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Thalamus and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238546/regulation-of-thalamic-and-cortical-network-synchrony-by-scn8a
#1
Christopher D Makinson, Brian S Tanaka, Jordan M Sorokin, Jennifer C Wong, Catherine A Christian, Alan L Goldin, Andrew Escayg, John R Huguenard
Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutations cause severe epilepsies marked by intermittent, pathological hypersynchronous brain states. Here we present two mechanisms that help to explain how mutations in one VGSC gene, Scn8a, contribute to two distinct seizure phenotypes: (1) hypoexcitation of cortical circuits leading to convulsive seizure resistance, and (2) hyperexcitation of thalamocortical circuits leading to non-convulsive absence epilepsy. We found that loss of Scn8a leads to altered RT cell intrinsic excitability and a failure in recurrent RT synaptic inhibition...
February 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235422/crying-spells-triggered-by-thumb-index-rubbing-after-thalamic-stroke-a-case-report
#2
R Bassani, C Rosazza, L Ghirardin, V Caldiera, E Banco, C Casati, L Tesio
BACKGROUND: Pathologic crying, devoid of any emotional counterpart, is known to occur as a consequence of various brain stem, cortical hemispheric and cerebellar lesions or, quite exceptionally, of "dacrystic" epilepsy. The case reported here suggests that thalamic lesions may also cause crying spells, under the special circumstances described below. CASE PRESENTATION: After a mild left thalamic stroke a caucasian 77 years old man presented with crying spells with no emotional counterpart, triggered by thumb-index rubbing of his right hand...
February 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226870/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#3
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Kenji Ibayashi, Kensuke Kawai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220891/nmda-receptor-expression-in-the-thalamus-of-the-stargazer-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#4
Z Barad, D R Grattan, B Leitch
In the stargazer mouse model of absence epilepsy, altered corticothalamic excitation of reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) neurons has been suggested to contribute to abnormal synchronicity in the corticothalamic-thalamocortical circuit, leading to spike-wave discharges, the hallmark of absence seizures. AMPA receptor expression and function are decreased in stargazer RTN, due to a mutation of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin. It is unresolved and debated, however, if decreased excitation of RTN is compatible with epileptogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188918/evaluation-of-multimodal-segmentation-based-on-3d-t1-t2-and-flair-weighted-images-the-difficulty-of-choosing
#5
Tobias Lindig, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Daniel Schweikardt, Pascal Martin, Friedemann Bender, Uwe Klose, Ulrike Ernemann, Niels K Focke, Benjamin Bender
Voxel-based morphometry is still mainly based on T1-weighted MRI scans. Misclassification of vessels and dura mater as gray matter has been previously reported. Goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of multimodal segmentation methods available in SPM12, and their influence on identification of age related atrophy and lesion detection in epilepsy patients. 3D T1-, T2- and FLAIR-images of 77 healthy adults (mean age 35.8 years, 19-66 years, 45 females), 7 patients with malformation of cortical development (MCD) (mean age 28...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160673/reduced-thalamic-volume-in-patients-with-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep
#6
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Jurriaan M Peters, Alireza Akhondi-Asl, Jacquelyn Klehm, Simon K Warfield, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To test whether patients with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Sleep (ESES) and normal neuroimaging have a smaller thalamic volume than expected for age and for total brain volume. METHODS: Case-control study comparing three groups of subjects of 4-14 years of age and normal magnetic resonance imaging: 1) ESES patients, 2) patients with refractory epilepsy control group, and 3) healthy controls. Thalamic and total brain volumes were calculated using an algorithm for automatic segmentation and parcellation of magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131205/altered-degree-centrality-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#7
Xueyu Wang, Dongmei Jiao, Xinying Zhang, Xiangtao Lin
Modern network studies have suggested that the pathology of many neurological diseases is in fact not equally distributed over the brain but preferentially affects the hub regions. This study aims to investigate how hub regions were affected in Children with Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). As one important measures obtained from rs-fMRI, degree centrality (DC) calculates the number of direct connections between a given node and the rest of the brain within the entire connectivity matrix of the brain...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123951/large-scale-cortico-subcortical-functional-networks-in-focal-epilepsies-the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia
#8
Eva Výtvarová, Radek Mareček, Jan Fousek, Ondřej Strýček, Ivan Rektor
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the contribution of basal ganglia (BG) thalamo-cortical circuitry to the whole-brain functional connectivity in focal epilepsies. METHODS: Interictal resting-state fMRI recordings were acquired in 46 persons with focal epilepsies. Of these 46, 22 had temporal lobe epilepsy: 9 left temporal (LTLE), 13 right temporal (RTLE); 15 had frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE); and 9 had parietal/occipital lobe epilepsy (POLE). There were 20 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116237/brain-correlates-of-spike-and-wave-discharges-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#9
Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Sara Olivotto, Andrea Ruggieri, Giuliana Gessaroli, Valentina De Giorgis, Antonia Parmeggiani, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Stefano Meletti
PURPOSE: To provide imaging biomarkers of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWD) in patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS). METHODS: Eighteen GLUT1DS patients with pathogenetic mutation in SLC2A1 gene were studied by means of Video-EEG simultaneously recorded with functional MRI (VideoEEG-fMRI). A control group of sex and age-matched patients affected by Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) with GSWD were investigated with the same protocol. Within and between groups comparison was performed as appropriated...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088684/changes-in-electroencephalographic-characteristics-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-wag-rij-rats-with-cortical-dysplasia
#10
Deniz Sahin, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Candan Gürses, Nurbay Ates, Bulent Ahishali
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of cortical dysplasia (CD) on electrophysiology and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in WAG/Rij rats with genetic absence epilepsy. METHODS: Pregnant WAG/Rij rats were exposed to 145cGy of gamma-irradiation on embryonic day 17 to induce CD. An electroencephalogram was recorded from cortices subdurally in the offspring of the pregnant animals. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as determinant of BBB permeability...
February 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061418/memory-and-mood-outcomes-after-anterior-thalamic-stimulation-for-refractory-partial-epilepsy
#11
Alexander I Tröster, Kimford J Meador, Christopher P Irwin, Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE: Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) reduces seizures and is relatively safe but may be accompanied by complaints of memory problems and depression. This study examined incidence of memory and depression adverse events (AE) in the SANTE study blinded phase and their relationship to objective neurobehavioral measures, baseline characteristics, quality of life and long-term neurobehavioral outcome. METHOD: The neurobehavioral AE and neuropsychological data from a previously reported prospective randomized trial (SANTE) were analyzed...
December 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048162/su-f-r-08-can-normalization-of-brain-mri-texture-features-reduce-scanner-dependent-effects-in-unsupervised-machine-learning
#12
K Ogden, T Bradford, L Cussen, R O'Dwyer
PURPOSE: To reduce differences in features calculated from MRI brain scans acquired at different field strengths with or without Gadolinium contrast. METHODS: Brain scans were processed for 111 epilepsy patients to extract hippocampus and thalamus features. Scans were acquired on 1.5 T scanners with Gadolinium contrast (group A), 1.5T scanners without Gd (group B), and 3.0 T scanners without Gd (group C). A total of 72 features were extracted. Features were extracted from original scans and from scans where the image pixel values were rescaled to the mean of the hippocampi and thalami values...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043066/thalamic-hypoperfusion-and-disrupted-cerebral-blood-flow-networks-in-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-arterial-spin-labeling-and-graph-theoretical-analysis
#13
Daichi Sone, Masako Watanabe, Miho Ota, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Mariko Okura, Mikako Enokizono, Etsuko Imabayashi, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate interictal cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions and graph theoretical networks in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging and anatomical covariance methods of graph theoretical analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with IGE and 19 age-/gender-matched healthy controls. Their CBF images were obtained by pseudo-continuous ASL imaging and compared using statistical parametric mapping 8 software (SPM8) and Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT)...
December 14, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041911/disinhibition-of-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-in-the-wag-rij-rat-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#14
Lukasz Chrobok, Katarzyna Palus, Jagoda Stanislawa Jeczmien-Lazur, Anna Chrzanowska, Mariusz Kepczynski, Marian Henryk Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus is a retinorecipient structure implicated in orchestrating circadian rhythmicity. The IGL network is highly GABAergic and consists mainly of neuropeptide Y-synthesising and enkephalinergic neurons. A high density of GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes has been observed in the IGL, with a probable function in guarding neuronal inhibition. Interestingly, putatively enkephalinergic IGL neurons generate action potentials with an infra-slow oscillatory (ISO) pattern in vivo in urethane anesthetised Wistar rats, under light-on conditions only...
December 30, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030998/the-role-of-thalamus-versus-cortex-in-epilepsy-evidence-from-human-ictal-centromedian-recordings-in-patients-assessed-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#15
David Martín-López, Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, Lidia Cabañés-Martínez, Richard P Selway, Antonio Valentín, Gonzalo Alarcón
BACKGROUND: The onset of generalized seizures is a long debated subject in epilepsy. The relative roles of cortex and thalamus in initiating and maintaining the different seizure types are unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to estimate whether the cortex or the centromedian thalamic nucleus is leading in initiating and maintaining seizures in humans. METHODS: We report human ictal recordings with simultaneous thalamic and cortical electrodes from three patients without anesthesia being assessed for deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965181/stimulation-of-the-bilateral-anterior-nuclei-of-the-thalamus-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy-two-cases-of-subcortical-band-heterotopia
#16
Ana Franco, José Pimentel, Alexandre Rainha Campos, Carlos Morgado, Sara Pinelo, António Gonçalves Ferreira, Carla Bentes
Subcortical band heterotopia is a neuronal migration disorder that may cause refractory epilepsy. In these patients, resective surgery has yielded inadequate results. Deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus has been used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy with good results. We describe the first two patients with subcortical band heterotopia who were submitted to deep brain stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus, with evaluation of seizure outcome after 12 and 18 months of follow-up...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942449/resting-state-functional-network-disruptions-in-a-kainic-acid-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
Ravnoor Singh Gill, Seyed M Mirsattari, L Stan Leung
We studied the graph topological properties of brain networks derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a kainic acid induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats. Functional connectivity was determined by temporal correlation of the resting-state Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signals between two brain regions during 1.5% and 2% isoflurane, and analyzed as networks in epileptic and control rats. Graph theoretical analysis revealed a significant increase in functional connectivity between brain areas in epileptic than control rats, and the connected brain areas could be categorized as a limbic network and a default mode network (DMN)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942447/altered-structural-and-functional-thalamocortical-networks-in-secondarily-generalized-extratemporal-lobe-seizures
#18
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
Structural and functional abnormalities in the thalamocortical network in primary generalized epilepsies or mesial temporal lobe epilepsy have recently been identified by voxel-wise analyses of neuroimaging. However, evidence is needed regarding the profiles of the thalamocortical network in patients with secondarily generalized seizures from focal neocortical sources. We used high-resolution T1-weighted, diffusion-tensor and resting-state functional MR imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine 16 patients with secondarily generalized extratemporal lobe seizures and 16 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939427/a-developmental-study-of-glutamatergic-neuron-populations-in-the-ventrobasal-and-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-comparing-genetic-absence-rats-from-strasbourg-gaers-and-normal-control-wistar-rats
#19
Özlem Kirazlı, Safiye Çavdar, Sercan Yıldızel, Filiz Onat, Erkan Kaptanoğlu
An imbalance of GABAergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is suspected to be the cause of absence epileptic seizures. Absence seizures are known to be generated in thalamocortical circuitry. In the present study we used light microscopy immunohistochemistry to quantify the density of glutamate+ve neurons at two developmental stages (P10 and P60) in two thalamic nuclei, the ventrobasal (VB) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in Wistar rats and compared the results with similar data obtained from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923174/generalized-epilepsy-syndromes-and-callosal-thickness-differential-effects-between-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-those-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures-alone
#20
Stavroula Anastasopoulou, Florian Kurth, Eileen Luders, Ivanka Savic
PURPOSE: The definition of two well-studied genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes (GGE) - juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures alone (GTCS) - suggests the absence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Nevertheless, there are various reports of such abnormalities (especially in JME), where effects mainly occur within thalamus and mesial prefrontal regions. This raises the question of whether JME is particularly linked to midline structure abnormalities, which may also involve the corpus callosum...
November 18, 2016: Epilepsy Research
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