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Thalamus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332084/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#1
Benjamin B Whiting, Alexander C Whiting, Donald M Whiting
The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus has been proven to be a safe and efficacious treatment for the management of many diseases. The most common indication for thalamic DBS remains essential tremor (ET), one of the most common movement disorders in the world. ET patients should be considered for surgical intervention when their tremor has demonstrated to be refractory to medication, a characteristic estimated to be present in roughly 50% of ET cases. Advantages of DBS over thalamotomy include its reversibility, the ability to adjust stimulation settings to optimize efficacy and minimize side effects, the ability to perform bilateral procedures safely, and an association with a lower risk of postoperative cognitive problems...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306976/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#2
REVIEW
Tim A M Bouwens van der Vlis, Olaf E M G Schijns, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Govert Hoogland, Pieter Kubben, Louis Wagner, Rob Rouhl, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
Despite the use of first-choice anti-epileptic drugs and satisfactory seizure outcome rates after resective epilepsy surgery, a considerable percentage of patients do not become seizure free. ANT-DBS may provide for an alternative treatment option in these patients. This literature review discusses the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANT-DBS in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. A review using systematic methods of the available literature was performed using relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library pertaining to the different aspects ANT-DBS...
January 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288874/modeling-spike-wave-discharges-by-a-complex-network-of-neuronal-oscillators
#3
Tatiana M Medvedeva, Marina V Sysoeva, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Ilya V Sysoev
PURPOSE: The organization of neural networks and the mechanisms, which generate the highly stereotypical for absence epilepsy spike-wave discharges (SWDs) is heavily debated. Here we describe such a model which can both reproduce the characteristics of SWDs and dynamics of coupling between brain regions, relying mainly on properties of hierarchically organized networks of a large number of neuronal oscillators. MODEL: We used a two level mesoscale model. The first level consists of three structures: the nervus trigeminus serving as an input, the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex; the second level of a group of nearby situated neurons belonging to one of three modeled structures...
December 13, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275588/-impairments-of-gray-matter-in-mri-negative-epileptic-patients-with-different-seizure-types
#4
W Quan, Q Xu, F Yang, G H Chen, Z X Lin, Q R Zhang, J H Xiao, G M Lu, Z Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate the damage of gray matter structure in MRI-negative epilepsy patients with different symptoms by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: From June, 2009 to October, 2016, ninety MRI-negative epilepsy patients and thirty-five healthy volunteers underwent the 3T magnetic resonance imaging scan in Nanjing General Hospital. The patients were divided into three groups, including idiopathic generalized tonic-clonic seizure (I-GTCS), secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (S-GTCS), and partial seizure (PS) according to different symptoms...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273603/tenuous-inhibitory-gabaergic-signaling-in-the-reticular-thalamus
#5
Peter M Klein, Adam Lu, Megan E Harper, Hannah M McKown, Jessica Morgan, Mark P Beenhakker
Maintenance of a low intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) is critical for enabling inhibitory neuronal responses to GABAA receptor-mediated signaling. Cl- transporters, including KCC2, and extracellular impermeant anions ([A]o) of the extracellular matrix are both proposed to be important regulators of [Cl-]i Neurons of the reticular thalamic (RT) nucleus express reduced levels of KCC2, indicating that GABAergic signaling may produce excitation in RT neurons. However, by performing perforated patch recordings and calcium imaging experiments in rats (male and female), we find that [Cl-]i remains relatively low in RT neurons...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247965/predictive-value-of-preoperative-statistical-parametric-mapping-of-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Martin Kojan, Irena Doležalová, Eva Koriťáková, Radek Mareček, Zdeněk Řehák, Markéta Hermanová, Milan Brázdil, Ivan Rektor
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to use statistical parametric mapping of interictal positron-emission tomography using [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to compare the brain metabolisms of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)/hippocampal sclerosis and controls. Another aim of this study was to analyze the potential differences among patients in terms of epilepsy duration, side of hippocampal sclerosis, histopathological findings, insult in their history, and postoperative outcomes...
December 13, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214587/rare-neurodegenerative-diseases-clinical-and-genetic-update
#8
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159052/subcortical-grey-matter-changes-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#9
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Bin Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Dong Wook Kim
Recent neuroimaging studies have provided converging evidence of structural and functional abnormalities of the thalamus in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). There has also been limited evidence indicating involvement of the subcortical grey matter structures other than thalamus in JME, but with inconsistent findings across the studies. In the present study, we combined volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging analyses to investigate macrostructural and microstructural alterations of the subcortical grey matter in 64 JME patients compared to 58 matched control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#10
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#11
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113406/altered-dmn-functional-connectivity-and-regional-homogeneity-in-partial-epilepsy-patients-a-seventy-cases-study
#12
Chong-Yu Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Lili Long, Xiaoyan Long, Chaorong Liu, Yayu Chen, Yuanyuan Xie, Chujuan Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhe-Yu Hu
Purpose: Clinically diagnosed partial epilepsy is hard to be functionally diagnosed by regular electroencephalograph (EEG) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By collecting transient brain regional signals, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function MRI (BOLD-fMRI) can provide brain function change information with high accuracy. By using resting state BOLD-fMRI technique, we aim to investigate the changes of brain function in partial epilepsy patients. Methods: BOLD-fMRI scanning was performed in 70 partial epilepsy and 70 healthy people...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099440/postnatal-expression-of-thalamic-gabaa-receptor-subunits-in-the-stargazer-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#13
Steve Seo, Beulah Leitch
Absence seizures are known to originate from disruptions within the corticothalamocortical network; however, the precise underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce hypersynchronicity and hyperexcitability are debated and likely to be complex and multifactorial. Recent studies implicate impaired thalamic GABAergic inhibition as a common feature in multiple animal models of absence epilepsy, including the well-established stargazer mouse model. Recently, we demonstrated region-specific increases in the whole tissue and synaptic levels of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits α1 and β2, within the ventral posterior region of the thalamus in adult epileptic stargazer mice compared with nonepileptic control littermates...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098688/thalamocortical-functional-connectivity-in-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-is-abnormally-enhanced-in-executive-control-and-default-mode-networks
#14
Aaron E L Warren, David F Abbott, Graeme D Jackson, John S Archer
OBJECTIVE: To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. METHODS: Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066556/seizures-and-sleep-in-the-thalamus-focal-limbic-seizures-show-divergent-activity-patterns-in-different-thalamic-nuclei
#15
Li Feng, Joshua E Motelow, Chanthia Ma, William Biche, Cian McCafferty, Nicholas Smith, Mengran Liu, Qiong Zhan, Ruonan Jia, Bo Xiao, Alvaro Duque, Hal Blumenfeld
The thalamus plays diverse roles in cortical-subcortical brain activity patterns. Recent work suggests that focal temporal lobe seizures depress subcortical arousal systems and convert cortical activity into a pattern resembling slow wave sleep. The potential simultaneous and paradoxical role of the thalamus in both limbic seizure propagation, and in sleep-like cortical rhythms has not been investigated. We recorded neuronal activity from the central lateral (CL), anterior (ANT) and ventral posteromedial (VPM) nuclei of the thalamus in an established female rat model of focal limbic seizures...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063584/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-genetic-generalized-epilepsies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Shauni Nuyts, Wendyl D'Souza, Stephen C Bowden, Simon J Vogrin
According to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) definition, no structural abnormalities are present on a standard brain magnetic resonance image in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) patients. However, recent studies raise contradictory evidence with increasing use of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic, quantitative review was conducted using 28 peer-reviewed, case-control studies published after 1989. Furthermore, a meta-analysis with a random-effect model revealed differences in structural brain abnormalities between GGE patients and controls...
December 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046145/experimental-treatment-options-in-absence-epilepsy
#17
Gilles van Luijtelaar, Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Annika Lüttjohann, Antoine Depaulis
BACKGROUND: The benign character of absence epilepsy compared to other genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes has often hampered the search for new treatment options. Absence epilepsy is most often treated with ethosuximide or valproic acid. However, both drugs are not always well tolerated or fail, and seizure freedom for a larger proportion of patients remains to be achieved. The availability of genuine animal models of epilepsy does allow to search for new treatment options not only for absence epilepsy perse but also for other genetic - previously called idiopathic - forms of epilepsy...
October 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977147/the-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-refractory-epilepsy
#18
Tatiana Von Hertwig Fernandes de Oliveira, Alexandre Novicki Francisco, Zeferino Demartini, Sergio Leandro Stebel
Vagus nerve stimulation is an adjunctive therapy used to treat patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or had poor results after surgical procedures. Its mechanism of action is not yet fully comprehended but it possibly involves modulation of the locus coeruleus, thalamus and limbic circuit through noradrenergic and serotonergic projections. There is sufficient evidence to support its use in patients with focal epilepsy and other seizure types. However, it should be recognized that improvement is not immediate and increases over time...
September 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971013/presurgical-thalamocortical-connectivity-is-associated-with-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#19
George M Ibrahim, Priya Sharma, Ann Hyslop, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Taylor J Abel, Lior Elkaim, Iahn Cajigas, Ashish H Shah, Aria Fallah, Alexander G Weil, Nolan Altman, Byron Bernal, Santiago Medina, Elysa Widjaja, Prasanna Jayakar, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia
Although chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for medically-intractable childhood epilepsy, there is considerable heterogeneity in seizure response and little data are available to pre-operatively identify patients who may benefit from treatment. Since the therapeutic effect of VNS may be mediated by afferent projections to the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity is associated with seizure response following chronic VNS in children with epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934527/proton-mr-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-she-evidence-of-altered-cingulate-cortex-metabolism
#20
Ilaria Naldi, Francesca Bisulli, Claudia Testa, Giovanni Rizzo, Lorenzo Ferri, Laura L Gramegna, Laura Licchetta, Raffaele Lodi, Caterina Tonon, Paolo Tinuper
Study Objectives: To identify structural and/or metabolic alterations in patients with sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen SHE patients (seven males; 34.7 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± standard deviation) and 17 matched healthy volunteers (seven males; 34.0 ± 8.9 years) were included in the study. In all patients, the diagnosis of SHE was confirmed by video-polysomnographic recording of seizures...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
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