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Thalamus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768988/single-cell-recordings-to-target-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#1
Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Yan Zhao, Marcus L F Janssen, G Louis Wagner, Albert J Colon, Danny M W Hilkman, Erik Gommer, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Govert Hoogland, Linda Ackermans, Lo J Bour, Richard J A Van Wezel, Paul Boon, Yasin Temel, Tjitske Heida, Vivianne H J M Van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Rob P W Rouhl
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a promising treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. However, therapy response varies and precise positioning of the DBS lead is potentially essential for maximizing therapeutic efficacy. We investigate if single-cell recordings acquired by microelectrode recordings can aid targeting of the ANT during surgery and hypothesize that the neuronal firing properties of the target region relate to clinical outcome. We prospectively included 10 refractory epilepsy patients and performed microelectrode recordings under general anesthesia to identify the change in neuronal signals when approaching and transecting the ANT...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753106/feasibility-of-imaging-evoked-activity-throughout-the-rat-brain-using-electrical-impedance-tomography
#2
Mayo Faulkner, Sana Hannan, Kirill Aristovich, James Avery, David Holder
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an emerging technique which has been used to image evoked activity during whisker displacement in the cortex of an anaesthetised rat with a spatiotemporal resolution of 200 μm and 2 ms. The aim of this work was to extend EIT to image not only from the cortex but also from deeper structures active in somatosensory processing, specifically the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. The direct response in the cortex and VPL following 2 Hz forepaw stimulation were quantified using a 57-channel epicortical electrode array and a 16-channel depth electrode...
May 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748207/use-of-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging-to-predict-posttraumatic-epilepsy-in-rabbits
#3
W Li, X Wang, X Wei, M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Finding a reliable biomarker to thoroughly assess the brain structure changes in posttraumatic epilepsy is of great importance. Our aim was to explore the value of diffusional kurtosis imaging combined with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of posttraumatic epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A modified weight-drop device was used to induce traumatic brain injury. Rabbits were exposed to traumatic brain injury or sham injury...
May 10, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738718/bilateral-thalamocortical-abnormalities-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#4
Arthur Rezayev, Henry A Feldman, Jacob Levman, Emi Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), a congenital malformation of the neocortex and one of the most common causes of medication resistant epilepsy in pediatric populations, can be studied noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The present study aimed to quantify changes in the thalamus and thalamocortical pathways with respect to fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and other common measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study quantified data collected from pediatric patients with a prior diagnosis of FCD; 75 patients (35 females, 10...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718741/high-throughput-behavioral-assay-to-investigate-seizure-sensitivity-in-zebrafish-implicates-zfhx3-in-epilepsy
#5
Tyson D Fuller, Trudi A Westfall, Tirthasree Das, Deborah V Dawson, Diane C Slusarski
Epilepsy, which affects ∼1% of the population, is caused by abnormal synchronous neural activity in the central nervous system (CNS). While there is a significant genetic contribution to epilepsy, the underlying causes for the majority of genetic cases remain unknown. The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Project (UDP) utilized exome sequencing to identify genetic variants in patients affected by various conditions with undefined etiology, including epilepsy. Confirming the functional relevance of the candidate genes identified by exome sequencing in a timely manner is crucial to translating exome data into clinically useful information...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682045/cerebrospinal-fluid-egress-from-the-quadripolar-deep-brain-stimulation-electrode-for-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-refractory-epilepsy
#6
Byung-Chul Son, Jin-Gyu Choi, Sang-Woo Ha
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy. Due to the unique location of ANT in the thalamus facing the lateral and third ventricles, transventricular DBS lead placement is an essential part of ANT DBS. However, there is no report regarding hardware problems including impedance variability in transventricular ANT DBS due to limited experience. A 45-year-old male patient with previously effective, bilateral ANT DBS presented with increasing seizure frequency and a shortened battery longevity within 2 years...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681927/altered-structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-an-fmri-study
#7
Chengqing Zhong, Rong Liu, Cheng Luo, Sisi Jiang, Li Dong, Rui Peng, Fuqiang Guo, Pu Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional connectivity (FC) of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and rs-fMRI data were collected in 25 patients with JME and in 24 control subjects. A FC analysis was subsequently performed, with seeding at the regions that demonstrated between-group differences in gray matter volume (GMV). Then, the observed structural and FCs were associated with the clinical manifestations...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651571/correlation-of-neuropsychological-and-metabolic-changes-after-epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-left-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#8
Canan Güvenç, Patrick Dupont, Jan Van den Stock, Laura Seynaeve, Kathleen Porke, Eva Dries, Karen Van Bouwel, Johannes van Loon, Tom Theys, Karolien E Goffin, Wim Van Paesschen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery often causes changes in cognition and cerebral glucose metabolism. Our aim was to explore relationships between pre- and postoperative cerebral metabolism as measured with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and neuropsychological test scores in patients with left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), who were rendered seizure-free after epilepsy surgery. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included...
April 12, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625846/maturational-changes-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptors-measured-with-benzodiazepine-binding-of-iodine-123-iomazenil-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#9
Satoru Ikemoto, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Yuko Hirata, Ryuki Matsuura, Kenjiro Kikuchi
BACKGROUND: Iodine 123 (I-123) iomazenil is a specific ligand of the central benzodiazepine receptor, which is a part of the postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor complex. We performed statistical image processing of I-123 iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography to elucidate maturational changes in the GABAergic system. METHODS: Thirty patients (18 boys and 12 girls, aged 17 days to 14 years) with cryptogenic focal epilepsy were enrolled and underwent I-123 iomazenil single-photon emission computed tomography...
April 3, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625365/morphometric-mri-features-and-surgical-outcome-in-patients-with-epilepsy-related-to-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-low-intellectual-quotient
#10
Larissa Botelho Gaça, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho Garcia, Gabriel Barbosa Sandim, Idaiane Batista Assumption Leme, Maria Helena Silva Noffs, Henrique Carrete, Ricardo Silva Centeno, João Ricardo Sato, Elza Márcia Targas Yacubian
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to verify in a series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) if those with low intellectual quotient (IQ) levels have more extended areas of atrophy compared with those with higher IQ levels and to analyze whether IQ could be a variable implicated on a surgical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients (n=106) with refractory MTLE-HS submitted to corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) (57 left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE); 45 males) were enrolled...
April 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583046/quantitative-analysis-of-brain-perfusion-parameters-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy-by-use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Antje Hartmann, Clea von Klopmann, Ines E Lautenschläger, Volkher B Scholz, Martin J Schmidt
OBJECTIVE To quantitatively analyze brain perfusion parameters in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) by use of MRI and to compare those findings with brain perfusion parameters for healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs with IE. PROCEDURES For each dog, standard MRI and perfusion-weighted imaging (before and after injection of gadoteric acid contrast medium) sequences of the brain were obtained during the interictal period by means of the same protocol used in a comparable study of healthy dogs. Time of contrast medium arrival, time to peak contrast enhancement, mean contrast transit time, and cerebral blood flow were calculated for the caudate nucleus, thalamus, piriform lobe, hippocampus, semioval center, and temporal cerebral cortex...
April 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570898/novel-connectivity-map-normalization-procedure-for-improved-quantitative-investigation-of-structural-thalamic-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#12
Brendan G Santyr, Jonathan C Lau, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith MacDougall, Ali R Khan
BACKGROUND: Connectivity studies targeting the thalamus have revealed patterns of atrophy and deafferentiation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The thalamus can be parcellated using probabilistic tractography to demonstrate regions of cortical connectivity; however, sensitivity to smaller or less connected regions is low. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate thalamic structural connectivity in a wider range of cortical and limbic structures in TLE patients using a novel connectivity map normalization procedure...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563579/the-generation-mechanism-of-spike-and-slow-wave-discharges-appearing-on-thalamic-relay-nuclei
#13
Bing Hu, Yu Guo, Feng Shi, Xiaoqiang Zou, Jing Dong, Long Pan, Min Yu, Chaowei Zhou, Zhang Cheng, Wanyue Tang, Haochen Sun, Luonan Chen
In this paper, we use a model modified from classic corticothalamic network(CT) to explore the mechanism of absence seizures appearing on specific relay nuclei (SRN) of the thalamus. It is found that typical seizure states appear on SRN through tuning several critical connection strengths in the model. In view of previous experimental and theoretical works which were mainly on epilepsy seizure phenomena appearing on excitatory pyramidal neurons (EPN) of the cortex, this is a novel model to consider the seizure observed on thalamus...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554309/the-surgical-approach-to-the-anterior-nucleus-of-thalamus-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy-experience-from-the-international-multicenter-registry-more
#14
Kai Lehtimäki, Volker A Coenen, Antonio Gonçalves Ferreira, Paul Boon, Christian Elger, Rod S Taylor, Philippe Ryvlin, Antonio Gil-Nagel, Frans Gielen, Thomas C Brionne, Abdallah Abouihia, Grégory Beth
BACKGROUND: The Medtronic Registry for Epilepsy (MORE; Medtronic Inc, Dublin, Ireland) is an open label observational study evaluating the long-term effectiveness, safety, and performance of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in success rate of placing contacts at ANT-target region (ANT-TR) between transventricular (TV) and extraventricular (EV) lead trajectories in 73 ANT-DBS implants in 17 European centers participating in the MORE registry...
March 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547778/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-drug-targets-for-the-treatment-of-absence-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Richard Teke Ngomba, Gilles van Luijtelaar
Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are expressed in key regions of the cortex and the thalamus and are known to regulate spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the electroclinical hallmarks of absence seizures. Recent preclinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of selective group I and III mGlu receptor subtype allosteric modulators, which can suppress pathological SWDs. Of particular interest are positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for mGlu5 receptors, as they currently show the most promise as novel anti-absence epilepsy drugs...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531860/thalamic-and-basal-ganglia-metabolism-on-interictal-18-f-fdg-pet-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-an-suv-based-analysis
#16
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527492/brain-functional-connectivity-in-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy
#17
Stefania Evangelisti, Claudia Testa, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, David Neil Manners, Giovanni Rizzo, Daniel Remondini, Gastone Castellani, Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper, Raffaele Lodi
Objectives: To evaluate functional connectivity (FC) in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) compared to healthy controls. Methods: Resting state fMRI was performed in 13 patients with a clinical diagnosis of SHE (age = 38.3 ± 11.8 years, 6 M) and 13 matched healthy controls (age = 38.5 ± 10.8 years, 6 M).Data were first analysed using probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA), then a graph theoretical approach was applied to assess topological and organizational properties at the whole brain level...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515512/stimulation-induced-electrographic-seizures-in-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-do-not-preclude-a-subsequent-favorable-treatment-response
#18
Tommi Nora, Hanna Heinonen, Mirja Tenhunen, Sirpa Rainesalo, Soila Järvenpää, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a method of neuromodulation used for refractory focal epilepsy. We report a patient suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy who developed novel visual symptoms and atypical seizures with the onset of ANT-DBS therapy. Rechallenge under video electroencephalography recording confirmed that lowering the stimulation voltage alleviated these symptoms. Subsequent stimulation with the initial voltage value did not cause the recurrence of either the visual symptoms or the new seizure type, and appeared to alleviate the patient's seizures in long-term follow-up...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508901/extrahippocampal-high-frequency-oscillations-during-epileptogenesis
#19
Lin Li, Mayur Patel, Joyel Almajano, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
The current study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in the intra-/extrahippocampal areas during epileptogenesis. Local field potentials were bilaterally recorded from hippocampus (CA1), thalamus, motor cortex, and prefrontal cortex in 13 rats before and after intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) lesions. HFOs in the ripple (100-200 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) ranges were detected and their rates were computed during different time periods (1-5 weeks) after KA-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476797/the-pedunculopontine-and-laterodorsal-tegmental-nuclei-in-the-kainate-model-of-epilepsy
#20
Joana I Soares, Ana R Afonso, Gisela H Maia, Nikolai V Lukoyanov
Prior studies showed that epilepsy can be associated with reorganization of the septohippocampal cholinergic fiber system. Using the kainate model of epilepsy, we wished to further examine the structural integrity of the mesopontine tegmental nuclei (pedunculopontine, PPN, and laterodorsal, LDT), which provide the cholinergic input to the thalamus. It was found that the total numbers of the PPN and LDT cells immunoreactive to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter did not differ between control and epileptic rats...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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