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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#1
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330129/the-recombinant-pea-defensin-drr230a-is-active-against-impacting-soybean-and-cotton-pathogenic-fungi-from-the-genera-fusarium-colletotrichum-and-phakopsora
#2
Ariane Ferreira Lacerda, Rafael Perseghini Del Sarto, Marilia Santos Silva, Erico Augusto Rosas de Vasconcelos, Roberta Ramos Coelho, Vanessa Olinto Dos Santos, Claudia Vieira Godoy, Claudine Dinali Santos Seixas, Maria Cristina Mattar da Silva, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
Plant defensins are antifungal peptides produced by the innate immune system plants developed to circumvent fungal infection. The defensin Drr230a, originally isolated from pea, has been previously shown to be active against various entomopathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, the activity of a yeast-expressed recombinant Drr230a protein (rDrr230a) was tested against impacting soybean and cotton fungi. First, the gene was subcloned into the yeast expression vector pPICZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330105/deciphering-the-effect-of-novel-bacterial-exopolysaccharide-based-nanoparticle-cream-against-propionibacterium-acnes
#3
Abraham P Karlapudi, Vidya P Kodali, Krishna P Kota, Sabiha S Shaik, N S Sampath Kumar, Vijaya R Dirisala
Acne vulgaris (acne) is a chronic inflammatory disease prevalent among adolescents and adults, with significant psychological effects. The aetiology of acne is multifactorial. Several pathophysiological associations have been identified in which Propionibacterium acnes plays a major role. This bacteria primarily affects areas containing oil glands including the face, back and trunk, where it causes the formation of seborrhoea and inflammatory lesions. The treatment methods currently in place have side effects...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329941/-genital-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-in-male-clients-attending-sexually-transmitted-disease-clinics-in-9-cities-in-guangdong-province
#4
H C Shen, S J Huang, X L Qin, P Z Zhao, Y Y Lan, H C Zou, J L Ou, L Chen, X M Luo, H P Zheng, Y Li, B Yang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis (GCT) infection and associated risk factors in male clients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangdong and provide integrated intervention strategy for this group. Methods: Convenient sampling was used to recruit participants from April to June in 2015 in Guangdong province. The information about their socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were collected by using a questionnaire, and blood samples were taken from them to test the antibodies against HIV, syphilis and HCV...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329934/-hiv-infection-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-antibody-positive-clients-of-female-sex-workers-recently-reported-in-shaanxi-province
#5
T Hu, W H Chang, M Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the current status of HIV infection and the related factors in HIV antibody positive clients of female sex workers (FSWs) recently reported in Shaanxi province. Methods: The HIV/AIDS cases newly diagnosed in males living in Shaanxi from January 1th of 2013 to June 30th of 2014 were selected and those infected through " commercial heterosexual behavior" were identified. The information about their demographic characteristics, previous unprotected heterosexual sex and the sample sources were collected, and serum or plasma samples were collected from them and tested with BED-CEIA...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329702/protecting-the-newborn-and-young-infant-from-infectious-diseases-lessons-from-immune-ontogeny
#6
REVIEW
Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Arnaud Marchant, Ofer Levy
Infections in the first year of life are common and often severe. The newborn host demonstrates both quantitative and qualitative differences to the adult in nearly all aspects of immunity, which at least partially explain the increased susceptibility to infection. Here we discuss how differences in susceptibility to infection result not out of a state of immaturity, but rather reflect adaptation to the particular demands placed on the immune system in early life. We review the mechanisms underlying host defense in the very young, and discuss how specific developmental demands increase the risk of particular infectious diseases...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329650/increased-risk-of-opportunistic-infections-among-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#7
Junko Takeshita, Daniel B Shin, Alexis Ogdie, Joel M Gelfand
Infection is the second leading cause of death among psoriasis patients on phototherapy or systemic medications. The types of infections associated with psoriasis remain poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine the risk of opportunistic infection (OI) among patients with psoriasis. We conducted a cohort study of patients with (N=199,700) and without (N=954,315) psoriasis in The Health Improvement Network electronic medical record database. Patients receiving phototherapy or systemic therapy were considered to have moderate-to-severe psoriasis (N=12,442)...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329638/developing-a-continuous-quality-improvement-assessment-using-a-patient-centered-approach-in-optimizing-sle-disease-control
#8
Katelyn Updyke, Brittany Urso, James A Solomon
Systemic lupus erythematous is a multi-organ autoimmune disease in which the patient has "lost" self- tolerance and developed immune-complexes containing self-antigen that cause disease through tissue inflammation and multi-organ damage. Patients often have unpredictable flares in symptoms with poorly identified triggers. However, it has been suggested in other literature that exogenous exposures, including ingested beef, cigarette smoke, UV radiation, metal-complexing agents, and infections can contribute to exacerbations and improvements in SLE symptoms...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329593/cutaneous-alternariosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#9
Ravi Chandubhai Patel, Matthew Helm, Ikue Shimizu
Alternaria species are a type of dematiaceous fungi that cause a wide spectrum of disease with cutaneous infections being the most common. These infections are most common in immunocompromised individuals. However, only a few cases of primary cutaneous alternariosis have been reported in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old male who presented with primary cutaneous alternariosis on his left ankle that responded to the use of topical econazole and oral itraconazole...
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329526/chronic-granulomatous-disease-as-a-risk-factor-for-cutaneous-lupus-in-childhood
#10
Sandrina Carvalho, Susana Machado, Rita Sampaio, Margarida Guedes, Júlia Vasconcelos, Diogo Semedo, Manuela Selores
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primaryimmunodeficiency disorder that affects the phagocyticcells of the innate immune system. It is characterizedby recurrent or persistent infections with granulomaformation. Lupus-like lesions have been reported incarriers of CGD and less frequently, in patients withCGD. Immunological study in these patients areusually negative. We describe the case of an 8-yearoldboy with CGD who developed chronic and acutecutaneous lupus erythematous with angular cheilitis,oral ulcers, Raynaud phenomenon, and positiveserologies for antinuclear, anticentromere, and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies...
March 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329491/congenital-erythropoietic-porphyria-gunther-disease-long-term-follow-up-of-a-case-and-review
#11
Matthew Howard, Anthony Hall, Donald Ramsay
Patients with the rare genodermatosis congenitalerythropoietic porphyria (CEP, Gunther disease)develop erosions and scarring on sun-exposedsites caused by phototoxin mediated damage.Compromised skin barrier function places patientsat higher risk of infection and long term sequelaeinclude scarring. We report a long term follow up ofa 60 year old patient born with CEP and provide anextensive literature review of CEP including recentupdates on potential management options. Multiplepatient interviews and collection of biochemistry datawere conducted for the case discussion...
February 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329372/practical-review-of-recognition-and-management-of-obesity-and-lipohypertrophy-in-hiv-infection
#12
Jordan E Lake, Takara Stanley, Caroline Apovian, Shalendar Bhasin, Todd T Brown, Jaqueline Capeau, Judith S Currier, Michael P Dube, Julian Falutz, Steven K Grinspoon, Giovanni Guaraldi, Esteban Martinez, Grace A McComsey, Fred R Sattler, Kristine M Erlandson
Background: Obesity and lipohypertrophy are common in treated HIV infection and contribute to morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We present a consensus opinion on the diagnosis, clinical consequences and treatment of excess adiposity in adults with treated HIV infection. Results: Obesity and lipohypertrophy commonly occur among HIV-infected adults on ART, and may have overlapping pathophysiologies and/or synergistic metabolic consequences...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329325/comparison-of-radial-and-bilateral-internal-thoracic-artery-grafting-in-patients-with-peripheral-vascular-disease%C3%A2
#13
Dmitry Pevni, Yanai Ben-Gal, Rephael Mohr, Nadav Teich, Zvi Raviv, Amir Kramer, Yosef Paz, Benjamin Medalion, Nahum Nesher
OBJECTIVES: The composite T-graft with radial artery (RA) attached end-to-side to the left internal thoracic artery (ITA) provides arterial myocardial revascularization without the increased risk of deep sternal wound infection associated with harvesting 2 ITAs. However, many surgeons are reluctant to use RA in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) due to concerns regarding the quality of the conduit in this subset of patients. The purpose of this study is to compare early- and long-term outcomes of arterial grafting with bilateral ITAs (BITA) to that of single ITA and RA in patients with PVD...
March 2, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329310/immunologic-pathways-that-predict-mortality-in-hiv-infected-ugandans-initiating-art
#14
Sulggi Lee, Helen Byakwaga, Yap Boum, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Michael M Lederman, Yong Huang, Russell P Tracy, Huyen Cao, Jessica E Haberer, Annet Kembabazi, David R Bangsberg, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt
Plasma kynurenine/tryptophan (KT) ratio, a marker of adaptive immune defects, strongly predicts mortality during treated HIV disease in Ugandans compared to U.S.-based populations, Here, KT ratio, and T cell and plasma biomarkers of immune activation were measured among 535 HIV-infected Ugandans prior to ART initiation and at month 6 of viral suppression. Month 6 KT ratio (aHR=2.74), sCD14 (aHR=2.32), IL-6 (aHR=2.34), and D dimer (aHR=1.95) were associated with mortality occurring ≥6 months after ART initiation, KT ratio remained significantly predictive of mortality even after adjustment for the additional biomarkers, suggesting an independent contribution to clinical outcomes in resource-limited settings...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329297/association-of-mutations-in-tlr2-signaling-genes-with-fulminant-form-of-hepatitis-b-related-acute-liver-failure
#15
Yue Han, Leilei Gu, Jing Liu, Xinhua Li, Mingjie Wang, Qiming Gong, Demin Yu, Zhitao Yang, Donghua Zhang, Huijuan Yang, Zhongliang Shen, Hongguang Zhu, Youhua Xie, Xinxin Zhang
Background: Fulminant form of hepatitis B related acute liver failure (FHB-ALF) is a rare but highly fatal outcome of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Its related host factors have not been studied. Methods.: To identify functionally relevant biological pathway(s) in FHB-ALF pathogenesis, pathway enrichment analysis was conducted on a dataset of rare case-specific variants derived from exomic sequencing of ten unrelated cases. Key variants in identified pathways were validated using 312 HBV disease controls...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329287/outcome-after-procedures-for-retained-blood-syndrome-in-coronary-surgery
#16
Tuomas Tauriainen, Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Joni Koski-Vähälä, Matti-Aleksi Mosorin, Juhani Airaksinen, Fausto Biancari
OBJECTIVES: Incomplete drainage of blood from around the heart and lungs can lead to retained blood syndrome (RBS) after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of and the outcome after procedures for RBS in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: A total of 2764 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG from 2006 to 2013 were investigated retrospectively. Patients undergoing any procedure for RBS were compared with patients who did not undergo any procedure for RBS...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329274/trichinella-nativa-outbreak-with-rare-thrombotic-complications-associated-with-meat-from-a-black-bear-hunted-in-northern-ontario
#17
Daniel Dalcin, Dante S Zarlenga, Nicholas C Larter, Eric Hoberg, Daniel A Boucher, Samuel Merrifield, Rachel Lau, Filip Ralevski, Karamjit Cheema, Kevin L Schwartz, Andrea K Boggild
Background: Although trichinellosis is known to cause thrombotic disease, serious thrombotic events are rare and have not been previously associated with Trichinella nativa infection. Methods: Patient interviews and medical chart reviews were conducted on 10 men who became ill following consumption of a common source of black bear meat. Trichinella serology on patient sera as well as PCR and larval identification of the meat samples was conducted. Results: All 10 exposed individuals developed an acute illness clinically compatible with trichinellosis, characterized by fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, along with eosinophilia ranging from 0...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329251/factors-associated-with-accelerated-hospitalization-and-re-hospitalization-among-medicare-home-health-patients
#18
Matthew C Lohman, Emily A Scherer, Karen L Whiteman, Rebecca L Greenberg, Martha L Bruce
Background: Preventing hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations of older adults receiving Medicare home health (HH) services is a key goal for patients and care providers. This study aimed to identify factors related to greater risk of and earlier hospitalizations from HH, a key step in targeting preventive efforts. Methods: Data come from Medicare mandated start-of-care assessments from 87,780 HH patients served by 132 agencies in 32 states, collected from January 2013 to March 2015...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329237/extensive-infective-endocarditis-of-the-aortic-root-and-the-aortic-mitral-continuity-a-mitral-valve-sparing-approach%C3%A2
#19
Anton Tomšic, Adriaan W Schneider, Meindert Palmen, Thomas J van Brakel, Michel I M Versteegh, Robert J M Klautz
OBJECTIVES: Severe cases of infective endocarditis (IE) of the aortic valve can cause aortic root destruction and affect the surrounding structures, including the aortic-mitral continuity, the anterior mitral valve leaflet and the roof of the left atrium. Reconstruction after resection of all infected tissue remains challenging. We describe our surgical approach and the mid-term results. METHODS: Between January 2004 and December 2015, 35 patients underwent surgery for extensive IE of the aortic valve with destruction of the aortic root, the aortic-mitral continuity and the mitral valve...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329167/repeated-vaccination-does-not-appear-to-impact-on-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-hospitalisation-with-confirmed-influenza
#20
Allen C Cheng, Kristine K Macartney, Grant W Waterer, Tom Kotsimbos, Paul M Kelly, Christopher C Blyth
Background: Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for those at greatest risk of severe influenza infection. Recent reports of a negative impact of serial influenza vaccination on vaccine effectiveness raises concerns about the recommendation for annual influenza vaccines, particularly in those at greatest risk. Methods: The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is an Australian hospital-based sentinel surveillance program. In this observational study, cases were defined as subjects >9 years admitted with influenza confirmed by PCR...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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