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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979017/bcg-induced-disseminated-mycobacterial-infection-of-skin-and-bone-in-an-otherwise-immunocompetent-child
#1
Abhishek De, Sumantra Sarkar, Nidhi Sharma, Asad Ansari, Abu Hena Hasanoor Reja, Aarti Sarda
One 2-year-old undernourished girl presented to our outpatient with large erythematous scaly plaques in arm along with multiple bony swellings over nose, fingers, left foot, and back for the past 1 year. Apart from skin and bone lesions the girl was also had intermittent fever, pallor, irritability, and malnourishment. Her parents gave a history of incomplete healing at the BCG vaccination site. The case was diagnosed to be case of disseminated mycobacterial infection skin and bone with the help of histopathology, radiological examination, and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969988/shaping-the-niche-in-macrophages-genetic-diversity-of-the-m-tuberculosis-complex-and-its-consequences-for-the-infected-host
#2
REVIEW
Norbert Reiling, Susanne Homolka, Thomas A Kohl, Christine Steinhäuser, Katharina Kolbe, Stefan Schütze, Julius Brandenburg
Pathogenic mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have co-evolved with their individual hosts and are able to transform the hostile environment of the macrophage into a permissive cellular habitat. The impact of MTBC genetic variability has long been considered largely unimportant in TB pathogenesis. Members of the MTBC can now be distinguished into three major phylogenetic groups consisting of 7 phylogenetic lineages and more than 30 so called sub-lineages/subgroups. MTBC genetic diversity indeed influences the transmissibility and virulence of clinical MTBC isolates as well as the immune response and the clinical outcome...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967797/pulmonary-disease-by-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-clinical-management-unmet-needs-and-future-perspectives
#3
Lars-Olof Larsson, Eva Polverino, Wouter Hoefsloot, Luigi R Codecasa, Roland Diel, Stephen G Jenkins, Michael R Loebinger
The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing globally. Poor resistance against infections, for example, due to pre-existing lung diseases, immune deficiency and immune-modulating treatment, predisposes the population to developing pulmonary NTM disease. The incidence of pre-existing lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis has also increased. NTM disease diagnosis is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms. The therapeutic arsenal is limited and adherence to treatment guidelines is often low since the treatment regimens are complex, lengthy and side effects are common...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942820/domestic-reptiles-as-source-of-zoonotic-bacteria-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Valentina Virginia Ebani
Captive reptiles, always more often present in domestic environment as pets, may harbor and excrete a large variety of zoonotic pathogens. Among them, Salmonella is the most well-known agent, whereas there are very scant data about infections by mycobacteria, chlamydiae and leptospirae in cold-blooded animals. However, the investigations that found antibody reactions and/or the bacteria in samples collected from free-ranging and captive reptiles show that herpetofauna may be involved in the epidemiology of these infections...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933298/old-drugs-and-new-targets-as-an-outlook-for-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis
#5
Jan Zitko, Martin Doležal
Despite of the globally positive trends in epidemiology of tuberculosis, the ever increasing rates of drug-resistant strains are urging to introduce new antituberculars into clinical practice. Development of a new chemical entity from hit to marketed drug is an extremely time and resources consuming process with uncertain outcome. In this review we show that proper research of old drugs can be a very efficient way to new antituberculars. Firstly, we review the recent research on mechanism of action and molecular targets of first-line and second-line antituberculars and suggest how this knowledge can be used to design simple derivatives with improved properties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931915/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-pulmonary-samples-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#6
Catherine Okoi, Suzanne T B Anderson, Martin Antonio, Sarah N Mulwa, Florian Gehre, Ifedayo M O Adetifa
Pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa is not as well described as for pulmonary tuberculosis. Earlier reviews of global NTM epidemiology only included subject-level data from one sub-Saharan Africa country. We systematically reviewed the literature and searched PubMed, Embase, Popline, OVID and Africa Wide Information for articles on prevalence and clinical relevance of NTM detection in pulmonary samples in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America criteria to differentiate between colonisation and disease...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902922/molecular-clustering-of-patients-with-diabetes-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Francles Blanco-Guillot, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Pedro Torres-González, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Many studies have explored the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) demonstrating increased risk of TB among patients with DM and poor prognosis of patients suffering from the association of DM/TB. Owing to a paucity of studies addressing this question, it remains unclear whether patients with DM and TB are more likely than TB patients without DM to be grouped into molecular clusters defined according to the genotype of the infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855835/distribution-of-non-tuberculosis-mycobacteria-strains-from-suspected-tuberculosis-patients-by-heat-shock-protein-65-pcr-rflp
#8
Ali Nour-Neamatollahie, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Mona Eslami, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Sharareh Khanipour, Morteza Masoumi, Fatemeh Sakhaee, Morteza Ghazanfari Jajin, Ahmadreza Bahrmand, Abolfazl Fateh
The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 150 species. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) often cause extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease. Mycobacteria detection at species level is necessary and provides useful information on epidemiology and facilitates successful treatment of patients. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence of the NTM isolates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in clinical specimens collected from Iranian patients during February 2011-December 2013, by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820685/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-immigrants
#9
María Pérez-Rueda, Michele Hernández-Cabrera, Adela Francés-Urmeneta, Alfonso Angel-Moreno, Elena Pisos-Álamo, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Jose-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) includes a group of potentially serious inflammatory processes that may be present in HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Paradoxical IRIS is a worsening of symptoms, after an overwhelming response to a previously diagnosed opportunistic infection (OI); unmasking IRIS reveals a previously occult OI. The main objective of the study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data of HIV-infected immigrants, stratified according to high- or low-income countries of origin, who developed IRIS and to compare them with native-born Spanish patients...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776533/efficacy-of-calcium-hypochlorite-and-ultraviolet-irradiation-against-mycobacterium-fortuitum-and-mycobacterium-marinum
#10
E A Roshani Edirisinghe, D R Anuruddhika Dissanayake, Charmalie L Abayasekera, Appudurai Arulkanthan
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause opportunistic infections with increasing frequency in immunocompromised humans. Water is one of the natural sources for transmission of NTM and plays a major role in the epidemiology of NTM infections. This study evaluated the efficacy of calcium hypochlorite and ultraviolet irradiation (UV) to eliminate potentially zoonotic NTM species such as M. marinum and M. fortuitum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial suspensions containing1-4 × 105 CFU/ml were exposed to 5, 50, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 mg/L of Ca (OCl)2for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 60 minutes, and 6,000 μW/cm2 UV dose for 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 and 120 seconds...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776521/epidemiological-and-laboratorial-profile-of-patients-with-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#11
Heloisa Silveira Paro Pedro, Andréa Gobetti Vieira Coelho, Isabela Mazuco Mansur, Ana Carolina Chiou, Maria Izabel Ferreira Pereira, Naiara Cristina Ule Belotti, Manuela Galloy Sanches Ismael, Maria Rita de Cássia Oliveira Cury, Susilene Maria Tonelli Nardi, Érica Chimara
BACKGROUND: An increase in NTM diseases in the international scenario has been observed in recent years. AIMS: To analyze the epidemiological and laboratory profiles of patients with isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) over one decade. A retrospective analysis of records of a mycobacterial reference laboratory found 135 cases with isolation of NTM. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from the records of government health clinics and from the State notification system (TBWEB)...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693623/epidemiologic-review-of-veterans-health-administration-patients-with-isolation-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-procedures
#12
Gina Oda, Russell Ryono, Cynthia Lucero-Obusan, Patricia Schirmer, Hasan Shanawani, Katrina Jacobs, Mark Holodniy
We evaluated the isolation of postoperative nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with heater-cooler devices (HCDs) used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery in the Veterans Health Administration from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016. In more than 38,000 CPB procedures, NTM was isolated in 111 patients; 1 Mycobacterium chimaera mediastinitis case and 1 respiratory isolate were found. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-4.
July 11, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665061/recovery-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-from-clinical-specimens-are-increasing-in-korean-tertiary-care-hospitals
#13
Namhee Kim, Jongyoun Yi, Chulhun L Chang
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are being recognized increasingly as the causative agents of opportunistic infections in humans. This study investigated the epidemiologic trends of NTM recovery from various clinical specimens in 2 Korean tertiary-care hospitals. We reviewed the laboratory records of patient samples cultured for mycobacteria between 2009 and 2015 at 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. The medical records for patients with positive NTM samples were also reviewed. During the study period, 144,540 specimens were cultured for mycobacteria...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#14
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619015/nontuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections-at-a-specialized-tuberculosis-treatment-centre-in-the-republic-of-korea
#15
Hee Jung Yoon, Hwa Young Choi, Moran Ki
BACKGROUND: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is a major priority for optimizing infection control programmes and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and radiologic findings in NTM-infected patients at specialized Tuberculosis (Tb) treatment centre in South Korea, which is endemic to Tb, and find solutions to control NTM infections...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594574/a-geospatial-epidemiologic-analysis-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-an-ecological-study-in-colorado
#16
Ettie M Lipner, David Knox, Joshua French, Jordan Rudman, Michael Strong, James L Crooks
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental microorganisms. Infection is thought to result primarily from exposure to soil and/or water sources. NTM disease prevalence varies greatly by geographic region, but the geospatial factors influencing this variation remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To identify sociodemographic and environmental ecological risk factors associated with NTM infection and disease in Colorado. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study, combining data from patients with a diagnosis of NTM disease from National Jewish Health's electronic medical record database and ZIP code-level sociodemographic and environmental exposure data obtained from the U...
October 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548990/outbreaks-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#17
Geeta Sood, Nikki Parrish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542092/approach-to-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts
#18
Victoria E Burke, Fred A Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387523/species-specific-risk-factors-treatment-decisions-and-clinical-outcomes-for-laboratory-isolates-of-less-common-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-washington-state
#19
Emily S Ford, David J Horne, Javeed A Shah, Carolyn K Wallis, Ferric C Fang, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of environmental organisms that infrequently cause human disease. Understanding of the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics associated with NTM disease is needed to refine diagnostic and treatment strategies, particularly among the less commonly isolated species. OBJECTIVES: To improve knowledge of geographic variance of NTM species, to correlate detailed clinical information with isolation of specific NTM, and to examine the decision to treat and outcomes for specific NTM...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381605/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-greenland-novel-epidemiological-insights-from-a-high-tuberculosis-incidence-setting
#20
LETTER
Thomas S Hermansen, Allan Gelvan, Troels Lillebaek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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