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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224228/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-co-expressing-il7-and-il15-modified-tumor-cells-as-a-vaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Xiaojing Xu, Qing Sun, Yu Mei, Yonghao Liu, Lixiang Zhao
IL15 and IL7 are two cytokines essential for T cell development and homeostasis. In order to improve the antitumor activity by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)-modified tumor vaccine, we generated a recombinant NDV co-expressing IL15 and IL7 (LX/IL(15+7)) by incorporation of a 2A self-processing peptide into IL15 and IL7 using reverse genetics. B16 cells infected with LX/IL(15+7) expressed both IL15 and IL7 stably. The cytotoxicity assay showed that murine melanoma cells modified with LX/IL(15+7) could significantly enhance the antitumor immune response in vitro...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224053/spontaneous-bacteremia-and-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-share-similar-prognosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-cohort-study
#2
Sebastián Marciano, Melisa Dirchwolf, Carla S Bermudez, Natalia Sobenko, Leila Haddad, Federico Genre Bert, Laura Barcán, Astrid Smud, Maria Lourdes Posadas-Martínez, Diego Giunta, Adrián Gadano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacteremia is a poorly characterized infection in patients with cirrhosis. We compared the incidence of mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and spontaneous bacteremia, and identified risk factors for mortality and acute kidney injury in patients with spontaneous bacteremia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacteremia or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from 2008 to 2016 at Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223971/keeping-pace-with-the-red-queen-identifying-the-genetic-basis-of-susceptibility-to-infectious-disease
#3
Ailene MacPherson, Sarah P Otto, Scott L Nuismer
Genome-wide association studies are widely used to identify "disease genes" conferring resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases. Using a combination of mathematical models and simulations we demonstrate that genetic interactions between hosts and parasites (GxG interactions) can drastically affect the results of these association scans and hamper our ability to detect genetic variation in susceptibility. When hosts and parasites coevolve, these GxG interactions often make Genome-wide association studies unrepeatable over time or across host populations...
December 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223945/-heart-transplantation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#4
Pablo Mouras, Laura Barcán, César Belziti, Rodolfo Pizarro, Noelia Mañez, Ricardo Marenchino
Because of its own unfavourable evolution, HIV infection was until recently considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and allowed the manifestation of disorders directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, mainly liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases. We present a case of cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy that was performed in a patient with a recently detected HIV infection...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223937/echinococcosis-and-other-parasitic-infections-in-domestic-dogs-from-urban-areas-of-an-argentinean-patagonian-city
#5
Verónica Flores, Gustavo Viozzi, Gilda Garibotti, Daniela Zacharias, María Florencia Debiaggi, Surpik Kabaradjian
In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223920/streptococcus-agalactiae-bacteremia-in-non-pregnant-adult-patients-at-two-teaching-hospitals
#6
Emanuel J Saad, Diego F Baenas, Cecilia S Boisseau, Mercedes J García, Silvana A Núñez, Pablo E Sanchez, Domingo C Balderramo, Daniela Hernández, Juan P Caeiro
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent pathogen in immunocompromised adults. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency, clinical presentation, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and risk factors associated with GBS bacteremia in non-pregnant adult patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood cultures performed in two hospitals between the years 2009-2013. From 1110 bacteremia episodes, 13 were caused by GBS, all of which were susceptible to ampicillin...
December 6, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223788/a-multiplex-real-time-rt-pcr-for-simultaneous-detection-of-four-most-common-avian-respiratory-viruses
#7
Nacira Laamiri, Rim Aouini, Boutheina Marnissi, Abdeljelil Ghram, Issam Hmila
A one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection and quantification of four avian respiratory viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). In comparison with the singleplex rRT-PCR, the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the new assay were evaluated and validated using 70 clinical samples. The optimal cutoff point, the corresponding limit of quantification (LoQ) and the limit of detection (LoD) were statistical established based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis...
December 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223787/a-novel-peptide-based-vaccine-candidate-with-protective-efficacy-against-influenza-a-in-a-mouse-model
#8
José Herrera-Rodriguez, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hubert G Niesters, Grete Stjernholm, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Birger Sørensen, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt, Anke Huckriede
Current influenza vaccines mainly induce antibody responses to the variable hemagglutinin proteins of the virus strains included in the vaccine. Instead, a broadly protective influenza vaccine should aim at inducing antibody- and/or cell-mediated immunity against conserved viral proteins. Vacc-FLU is a peptide based vaccine combining conserved B and T cell epitopes. Peptide selection was done using a proprietary peptide design platform technology focusing on responses to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted epitopes...
December 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223587/molecular-characterization-of-theileria-equi-in-horses-from-the-state-of-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#9
Maristela Peckle, Marcus Sandes Pires, Claudia Bezerra da Silva, Renata Lins da Costa, Gabriela Lopes Vivas Vitari, Marcus Vinicius Xavier Senra, Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias, Huarrisson Azevedo Santos, Carlos Luiz Massard
Theileria equi is one of the etiologic agents of the equine piroplasmosis. This infectious disease is transmitted by ticks and is a worldwide problem in the international horse movement. The 18S rRNA gene of T. equi is often used for genotyping and phylogenetic purpose. This study aimed to analyze the degree of the heterogeneity of the 18S rRNA gene of T. equi in horses from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The complete T. equi 18S rRNA sequences were obtained from twenty naturally infected horses. The PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced...
November 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#10
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223551/recent-advances-in-delivery-of-antifungal-agents-for-therapeutic-management-of-candidiasis
#11
REVIEW
Bhakti Sawant, Tabassum Khan
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over twenty species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Presence of other diseases that compromises the patient's immunity makes it more difficult to treat...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223514/need-for-integrative-thinking-to-fight-against-emerging-infectious-diseases-proceedings-of-the-5th-seminar-on-emerging-infectious-diseases-march-22-2016-%C3%A2-current-trends-and-proposals
#12
C Burdet, J-F Guégan, X Duval, M Le Tyrant, H Bergeron, J-C Manuguerra, J Raude, C Leport, P Zylberman
We present here the proceedings of the 5th seminar on emerging infectious diseases, held in Paris on March 22nd, 2016, with seven priority proposals that can be outlined as follows: encourage research on the prediction, screening and early detection of new risks of infection; develop research and surveillance concerning transmission of pathogens between animals and humans, with their reinforcement in particular in intertropical areas ("hot-spots") via public support; pursue aid development and support in these areas of prevention and training for local health personnel, and foster risk awareness in the population; ensure adapted patient care in order to promote adherence to treatment and to epidemic propagation reduction measures; develop greater awareness and better education among politicians and healthcare providers, in order to ensure more adapted response to new types of crises; modify the logic of governance, drawing from all available modes of communication and incorporating new information-sharing tools; develop economic research on the fight against emerging infectious diseases, taking into account specific driving factors in order to create a balance between preventive and curative approaches...
December 6, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223449/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-peganum-harmala-l-and-isolation-of-the-active-compound
#13
Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Adele Papetti, Majdi Hammami, Abderrazak Smaoui, Ferid Limam
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir (ACV) are the usual therapy for treating HSV infection. However, the overuse of this drug has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new alternative or complementary molecules to overcome this obstacle is needed. In this objective, Peganum harmala was investigated for its HSV-2 activity. The organic extracts of the different plant organs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells by the MTT test and anti HSV-2 activity by plaque reduction assay...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223421/a-prospective-multi-institutional-cohort-study-of-mediastinal-infections-after-cardiac-operations
#14
Louis P Perrault, Katherine A Kirkwood, Helena L Chang, John C Mullen, Brian C Gulack, Michael Argenziano, Annetine C Gelijns, Ravi K Ghanta, Bryan A Whitson, Deborah L Williams, Nancy M Sledz-Joyce, Brian Lima, Giampaolo Greco, Nishit Fumakia, Eric A Rose, John D Puskas, Eugene H Blackstone, Richard D Weisel, Michael E Bowdish
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal infections are a potentially devastating complication of cardiac operations. This study analyzed the frequency, risk factors, and perioperative outcomes of mediastinal infections after cardiac operations. METHODS: In 2010, 5,158 patients enrolled in a prospective study evaluating infections after cardiac operations and their effect on readmissions and mortality for up to 65 days after the procedure. Clinical and demographic characteristics, operative variables, management practices, and outcomes were compared for patients with and without mediastinal infections, defined as deep sternal wound infection, myocarditis, pericarditis, or mediastinitis...
December 6, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223347/-a-predictive-bacterial-infection-score-according-to-eosinophil-level-an-observational-study
#15
B Bouldoires, H Gil, T Soumagne, S Humbert, N Meaux Ruault, N Magy Bertrand
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that eosinopenia less than 0.04g/L is a marker of bacterial infection in the presence of unexplained inflammatory syndrome. The aim of our study was to test this hypothesis and to propose a predictive score for bacterial infection (score CIBLE, C reactive protein, bacterial infections, levels of leucocytes and eosinophils). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-center observational study of patients admitted to an internal medicine department in the year 2015 and presenting with an inflammatory biological syndrome...
December 6, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223343/biotic-factors-that-induce-the-tomato-ve1-r-gene
#16
Christian Danve Castroverde, Xin Xu, Ross N Nazar, Jane Robb
In tomato, Verticillium resistance is determined by the Ve gene locus encoding two leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (Ve1, Ve2). The resistance function usually is attributed to Ve1 alone, with two known alleles: Ve1, encoding a resistance protein, and ve1, with a premature stop codon encoding a truncated product. We have examined further Ve-gene expression in resistant and susceptible near-isolines of Verticillium-infected Craigella tomatoes, using both quantitative RT-PCR and an alternative RFLP assay...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223342/enhanced-resistance-to-rice-blast-and-sheath-blight-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-by-expressing-the-oxalate-decarboxylase-protein-bacisubin-from-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Zhongqiang Qi, Junjie Yu, Lerong Shen, Zhenxian Yu, Mina Yu, Yan Du, Rongsheng Zhang, Tianqiao Song, Xiaole Yin, Yuxin Zhou, Huanhuan Li, Qian Wei, Yongfeng Liu
Oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), catalyzing the degradation of oxalic acid, is widely distributed in varieties of organisms. In this study, an oxalate decarboxylase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain BS-916, Bacisubin, was transformed into rice variety Nipponbare to generate transgenic rice with increased OxDC activity. Pathogenicity test revealed that the transgenic rice showed enhanced resistance to rice blast and sheath blight. Further RNA-seq analysis between Nipponbare WT (wild type) and transgenic rice identified 1764 DEGs (Differentially expressed genes) including 723 up-regulated unigenes and 1041 down-regulated unigenes...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223339/microrna396a-5p-and-3p-induce-tomato-disease-susceptibility-by-suppressing-target-genes-and-upregulating-salicylic-acid
#18
Lei Chen, Jun Meng, Junmiao Zhai, Pinsan Xu, Yushi Luan
Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to perceive and resist the assault of pathogens. The biotrophs, necrotrophs and hemibiotrophs are types of plant pathogens that activate diverse salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. In this study we showed that the expressions of miR396a-5p and -3p in Solanum lycopersicum (S. lycopersicum) were both down-regulated after infection by hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans) and necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) infection. Overexpression of miR396a-5p and -3p in transgenic tomato enhanced the susceptibility of S...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223319/tuberculosis-in-immunosuppressed-patients
#19
Isabel Machuca, Elisa Vidal, Julián de la Torre-Cisneros, Antonio Rivero-Román
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most significant infections in immunosuppressed patients due to its high frequency and high morbidity and mortality. TB is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients. The diagnosis and early treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is vital to preventing it progression to disease. Similarly, the early diagnosis of TB is key to improving the prognosis of patients and preventing its transmission. The clinical expression of TB in immunosuppressed patients is conditioned by the patient's degree of immunosuppression...
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223021/pre-treatment-of-soybean-plants-with-calcium-stimulates-ros-responses-and-mitigates-infection-by-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#20
Arbia Arfaoui, Abdelbasset El Hadrami, Fouad Daayf
Considering the high incidence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a variety of field crops and vegetables, different control strategies are needed to keep the disease under economical threshold. This study assessed the effect of foliar application of a calcium formulation on disease symptoms, oxalic acid production, and on the oxidative stress metabolism in soybean plants inoculated with each of two isolates of the pathogen that have contrasting aggressiveness (HA, highly-aggressive versus WA, weakly-aggressive)...
November 26, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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