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epidemiology of mycobacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556857/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-due-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth Ann Misch, Christopher Saddler, James Muse Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent trends in the epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), emerging pathogens, new insights into NTM pathogenesis, and advances in diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging pathogens include Mycobacterium chimaera and drug-resistant subspecies of Mycobacterium abscessus. Important virulence mechanisms of pathogenic NTM include the ability to alter the macrophage's permissiveness to intracellular bacterial growth...
March 19, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520985/seroprevalence-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-warthogs-phacochoerus-africanus-in-bovine-tuberculosis-endemic-regions-of-south-africa
#2
E O Roos, F Olea-Popelka, P Buss, L-M de Klerk-Lorist, D Cooper, P D van Helden, S D C Parsons, M A Miller
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), has been reported in many species including suids. Wild boar are important maintenance hosts of the infection with other suids, that is domestic and feral pigs, being important spillover hosts in the Eurasian ecosystem and in South Africa, warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) may play a similar role in M. bovis-endemic areas. However, novel diagnostic tests for warthogs are required to investigate the epidemiology of bTB in this species. Recent studies have demonstrated that serological assays are capable of discriminating between M...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506377/-italian-cystic-fibrosis-registry-report-2011-2014
#3
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486274/review-on-emergence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb-and-its-molecular-diagnosis-in-ethiopia
#4
REVIEW
Muthupandian Saravanan, Selam Niguse, Mahmud Abdulkader, Ephrem Tsegay, Haftamu Hailekiros, Atsbeha Gebrekidan, Tadele Araya, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and ranks as the second leading cause of death among deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Although the availability of short-course regimens as first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs, the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains pose a major challenge to the prevention and control efforts of national tuberculosis programs (NTPs). M. tuberculosis changes its cellular environment with the mechanisms that have been evolved since prehistoric times...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460735/acquired-resistance-to-antituberculosis-drugs-in-england-wales-and-northern-ireland-2000-2015
#5
Miranda G Loutet, Jennifer A Davidson, Tim Brown, Martin Dedicoat, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor
Among tuberculosis (TB) patients, acquired resistance to anti-TB drugs represents a failure in the treatment pathway. To improve diagnosis and care for patients with drug-resistant TB, we examined the epidemiology and risk factors associated with acquired drug resistance during 2000-2015 among TB patients in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. We found acquired resistance in 0.2% (158/67,710) of patients with culture-confirmed TB. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified the following factors associated with acquired drug resistance: having pulmonary disease; initial resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, or both; a previous TB episode; and being born in China or South Africa...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460734/increasing-prevalence-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-respiratory-specimens-from-us-affiliated-pacific-island-jurisdictions-1
#6
Chunrong Lin, Chad Russell, Bruce Soll, Dominic Chow, Sapna Bamrah, Richard Brostrom, Wesley Kim, Jerry Scott, Matthew J Bankowski
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infections represent a growing public health problem in many countries. However, there are limited published epidemiologic studies for the Western Pacific region. We reviewed respiratory specimens submitted to Diagnostic Laboratory Services in Hawaii, USA, for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during August 2007-December 2011 to determine the NTM isolation rate. We observed a statistically significant increase in the rate of specimens with NTM isolated in respiratory culture (adjusted rate ratio per year 1...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447273/molecular-epidemiology-and-drug-sensitivity-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-isolated-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-and-around-ambo-town-central-ethiopia
#7
Melaku Tilahun, Gobena Ameni, Kassu Desta, Aboma Zewude, Lawrence Yamuah, Markos Abebe, Abraham Aseffa
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by M. tuberculosis complex and remains a major global public health problem. The epidemic remains a threat to sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, with further emergence of drug resistant TB. We investigated the drug sensitivity pattern and molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains isolated from pulmonary TB patients in and around Ambo town in Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 105 consecutive new smear positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed at Ambo Hospital and surrounding Health Centers between May 2014 and March 2015 upon informed consent...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367301/mycobacterial-spindle-cell-pseudotumour-epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes
#8
Maroun M Sfeir, Audrey Schuetz, Koen Van Besien, Alain C Borczuk, Rosemary Soave, Stephen G Jenkins, Thomas J Walsh, Catherine B Small
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare disease characterised by tumour-like local proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast positive mycobacteria. The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical parameters and treatment outcomes of patients with MSP. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the search terms related to mycobacteria and spindle cell tumours. A previously unreported stem cell transplant recipient from our institution diagnosed with MSP was also included...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343539/buruli-ulcer-review-of-a-neglected-skin-mycobacterial-disease
#9
Jeannette Guarner
Buruli ulcer is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans This neglected disease occurs in scattered foci around the world with higher concentration of cases in West Africa. The mycobacteria produce mycolactones that cause tissue necrosis. The disease presents as a painless skin nodule that ulcerates as necrosis expands. Finding acid fast bacilli in smears or histopathology, culturing the mycobacteria, and performing M. ulcerans PCR in presumptive cases confirms the diagnosis. Medical treatment with oral rifampicin and intramuscular streptomycin or oral treatment with rifampicin plus clarithromycin for 8 weeks is supported by the World Health Organization...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332619/clinical-characteristics-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-infections-in-bamako-mali
#10
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
February 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325063/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-in-hiv-patients-from-1998-to-2012-a-nationwide-analysis
#11
Kathan Mehta, Annie Im, Farah Rahman, Hong Wang, Peter Veldkamp
Background: Prior studies have shown that outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in HIV (+) patients are similar to HIV (-) patients since effective implementation of HAART by 1998; but they are limited by small sample size or non-inclusion of recent data. Methods: We queried National Inpatient Sample, a large inpatient dataset in the US, from 1998 to 2012 for HSCT using ICD9 procedure code 41.0. HIV patients were identified by ICD9 diagnostic code of 042, 043, 044, V08 and 079...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300314/fungi-in-bronchiectasis-a-concise-review
#12
REVIEW
Luis Máiz, Rosa Nieto, Rafael Cantón, Elia Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Miguel Ángel Martinez-García
Although the spectrum of fungal pathology has been studied extensively in immunosuppressed patients, little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors, and management of fungal infections in chronic pulmonary diseases like bronchiectasis. In bronchiectasis patients, deteriorated mucociliary clearance-generally due to prior colonization by bacterial pathogens-and thick mucosity propitiate, the persistence of fungal spores in the respiratory tract. The most prevalent fungi in these patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus ; these are almost always isolated with bacterial pathogens like Haemophillus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , making very difficult to define their clinical significance...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276785/-mycobacterium-abscessus-disease-in-lung-transplant-recipients-diagnosis-and-management
#13
Satish Chandrashekaran, Patricio Escalante, Cassie C Kennedy
Mycobacterium abscessus complex ( MAbsC ) disease in lung transplant recipients is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of graft function decline and suboptimal outcomes. Lung transplant recipients appear to be at the highest risk of MAbsC among solid organ transplant recipients, as they have more intense immunosuppression, and the organisms preferentially inhabit the lungs. MAbsC is the most resistant species of rapidly growing mycobacteria and difficult to treat, causing considerable mortality and morbidity in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176633/epidemiology-and-predictors-of-ntm-pulmonary-infection-in-taiwan-a-retrospective-five-year-multicenter-study
#14
Hung-Ling Huang, Meng-Hsuan Cheng, Po-Liang Lu, Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jann-Tay Wang, Inn-Wen Chong, Li-Na Lee
Multicenter, longitudinal studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infection (PI) are lacking. This study provides a 5-year epidemiological overview of NTM-PI in Taiwan and investigated its predictors. The clinical relevance of each respiratory NTM isolate in six hospitals between 2008 and 2014 was determined according to current guidelines. Recurrent episodes were judged by serial bacteriological results. New episodes of NTM-PI and pulmonary colonization (PC) occurring since 2010 were analyzed...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171447/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-portugal-a-clinical-review
#15
Rog Rio Ruas, Isabel Abreu, João Nuak, Angélica Ramos, Teresa Carvalho, Manuela Ribeiro, João Tiago Guimarães, António Sarmento
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) form a heterogeneous group regarding their ability to cause disease. To further understand their clinical relevance, the characteristics of patients who had positive cultures for NTM at a tertiary hospital in Portugal were reviewed. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients assessed at the Infectious Diseases (ID) Department of the São João Hospital Center, from January 2007 to December 2014, from whom at least one biological sample was tested culture positive for NTM...
October 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116628/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-canettii
#16
Philip Supply, Roland Brosch
Genome-based insights into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria are constantly increasing. In particular, the recent genomic and functional characterization of several Myocbacterium canettii strains, which are thought to resemble in many aspects the putative common ancestor of the members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC), has consolidated a plausible scenario of the early evolution of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, in which the clonal MTBC, comprising numerous key pathogens of mammalian hosts, has evolved from a generalist mycobacterium living in the environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076653/tuberculosis-in-southern-brazilian-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-first-epidemiological-findings
#17
A L G Maciel, M R Loiko, T S Bueno, J G Moreira, M Coppola, E R Dalla Costa, K B Schmid, R O Rodrigues, S P Cibulski, A C Bertagnolli, F Q Mayer
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis that affects domestic and wild animals. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies on tuberculosis in wild animal populations and their possible role in the disease maintenance in cattle herds; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tuberculosis in wild boars in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Tissue samples of animals hunted under government consent were submitted to histopathology and M. bovis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as screening tests; the positive samples were subsequently submitted to bacterial isolation, the gold standard diagnosis...
October 27, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059250/causative-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-and-comparative-investigation-on-clinical-features-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-disease-a-retrospective-analysis-for-two-major-hospitals-in-a-subtropical-region-of-japan
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hiroaki Nagano, Takeshi Kinjo, Yuichiro Nei, Shin Yamashiro, Jiro Fujita, Tomoo Kishaba
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is increasing globally. Although the etiological epidemiology of NTM is different across regions, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the leading cause of NTM lung disease in most countries, including mainland Japan. Okinawa is located in the southernmost region of Japan and is the only prefecture categorized as a subtropical region in Japan, it is therefore likely the etiological epidemiology of NTM lung disease is different from mainland Japan. From 2009 to 2015, the medical records of patients, with respiratory specimens positive for NTMs, visiting or admitted to two Okinawan hospitals, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979017/bcg-induced-disseminated-mycobacterial-infection-of-skin-and-bone-in-an-otherwise-immunocompetent-child
#19
Abhishek De, Sumantra Sarkar, Nidhi Sharma, Asad Ansari, Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Aarti Sarda
One 2-year-old undernourished girl presented to our outpatient with large erythematous scaly plaques in arm along with multiple bony swellings over nose, fingers, left foot, and back for the past 1 year. Apart from skin and bone lesions the girl was also had intermittent fever, pallor, irritability, and malnourishment. Her parents gave a history of incomplete healing at the BCG vaccination site. The case was diagnosed to be case of disseminated mycobacterial infection skin and bone with the help of histopathology, radiological examination, and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969988/shaping-the-niche-in-macrophages-genetic-diversity-of-the-m-tuberculosis-complex-and-its-consequences-for-the-infected-host
#20
REVIEW
Norbert Reiling, Susanne Homolka, Thomas A Kohl, Christine Steinhäuser, Katharina Kolbe, Stefan Schütze, Julius Brandenburg
Pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have co-evolved with their individual hosts and are able to transform the hostile environment of the macrophage into a permissive cellular habitat. The impact of MTBC genetic variability has long been considered largely unimportant in TB pathogenesis. Members of the MTBC can now be distinguished into three major phylogenetic groups consisting of 7 phylogenetic lineages and more than 30 so called sub-lineages/subgroups. MTBC genetic diversity indeed influences the transmissibility and virulence of clinical MTBC isolates as well as the immune response and the clinical outcome...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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