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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129763/mammillothalamic-and-mammillotegmental-tracts-as-new-targets-for-dementia-and-epilepsy-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Naci Balak, Ece Balkuv, Ali Karadag, Recep Basaran, Huseyin Biceroglu, Buruç Erkan, Necmettin Tanriover
Very recently, neuromodulation through deep brain stimulation (DBS) has appeared as a new surgical procedure in the treatment of some types of dementia and epilepsy. The mammillothalamic and the mammillotegmental tracts are involved among the new targets. To our knowledge, a review article focused specifically on these mammillary body efferents is lacking in the medical literature. Their contribution to memory is, regrettably, often overlooked. There is evidence that mammillary bodies can contribute to memory independently from hippocampal formation, but the mechanism is not yet known...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119047/infections-in-deep-brain-stimulation-shaving-versus-not-shaving
#2
Felix S Gubler, Linda Ackermans, Pieter L Kubben, Aysun Damci, Mark L Kuijf, Mayke Oosterloo, R Jeroen Vermeulen, Sarah Hescham, Ersoy Kocabicak, Erkan Kurt, Yasin Temel
Background: To report our experience of infections in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries comparing shaving versus no shaving of cranial hair. Nonshaving is strongly preferred by patients due to aesthetic and psychological factors. Methods: This study is a prospective follow-up of the infection rate in 43 nonshaven DBS cases between April 2014 and December 2015 compared to our former infection rate with shaving in our center. Minimum follow-up was 6 months. All patients, except 7 epilepsy patients, received implantation of the electrodes together with the extension cables and internal pulse generator in one session...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089767/thalamo-cortical-network-underlying-deep-brain-stimulation-of-centromedian-thalamic-nuclei-in-intractable-epilepsy-a-multimodal-imaging-analysis
#3
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Dong Won Yang, Jeong Hee Cho, Byung-Chul Son, Jiyeon Kim, Seung Bong Hong, Young-Min Shon
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM) can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040867/long-term-follow-up-of-anterior-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-epilepsy-a-11-year-single-center-experience
#4
Seong Hoon Kim, Sung Chul Lim, Jiyeon Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Kyung Jin Lee, Young-Min Shon
PURPOSE: Anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation (ATN DBS) is an emerging, effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, but long-term results on its efficacy and safety are lacking. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ATN DBS treatment, as well as predictors of its success, in patients with drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE). METHOD: We retrospectively studied clinical outcomes in 29 consecutive refractory epilepsy patients treated by a single DBS team (two neurosurgeons, four neurologists) over an 11-year period, for whom follow-up was performed for up to 137 months (mean, 74...
October 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034573/memory-encoding-related-anterior-hippocampal-potentials-are-modulated-by-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-entorhinal-area
#5
Niels Hansen, Leila Chaieb, Marlene Derner, Kevin G Hampel, Christian E Elger, Rainer Surges, Bernhard Staresina, Nikolai Axmacher, Juergen Fell
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the human entorhinal area using 50 Hz pulses has revealed conflicting results regarding memory performance. Moreover, its impact on memory-related hippocampal potentials has not yet been investigated. METHODS: We recorded data from seven epilepsy patients implanted with depth electrodes in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and parahippocampal cortex. Entorhinal DBS (bipolar, biphasic 50 Hz pulses, on- and off-cycles of 15 s) was applied with low amplitude (0...
October 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960670/long-term-effects-of-anterior-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-on-spatial-learning-in-the-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Elenn Soares Ferreira, Laís Gabrielle Vieira, Daniela Macedo Moraes, Beatriz O Amorim, Jackeline Moraes Malheiros, Clement Hamani, Luciene Covolan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment is a significant comorbidity of temporal lobe epilepsy that is associated with extensive hippocampal cell loss. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior thalamic nucleus (ANT) has been used for the treatment of refractory partial seizures. In the pilocarpine model of epilepsy, ANT DBS applied during status epilepticus (SE) reduces hippocampal inflammation and apoptosis. When given to chronic epileptic animals it reduces hippocampal excitability and seizure frequency...
September 28, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#7
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921161/deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-an-emphasis-on-alleviation-of-seizure-frequency-outcome
#8
Bowen Chang, Jiwen Xu
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting conclusions have been reported regarding predictors of deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcome in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The main goal of this meta-analysis study was to identify possible predictors of remarkable seizure reduction (RSR). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of English-language literature published since 1990 and indexed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library that addressed seizure outcomes in patients who underwent DBS for refractory TLE...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782931/an-lc-ms-ms-based-method-for-the-quantification-of-pyridox-am-ine-5-phosphate-oxidase-activity-in-dried-blood-spots-from-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
Matthew P Wilson, Emma J Footitt, Apostolos Papandreou, Mari-Liis Uudelepp, Ronit Pressler, Danielle C Stevenson, Camila Gabriel, Mel McSweeney, Matthew Baggot, Derek Burke, Tommy Stödberg, Kate Riney, Manuel Schiff, Simon J R Heales, Kevin A Mills, Paul Gissen, Peter T Clayton, Philippa B Mills
We report the development of a rapid, simple, and robust LC-MS/MS-based enzyme assay using dried blood spots (DBS) for the diagnosis of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency (OMIM 610090). PNPO deficiency leads to potentially fatal early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, severe developmental delay, and other features of neurological dysfunction. However, upon prompt treatment with high doses of vitamin B6, affected patients can have a normal developmental outcome. Prognosis of these patients is therefore reliant upon a rapid diagnosis...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777058/causal-evidence-from-humans-for-the-role-of-mediodorsal-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-in-working-memory
#10
Jari Peräkylä, Lihua Sun, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola, Juha Öhman, Timo Möttönen, Keith H Ogawa, Kaisa M Hartikainen
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), with its extensive connections to the lateral pFC, has been implicated in human working memory and executive functions. However, this understanding is based solely on indirect evidence from human lesion and imaging studies and animal studies. Direct, causal evidence from humans is missing. To obtain direct evidence for MD's role in humans, we studied patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory epilepsy. This treatment is thought to prevent the generalization of a seizure by disrupting the functioning of the patient's anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT) with high-frequency electric stimulation...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764934/effects-of-anterior-thalamic-nuclei-deep-brain-stimulation-on-neurogenesis-in-epileptic-and-healthy-rats
#11
Ying-Chuan Chen, Lin Shi, Guan-Yu Zhu, Xiu Wang, De-Feng Liu, Yu-Ye Liu, Yin Jiang, Xin Zhang, Jian-Guo Zhang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in mitigating epileptic seizures has been established. Though the neuroprotection of ANT-DBS has been illustrated, the seizure mitigating mechanism of ANT-DBS has not been thoroughly elucidated. In particular, the effect of ANT-DBS on neurogenesis has not been reported previously. METHOD: Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-DBS-healthy (HL) (n=8), DBS-HL (n=8), sham-DBS-epilepsy (EP) (n=8) and DBS-EP (n=8)...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744855/seizure-outcome-after-hippocampal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-patients-with-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-prospective-controlled-randomized-double-blind-study
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Arthur Cukiert, Cristine Mella Cukiert, Jose Augusto Burattini, Pedro Paulo Mariani, Daniela Fontes Bezerra
OBJECTIVE: We designed a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of hippocampal deep brain stimulation (Hip-DBS) in patients with refractory temporary lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Sixteen adult patients with refractory TLE were studied. Patient's workup included medical history, interictal and ictal electroencephalography (EEG), and high-resolution 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were randomized on a 1:1 proportion to an active (stimulation on) or to a control (no stimulation) arm...
October 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739219/systematic-review-of-hardware-related-complications-of-deep-brain-stimulation-do-new-indications-pose-an-increased-risk
#13
Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Alfonso Fasano
INTRODUCTION: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment extended broadly to many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, complications may arise during DBS procedures or following implantation due to implanted hardware. This may result in both minor and major adverse events that may necessitate hardware removal and/or compromise maximal therapeutic benefit for the patient. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To identify relevant literature on hardware-related complications from DBS procedures by performing a systematic review, and propose how to identify at-risk group and possible preventive approaches...
July 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606582/patients-perioperative-experience-of-awake-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease
#15
Eoin Mulroy, Nigel Robertson, Lorraine Macdonald, Arnold Bok, Mark Simpson
BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy for tumor resection and epilepsy surgery is a well-tolerated procedure. Qualitative data on patients' experience of awake deep-brain stimulation (DBS) are, however, lacking. We collected qualitative data on patients' experience of awake DBS with a view to identifying areas for improvement. METHODS: Forty-one patients undergoing DBS for Parkinson disease between 2009 and 2015 were surveyed with a structured questionnaire designed to receive patient feedback regarding perioperative management of the awake stage of the procedure...
September 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469569/eliminating-absence-seizures-through-the-deep-brain-stimulation-to-thalamus-reticular-nucleus
#16
Zhihui Wang, Qingyun Wang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can play a crucial role in the modulation of absence seizures, yet relevant biophysical mechanisms are not completely established. In this paper, on the basis of a biophysical mean-field model, we investigate a typical absence epilepsy activity by introducing slow kinetics of GABAB receptors on thalamus reticular nucleus (TRN). We find that the region of spike and slow-wave discharges (SWDs) can be reduced greatly when we add the DBS to TRN. Furthermore, we systematically explore how the corresponding stimulation parameters including frequency, amplitude and positive input duration suppress the SWDs under certain conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357411/gnao1-encephalopathy-broadening-the-phenotype-and-evaluating-treatment-and-outcome
#17
Federica Rachele Danti, Serena Galosi, Marta Romani, Martino Montomoli, Keren J Carss, F Lucy Raymond, Elena Parrini, Claudia Bianchini, Tony McShane, Russell C Dale, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Ubaid Shah, Neil Mahant, Joanne Ng, Amy McTague, Rajib Samanta, Gayatri Vadlamani, Enza Maria Valente, Vincenzo Leuzzi, Manju A Kurian, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To describe better the motor phenotype, molecular genetic features, and clinical course of GNAO1-related disease. METHODS: We reviewed clinical information, video recordings, and neuroimaging of a newly identified cohort of 7 patients with de novo missense and splice site GNAO1 mutations, detected by next-generation sequencing techniques. RESULTS: Patients first presented in early childhood (median age of presentation 10 months, range 0-48 months), with a wide range of clinical symptoms ranging from severe motor and cognitive impairment with marked choreoathetosis, self-injurious behavior, and epileptic encephalopathy to a milder phenotype, featuring moderate developmental delay associated with complex stereotypies, mainly facial dyskinesia and mild epilepsy...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285213/remote-modulation-of-network-excitability-during-deep-brain-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Dong-Hong Li, Xiao-Feng Yang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-accepted medical therapy in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, and is currently under investigation as a treatment for other disorders, including epilepsy. Although DBS is widely used, its therapeutic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent research shows that seizures are network-level phenomena, but the incomplete knowledge of neural circuit function has left a gap in our understanding of how disruption at a molecular or cellular level generates epilepsy...
April 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269577/sinusoidal-stimulation-trains-suppress-epileptiform-spikes-induced-by-4-ap-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-vivo
#19
Zheshan Guo, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Zhaoxiang Wang, Xuefeng Wei
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) shows promises in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Due to the complex causes of epilepsy, the mechanisms of DBS are still unclear. Depolarization block caused by the persistent excitation of neurons may be one of the possible mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) was injected in rat hippocampal CA1 region in-vivo to induce epileptiform activity. Sinusoidal stimulation trains were applied to the afferent pathway (Schaffer collaterals) of CA1 region to suppress the epileptiform spikes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269576/detection-of-single-unit-spikes-during-orthodromic-high-frequency-stimulation-in-rat-hippocampus
#20
Zhaoxiang Wang, Zhouyan Feng, Ying Yu, Yufang Zhu, Zheshan Guo
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used as a treatment of brain diseases such as Parkinson's disease and is a promising therapy for epilepsy. But the mechanisms of high frequency stimulation (HFS) used by DBS are still uncertain. In order to investigate the changes of action penitential firings of individual neurons (single unit activity, SUA) during the period of HFS, a new algorithm based on window detection was designed to detect spikes in broadband-frequency recording signals. The results show that orthodromic-HFS (O-HFS) could excite the neurons in CA1 regions, and the firing rate of interneurons and pyramidal neurons increased significantly...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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