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Thalamus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897304/-the-role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-the-pre-surgical-study-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
M A Garcia-Pallero, C V Torres, R Manzanares-Soler, E Camara, R G Sola
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to assess the integrity of the white matter in the brain. AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of DTI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to observe its relationship with lateralisation of the epileptogenic focus in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed 11 patients diagnosed with TLE in accordance with the pre-surgical protocol of our epilepsy unit, and who were seizure-free two years after performing a temporal lobectomy plus amygdalohippocampectomy (Spencer technique)...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871881/targeting-brain-and-peripheral-plasticity-of-the-lipidome-in-acute-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-via-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#2
Raissa Lerner, Julia Post, Sebastian Loch, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Epilepsy is a highly common chronic neurological disorder, manifested in many different types, affecting ~1% of the worldwide human population. The molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis has not yet been clarified, and pharmacoresistance exhibited by 30-40% of epilepsy patients remains a major obstacle in medical care. Growing evidence indicates a role of lipid signalling pathways in epileptogenesis, thus lipid signals emerge as potential biomarkers for the onset and evolving course of the epileptic disorder, as well as potential therapeutic agents and targets...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846633/variations-in-thalamic-anatomy-affect-targeting-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#3
Chengyuan Wu, Pierre-François D'Haese, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Benoit M Dawant, Peter Konrad, Ashwini D Sharan
BACKGROUND: Thalamic size and shape vary significantly across patients - with changes specific to the anterior thalamus occurring with age and in the setting of chronic epilepsy. Such ambiguity raises concerns regarding electrode position and potential implications for seizure outcomes. METHODS: MRIs from 6 patients from a single center underwent quantitative analysis. In addition to direct measurements from postimplantation MRIs, the CRAnialVault Explorer suite was used to normalize electrode position to a common reference system...
November 16, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829869/interaction-between-thalamus-and-hippocampus-in-termination-of-amygdala-kindled-seizures-in-mice
#4
Zhen Zhang, Jia-Jia Li, Qin-Chi Lu, Hai-Qing Gong, Pei-Ji Liang, Pu-Ming Zhang
The thalamus and hippocampus have been found both involved in the initiation, propagation, and termination of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the interaction of these regions during seizures is not clear. The present study is to explore whether some regular patterns exist in their interaction during the termination of seizures. Multichannel in vivo recording techniques were used to record the neural activities from the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in mice. The mice were kindled by electrically stimulating basolateral amygdala neurons, and Racine's rank standard was employed to classify the stage of behavioral responses (stage 1~5)...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818364/might-the-olfactory-bulb-be-an-origin-of-olfactory-auras-in-focal-epilepsy
#5
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Olfactory auras (phantosmia) are an infrequent phenomenon in complex focal seizures generated in the mesial temporal lobe. It is generally assumed that all such auras arise from epileptic foci in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala or rostral insula, all of which have major afferent projections from the olfactory bulb or mainly from its relay, the anterior olfactory nucleus. The histological morphology, synaptic circuitry, and foetal development of the olfactory bulb are unique. The olfactory system is the only special sensory system that does not project to the thalamus because its bulb and tract incorporate an intrinsic thalamic equivalent: axonless granular and periglomerular neurons and the anterior olfactory nucleus...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797809/timing-and-significance-of-pathological-features-in-c9orf72-expansion-associated-frontotemporal-dementia
#6
Sarat C Vatsavayai, Soo Jin Yoon, Raquel C Gardner, Tania F Gendron, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Andrew Trujillo, Mochtar Pribadi, Joanna J Phillips, Stephanie E Gaus, John D Hixson, Paul A Garcia, Gil D Rabinovici, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Leonard Petrucelli, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
A GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 leads to frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diverse pathological features have been identified, and their disease relevance remains much debated. Here, we describe two illuminating patients with frontotemporal dementia due to the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old female with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia accompanied by focal degeneration in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and medial pulvinar thalamus...
October 22, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792884/altered-basal-ganglia-cortical-functional-connections-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Li Dong, Pu Wang, Rui Peng, Sisi Jiang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate alterations of basal ganglia-cortical functional connections in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHOD: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were gathered from 19 FLE patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was used to assess the functional connections between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex. Regions of interest, including the left/right caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus, were selected as the seeds...
October 24, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769717/progressive-neuronal-activation-accompanies-epileptogenesis-caused-by-hippocampal-glutamine-synthetase-inhibition
#8
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765558/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-may-be-a-disorder-of-cortex-rather-than-thalamus-an-effective-connectivity-analysis
#9
Kang Min Park, Byung In Lee, Kyong Jin Shin, Sam Yeol Ha, JinSe Park, Si Eun Kim, Hyung Chan Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Chi Woong Mun, Sung Eun Kim
Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been considered as a disorder of thalamo-cortical circuit, it is not determined the causality relationship between thalamus and cortex. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a disorder of thalamus or cortex. Twenty-nine patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included 10 patients with childhood absence epilepsy as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the structures, including hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723660/relationship-between-postoperative-eeg-driving-response-and-lead-location-in-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-refractory-epilepsy
#10
Byung-Chul Son, Young Min Shon, Seong-Hoon Kim, Jin-Gyu Choi, Jiyeon Kim
OBJECTIVES: Interpreting the postoperative electroencephalographic (EEG) driving response (DR) as an indicator of electrode placement within the thalamic nucleus in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) for refractory epilepsy is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the relationship between postoperative EEG DR and the location of 11 electrodes in 6 patients who underwent ANT DBS for refractory epilepsy...
2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694267/mri-negative-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-network-disorder-of-neocortical-connectivity
#11
David N Vaughan, Genevieve Rayner, Chris Tailby, Graeme D Jackson
OBJECTIVE: To define the functional network changes that characterize MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS-TLE). METHODS: We studied 36 patients with medically refractory unilateral TLE, having either a normal clinical MRI (n = 18) or unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (n = 18). Patients were compared to healthy controls of equivalent age and sex (n = 27). Functional connectivity in 10 minutes of task-free functional MRI was assessed using a voxel-resolution graph theoretic analysis, using the metrics of degree, clustering coefficient, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality...
November 1, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677885/hippocampus-associated-causal-network-of-structural-covariance-measuring-structural-damage-progression-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#12
Zhiqiang Zhang, Wei Liao, Qiang Xu, Wei Wei, Helen Juan Zhou, Kangjian Sun, Fang Yang, Dante Mantini, Xueman Ji, Guangming Lu
In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the causal relationship of morphometric alterations between hippocampus and the other regions, that is, how the hippocampal atrophy leads to progressive morphometric alterations in the epileptic network regions remains largely unclear. In this study, a causal network of structural covariance (CaSCN) was proposed to map the causal effects of hippocampal atrophy on the network-based morphometric alterations in mTLE. It was hypothesized that if cross-sectional morphometric MRI data could be attributed temporal information, for example, by sequencing the data according to disease progression information, GCA would be a feasible approach for constructing a CaSCN...
September 28, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636181/modification-of-electrophysiological-activity-pattern-after-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-intractable-epilepsy-report-of-3-cases
#13
Hae Yu Kim, Yun Jung Hur, Heung-Dong Kim, Kang Min Park, Sung Eun Kim, Tae Gyu Hwang
OBJECTIVE Thalamic stimulation can provoke electroencephalography (EEG) synchronization or desynchronization, which can help to reduce the occurrence of seizures in intractable epilepsy, though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, the authors investigated changes in EEG electrical activity to better understand the seizure-reducing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS Electrical activation patterns in the epileptogenic brains of 3 patients were analyzed using classical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis recursively applied (CLARA)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592844/heterogeneity-of-anatomic-regions-by-mr-volumetry-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#14
B E Swartz, J Spitz, A L Vu, M Mandelkern, M L Su
OBJECTIVE: To investigate brain volumes in patients with well-characterized juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the MRI images of seventeen subjects with EEG and clinically defined JME and seventeen age- and sex-matched controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automated and manual volumetry. RESULTS: We found no significant group differences in the cortical volumes by automated techniques for all regions or for the whole brain...
October 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575403/altered-states-of-consciousness-in-epilepsy-a-dti-study-of-the-brain
#15
Fangfang Xie, Wu Xing, Xiaoyi Wang, Weihua Liao, Wei Shi
: A disturbance in the level of consciousness is a classical clinical sign of several seizure types. Recent studies have shown that altered states of consciousness in seizures are associated with structural and functional changes of several brain regions. Prominent among these are the thalamus, the brain stem, and the default mode network (DMN), which is part of the consciousness system. Our study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate these brain regions in patients with three different types of epilepsies that are associated with altered consciousness: complex partial seizures (CPS),primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) or secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (SGTCS)...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558524/effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#16
K M Park, S E Kim, K J Shin, S Y Ha, J Park, T H Kim, C W Mun, B I Lee, S E Kim
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) showed differences in their limbic networks. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the thalamus in TLE patients with HS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine TLE patients with HS and 30 controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included eight TLE patients without HS as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the limbic structures, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
August 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553940/resting-state-fmri-revealed-different-brain-activities-responding-to-valproic-acid-and-levetiracetam-in-benign-epilepsy-with-central-temporal-spikes
#17
Qirui Zhang, Fang Yang, Zheng Hu, Zhiqiang Zhang, Qiang Xu, Mantini Dante, Han Wu, Zhipeng Li, Qian Li, Kai Li, Guangming Lu
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate regional difference in brain activities in response to antiepileptic drug (AED) medications in benign epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with BECTS underwent resting-state fMRI scans after receiving either valproic acid (VPA) (n = 15), levetiracetam (LEV) (n = 21), or no medication (n = 21). fMRI regional homogeneity (ReHo) parameter among the three groups of patients were compared and were correlated with total doses of AED in the two medicated groups...
August 23, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530814/analysis-of-post-traumatic-brain-injury-gene-expression-signature-reveals-tubulins-nfe2l2-nfkb-cd44-and-s100a4-as-treatment-targets
#18
Anssi Lipponen, Jussi Paananen, Noora Puhakka, Asla Pitkänen
We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522229/epileptic-phenotype-of-two-siblings-with-asparagine-synthesis-deficiency-mimics-neonatal-pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy
#19
Svetlana Gataullina, Julia Lauer-Zillhardt, Anna Kaminska, Louise Galmiche-Rolland, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Clément Pontoizeau, Chris Ottolenghi, Olivier Dulac, Catherine Fallet-Bianco
We report the cases of a brother and a sister of nonconsanguineous parents who developed progressive microcephaly and had tremor, irritability, spasticity, startle reflexes, and permanent erratic myoclonus since birth. Focal clonic seizures, status epilepticus, and infantile spasms appeared later, during the first months of life, while erratic myoclonic jerks persisted. Electroencephalogram initially showed multifocal spikes that evolved into modified hypsarrhythmia and then discontinuous activity, evoking the progressive nature of the condition...
December 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485172/thalamic-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-in-deep-brain%C3%A2-stimulated-epilepsy-patients
#20
Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Harim Lee, Stefan Rampp, Tino Zaehle, Lars Buentjen, Juergen Voges, Martin Holtkamp, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Friedhelm C Schmitt
The relationships between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in the anterior (ANT) and dorsomedial nuclei (DMNT) of the thalamus and electro-clinical parameters in pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy patients receiving intrathalamic electrodes for deep brain stimulation (DBS) were investigated. Thalamus-localized IEDs (LIEDs) and surface EEG (sEEG)-IEDs were evaluated in eight patients who underwent ANT-DBS. Occurrence and frequency of ANT- and DMNT-LIEDs and pre-operative sEEG-IEDs were examined with respect to seizure onset location and seizure outcome following ANT-DBS...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
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