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epidemiology of mycobacteria

Jennifer R Honda, Nabeeh A Hasan, Rebecca M Davidson, Myra D Williams, L Elaine Epperson, Paul R Reynolds, Terry Smith, Elena Iakhiaeva, Matthew J Bankowski, Richard J Wallace, Edward D Chan, Joseph O Falkinham, Michael Strong
Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Timothy Lahey, C Fordham von Reyn
Tuberculosis infects millions of people worldwide and remains a leading global killer despite widespread neonatal administration of the tuberculosis vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG has clear and sustained efficacy, but after 10 years, its efficacy appears to wane, at least in some populations. Fortunately, there are many new tuberculosis vaccines in development today, some in advanced stages of clinical trial testing. Here we review the epidemiological need for tuberculosis vaccination, including evolving standards for administration to at risk individuals in developing countries...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Xia Yu, Pengnian Liu, Guan Liu, Liping Zhao, Yanjie Hu, Guomei Wei, Jingjing Luo, Hairong Huang
Despite increasing attention towards the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, the overall epidemiological information remains unavailable for China. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using data of 105 qualified publications from Chinese mainland. The assay demonstrated that the prevalence of NTM infections among tuberculosis suspects was 6.3% (5.4%-7.4%) in mainland, while the Southeastern region had the highest NTM prevalence at 8.6% (7.1%-10.5%). In Northern China, slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) consistituted 63...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
Faiza Mougari, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Laurent Raskine, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Nicolas Veziris, Emmanuelle Cambau
Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging mycobacteria that is responsible for lung diseases and healthcare-associated extrapulmonary infections. Recent findings support its taxonomic status as a single species comprising 3 subspecies designated abscessus, bolletii and massiliense. We performed a review of English-language publications investigating all three of these subspecies. Areas covered: Worldwide, human infections are often attributable to environmental contamination, although the isolation of M. abscessus in this reservoir is very rare...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
E P Judge, M Ahmed, M Fitzgerald, A M McLaughlin, J Keane
The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis/treatment of this disease...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Feifei Yin, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Qixuan Zhu, Ruijia Fu, Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen, Garnet Kwan-Yue Choi, Kah-Meng Tee, Lihua Li, Shiuyun Qian, Wing-Cheong Yam, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen
AIMS: Rapid and accurate diagnostic assays with simultaneous microbial identification and drug resistance detection are essential for optimising treatment and control of tuberculosis. METHODS: We developed a novel multiplex (TRIOL, Tuberculosis-Rifampicin-Isoniazid-Ofloxacin-Luminex) assay using the Luminex xMAP system that simultaneously identifies Mycobacterium tuberculosis and detects resistance to first-line and second-line anti-tuberculous drugs, and compared its performance with that by PCR sequencing, using phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as the gold standard...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Misleidis Sardiñas, Grechen García, María Rosarys Martínez, Raúl Díaz, Lilian M Mederos
BACKGROUND: Baciloscopy is the primary tool for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis, being this technique the most used internationally in the search for infectious cases. Quality control is the process of the rechecking smears by a highly qualified observer. AIM: To evaluate and highlight the importance of quality control of smear microscopy in the Provincial Laboratories diagnosticians of Tuberculosis in Cuba. METHODS: This study was conducted at the National Reference Laboratory and Research in Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Mycobacteria in the Institute of Tropical Medicine "Pedro Kouri", Havana, Cuba, Were evaluated 2676 smears received from January 2013 to December 2014, from Provincial Centers of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology of Cuba, including the special municipality Isla de la Juventud...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Alfred H Stammers, Jeffrey B Riley
Nosocomial infections acquired during the course of cardiac surgery and hospitalization can have devastating patient consequences. The source of these infections is often difficult to determine which complicates eradication efforts. Recently it has become apparent that the heater-cooler devices used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass may become contaminated with bacteria that are normally found in hospital water sources. The culprit organisms are nontuberculous mycobacteria which coat the intrinsic surfaces found within the circuits of the heater-coolers...
June 2016: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Eva C Boritsch, Wafa Frigui, Alessandro Cascioferro, Wladimir Malaga, Gilles Etienne, Françoise Laval, Alexandre Pawlik, Fabien Le Chevalier, Mickael Orgeur, Laurence Ma, Christiane Bouchier, Timothy P Stinear, Philip Supply, Laleh Majlessi, Mamadou Daffé, Christophe Guilhot, Roland Brosch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major, globally spread, aerosol-transmitted human pathogen, thought to have evolved by clonal expansion from a Mycobacterium canettii-like progenitor. In contrast, extant M. canettii strains are rare, genetically diverse, and geographically restricted mycobacteria of only marginal epidemiological importance. Here, we show that the contrasting evolutionary success of these two groups is linked to loss of lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis and subsequent morphotype changes. Spontaneous smooth-to-rough M...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Chaoqian Li, Xiaohong Jiang, Mingjie Luo, Guangyi Feng, Qixiang Sun, Yiping Chen
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. CD4(+) T-helper 9 (Th9) cells are closely linked to asthma, helping to regulate inflammation and immunity. Epidemiological studies showed that mycobacteria infections are negatively associated with asthma. Our previous research showed that inactivated Mycobacterium phlei nebulization alleviated the airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of asthma. However, the relationship between Th9 cells and mycobacteria remains unknown...
2016: PloS One
H S Schaaf, A J Garcia-Prats, K du Preez, C Rautenbach, A C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Longer-term tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance surveillance among children is rare. We determined the prevalence of drug resistance among children with culture-confirmed TB from 2011 to 2013, compared these results with four previous consecutive 2-year periods and documented other mycobacterial isolates identified. METHOD: Surveillance study of mycobacterial culture in all children aged <13 years conducted from March 2011 to February 2013 at the Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Lauren C Fiske, Diane C Homeyer, Michael Zapor, Joshua Hartzell, Tyler Warkentien, Amy C Weintrob, Anuradha Ganesan, Timothy Burgess, Erik Snesrud, Paige Waterman, Lindsey Nielsen, Roseanne A Ressner
OBJECTIVES: Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) have yet to be described in combat-related injuries. This study investigates the epidemiology, clinical findings, treatment, and outcomes of RGNTM infections among combat casualties wounded in Afghanistan from 2010 to 2012. METHODS: Patients with RGNTM were identified from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry through the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study. Trauma history, surgical management, and clinical data were collected...
June 2016: Military Medicine
M N Viale, M J Zumárraga, F R Araújo, A M Zarraga, A A Cataldi, M I Romano, F Bigi
The species Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis are the causal agents, respectively, of tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in animals. Both mycobacteria, especially M. bovis, are also important to public health because they can infect humans. In recent years, this and the impact of tuberculosis and paratuberculosis on animal production have led to significant advances in knowledge about both pathogens and their host interactions. This article describes the contribution of genomics and functional genomics to studies of the evolution, virulence, epidemiology and diagnosis of both these pathogenic mycobacteria...
April 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Nasstasja Wassilew, Harald Hoffmann, Claire Andrejak, Christoph Lange
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include more than 160 ubiquitous, environmental, acid-fast-staining bacterial species, some of which may cause disease in humans. Chronic pulmonary infection is the most common clinical manifestation. Although patients suffering from chronic lung diseases are particularly susceptible to NTM pulmonary disease, many affected patients have no apparent risk factors. Host and pathogen factors leading to NTM pulmonary disease are not well understood and preventive therapies are lacking...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
N Schoenfeld, W Haas, E Richter, T Bauer, L Boes, S Castell, B Hauer, K Magdorf, W Matthiessen, H Mauch, A Reuss, K Schenkel, S Ruesch-Gerdes, P Zabel, K Dalhoff, T Schaberg, R Loddenkemper
Non-tuberculous mycobacterioses comprise a group of diseases caused by mycobacteria which do not belong to the Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis-complex and are not ascribed to M. leprae. These mycobacteria are characterized by a broad variety as to environmental distribution and adaptation. Some of the species may cause specific diseases, especially in patients with underlying immunosuppressive diseases, chronic pulmonary diseases or genetic predisposition, respectively. Worldwide, a rising prevalence and significance of non-tuberculous mycobacterioses is recognized...
April 2016: Pneumologie
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, Matilde Bustillo Alonso, María Luisa Monforte Cirac, Pedro Burgués Prades, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, therapeutic management, and outcome of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in a paediatric population of Aragón (Spain). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients under 15 years-old diagnosed with non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis between the years 2000 and 2015. INCLUSION CRITERIA: patients with lymphadenitis and positive culture...
April 1, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Laura Viviani, Michael J Harrison, Anna Zolin, Charles S Haworth, R Andres Floto
BACKGROUND: Infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is often associated with significant morbidity. Limited, conflicting results are published regarding risk factors for pulmonary NTM disease. We analysed factors potentially associated with NTM in a large population of European patients with CF. METHODS: We investigated associations between presence of NTM and various factors for patients registered in the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry...
September 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Joseph O Falkinham
The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are waterborne opportunistic pathogens of humans. They are normal inhabitants of premise plumbing, found, for example, in household and hospital shower heads, water taps, aerators, and hot tubs. The hydrophobic NTM are readily aerosolized, and pulmonary infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been traced to the presence of NTM in shower heads. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in automotive workers was traced to the presence of NTM in metal recovery fluid used in grinding operations...
June 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Genee S Smith, Andrew J Ghio, Jason E Stout, Kyle P Messier, Edward E Hudgens, Mark S Murphy, Stacy L Pfaller, Jean-Marie Maillard, Elizabeth D Hilborn
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental mycobacteria associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology have primarily focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, however extrapulmonary infections of the skin, soft tissues and sterile sites are less frequently described. METHODS: We comprehensively reviewed laboratory reports of NTM isolation from North Carolina residents of three counties during 2006-2010. We describe age, gender, and race of patients, and anatomic site of isolation for NTM species...
June 2016: Journal of Infection
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