induced-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-in-mice-by-dietary-celastrol-supplementation
#15
Emily C Barker, Byung-Gyu Kim, Ji Hee Yoon, Gregory P Tochtrop, John J Letterio, Sung Hee Choi
Celastrol is an anti-inflammatory natural triterpenoid, isolated from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii or thunder god vine. Here we define mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory activity of celastrol and demonstrate efficacy of a dietary celastrol supplement for chemoprevention of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis in mice. Dietary celastrol (31.25 ppm in rodent diet from 8 weeks to 25 weeks of age) is well tolerated and protects against LPS-induced acute inflammation in C57BL/6 mice, potently suppressing LPS-induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, Interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β...
October 21, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068052/direct-estimate-of-the-spontaneous-germ-line-mutation-rate-in-african-green-monkeys
#16
Susanne P Pfeifer
Here, I provide the first direct estimate of the spontaneous mutation rate in an Old World monkey, using a seven individual, three-generation pedigree of African green monkeys. Eight de novo mutations were identified within ∼1.5Gbp of accessible genome, corresponding to an estimated point mutation rate of 1.25 × 10(-8) per site per generation, suggesting an effective population size of ∼9,000 for the species. This estimation represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the population genetics of the African green monkey, one of the most important non-human primate models in biomedical research...
October 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058599/evidence-of-reduced-recombination-rate-in-human-regulatory-domains
#17
Yaping Liu, Abhishek Sarkar, Pouya Kheradpour, Jason Ernst, Manolis Kellis
BACKGROUND: Recombination rate is non-uniformly distributed across the human genome. The variation of recombination rate at both fine and large scales cannot be fully explained by DNA sequences alone. Epigenetic factors, particularly DNA methylation, have recently been proposed to influence the variation in recombination rate. RESULTS: We study the relationship between recombination rate and gene regulatory domains, defined by a gene and its linked control elements...
October 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055227/generation-and-characterization-of-human-ipsc-lines-sani001-a-and-sani002-a-from-mobilized-peripheral-blood-derived-megakaryoblasts
#18
Marten Hansen, Eszter Varga, Tatjana Wüst, Clemens Mellink, Anne-Marie van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Marieke von Lindern, Emile van den Akker
Mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34+ cells were differentiated to CD34(+)/CD41(+) megakaryoblasts. Cells were sorted to obtain a pure megakaryoblast population which was reprogrammed with a hOKSM self-silencing polycistronic lentiviral vector. Resulting iPSC showed normal karyotype and expression of pluripotency associated markers and in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers confirmed pluripotency of iPSC lines. Besides normal iPSC applications, these lines can be used as a control line for other megakaryoid origin iPSC and could be applied for epigenetic based research...
October 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055225/generation-and-characterization-of-a-human-ipsc-line-sani005-a-containing-the-gray-platelet-associated-heterozygous-mutation-p-q287-in-gfi1b
#19
Marten Hansen, Eszter Varga, Tatjana Wüst, Clemens Mellink, Anne-Marie van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne E Marneth, Marieke von Lindern, Bert van der Reijden, Emile van den Akker
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from an individual harboring a heterozygous c.859C→T p.Q287* mutation in GFI1B, causing an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder, platelet type, 17 (BDPLT17). PBMCs were differentiated to erythroblasts and reprogrammed by lentiviral delivery of a self-silencing hOKSM polycistronic vector. Pluripotency of iPSC line was confirmed by expression of associated markers and by in vitro spontaneous differentiation towards the 3 germ layers. Normal karyotype confirmed the genomic integrity of iPSCs and the presence of disease causing mutation was shown by Sanger sequencing...
October 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047346/mapping-eqtl-by-leveraging-multiple-tissues-and-dna-methylation
#20
Chaitanya R Acharya, Kouros Owzar, Andrew S Allen
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an important tissue-specific epigenetic event that influences transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Differentially methylated CpG sites may act as mediators between genetic variation and gene expression, and this relationship can be exploited while mapping multi-tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Current multi-tissue eQTL mapping techniques are limited to only exploiting gene expression patterns across multiple tissues either in a joint tissue or tissue-by-tissue frameworks...
October 18, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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