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Vaccination in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637906/anogenital-warts-and-other-hpv-associated-anogenital-lesions-in-the-hiv-positive-patient-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-interventions-assessed-in-controlled-clinical-trials
#1
Ricardo Niklas Werner, Lukas Westfechtel, Corinna Dressler, Alexander Nast
OBJECTIVES: Anogenital warts (AGW, condylomata acuminata) and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) do not only impact health and social well-being, they are also associated with considerable costs for the healthcare systems. Immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients carry the highest epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and comprise a population specifically susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. This systematic review aimed at identifying and appraising the available evidence from controlled studies of interventions for the treatment of AGW and IEN in immunocompromised patients...
June 21, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636956/elicitation-of-robust-tier-2-neutralizing-antibody-responses-in-nonhuman-primates-by-hiv-envelope-trimer-immunization-using-optimized-approaches
#2
Matthias Pauthner, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Devin Sok, Joseph P Nkolola, Raiza Bastidas, Archana V Boopathy, Diane G Carnathan, Abishek Chandrashekar, Kimberly M Cirelli, Christopher A Cottrell, Alexey M Eroshkin, Javier Guenaga, Kirti Kaushik, Daniel W Kulp, Jinyan Liu, Laura E McCoy, Aaron L Oom, Gabriel Ozorowski, Kai W Post, Shailendra K Sharma, Jon M Steichen, Steven W de Taeye, Talar Tokatlian, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Salvatore T Butera, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Guido Silvestri, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Rogier W Sanders, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt, Dan H Barouch, Shane Crotty, Dennis R Burton
The development of stabilized recombinant HIV envelope trimers that mimic the virion surface molecule has increased enthusiasm for a neutralizing antibody (nAb)-based HIV vaccine. However, there is limited experience with recombinant trimers as immunogens in nonhuman primates, which are typically used as a model for humans. Here, we tested multiple immunogens and immunization strategies head-to-head to determine their impact on the quantity, quality, and kinetics of autologous tier 2 nAb development. A bilateral, adjuvanted, subcutaneous immunization protocol induced reproducible tier 2 nAb responses after only two immunizations 8 weeks apart, and these were further enhanced by a third immunization with BG505 SOSIP trimer...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632942/the-glycans-mediated-mechanism-on-the-interactions-of-gp120-with-cd4-and-antibody-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#3
Yan Zhang, Yuzhen Niu, Jia Qi Tian, Xuewei Liu, Xiaojun Yao, Huanxiang Liu
N-linked glycans such as 234 and 276 gp120 glycans are vital components of HIV evasion from humoral immunity and important for HIV-1 neutralization of many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, it is unknown the action mechanism of two glycans. To investigate the roles of the glycans on the interactions of gp120 with CD4 and antibody, molecular dynamics simulations based on gp120-CD4-8ANC195 complex with 234 and 276 gp120 glycans, 234 gp120 glycan, 276 gp120 glycan and without glycan were performed...
June 20, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630079/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-lessons-from-the-antibody-response-to-hiv-1
#4
Gabriel D Victora, Hugo Mouquet
Most broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 have in common an extreme degree of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which correlates with their ability to neutralize multiple viral strains. However, achieving such extreme SHM by immunization remains a challenge. Here, we discuss how antigenic variation during HIV-1 infection may work to exacerbate SHM by permitting multiple iterative cycles of affinity maturation in germinal centers, and speculate on how this could be recapitulated through vaccination.
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630077/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-breaking-through-immunity-s-glass-ceiling
#5
Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
A key goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeted to the vulnerable regions of the HIV envelope. BnAbs develop over time in ∼50% of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, to date, no vaccines have induced bnAbs and few or none of these vaccine-elicited HIV-1 antibodies carry the high frequencies of V(D)J mutations characteristic of bnAbs. Do the high frequencies of mutations characteristic of naturally induced bnAbs represent a fundamental barrier to the induction of bnAbs by vaccines? Recent studies suggest that high frequencies of V(D)J mutations can be achieved by serial vaccination strategies...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630076/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-is-affinity-maturation-a-self-defeating-process-for-eliciting-broad-protection
#6
Christopher T Stamper, Patrick C Wilson
Vaccinations are one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine, saving millions of lives since their widespread adoption. However, several diseases continue to elude highly effective vaccination strategies. Chief among these are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza (flu), both of which will require vaccines that can guide the creation of highly mutated, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). The generation of bnAbs is hindered by our inability to effectively drive the high levels of affinity maturation required to achieve them in a large number of cells...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619230/innovative-financing-instruments-for-global-health-2002-15-a-systematic-analysis
#7
Rifat Atun, Sachin Silva, Felicia M Knaul
Development assistance for health (DAH), the value of which peaked in 2013 and fell in 2015, is unlikely to rise substantially in the near future, increasing reliance on domestic and innovative financing sources to sustain health programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. We examined innovative financing instruments (IFIs)-financing schemes that generate and mobilise funds-to estimate the quantum of financing mobilised from 2002 to 2015. We identified ten IFIs, which mobilised US$8·9 billion (2·3% of overall DAH) in 2002-15...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615419/dimeric-fc%C3%AE-receptor-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-to-study-hiv-specific-antibodies-a-new-look-into-breadth-of-fc%C3%AE-receptor-antibodies-induced-by-the-rv144-vaccine-trial
#8
Milla R McLean, Vijaya Madhavi, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent
Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses are of growing interest in the HIV vaccine field but current cell-based assays are usually difficult to reproduce across laboratories. We developed an ELISA and multiplex assay to model the cross-linking of Fcγ receptors (FcγR) by Abs, which is required to initiate an ADCC response. Our FcγR dimer ELISA readily detected Abs in samples from two separate cohorts of the partially efficacious Thai RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial. The FcγR dimer-binding Abs induced by the RV144 regimen correlated well with a functional measure of ADCC as well as IgG subclasses...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615206/plasticity-and-epitope-exposure-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-trimer
#9
Rebecca L R Powell, Maxim Totrov, Vincenza Itri, Xiaomei Liu, Alisa Fox, Susan Zolla-Pazner
We recently showed that mutations in the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) destabilize the V3 loop, rendering neutralization-resistant viruses sensitive to V3-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here we investigated the propagation of this effect on other Env epitopes, with special emphasis on V2 loop exposure. Wildtype JR-FL and 19 mutant JR-FL pseudoviruses were tested for neutralization sensitivity to 21 mAbs specific for epitopes in V2, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), and the CD4-induced (CD4i) region. Certain glycan mutants, mutations in the gp120 hydrophobic core, and mutations in residues involved in intra-protomer interactions exposed epitopes in the V2i region (overlays the α4β7 integrin binding site) and the V3 crown, suggesting a general destabilization of the distal region of the trimer apex...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615205/intrasubtype-b-hiv-1-superinfection-correlates-with-delayed-neutralizing-antibody-response
#10
Gabriel A Wagner, Elise Landais, Gemma Caballero, Pham Phung, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Pascal Poignard, Douglas D Richman, Susan J Little, Davey M Smith
Understanding whether the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response impacts HIV-1 superinfection and how superinfection subsequently modulates the NAb response can help clarify correlates of protection from HIV exposures, and better delineate pathways of NAb development. We examined associations between the development of NAb and the occurrence of superinfection in a well-characterized, antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive, primary infection cohort of men who have sex with men. Deep sequencing was applied to blood plasma samples from the cohort to detect cases of superinfection...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615077/service-utilization-and-cost-of-implementing-a-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-and-care-program-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-delhi-india
#11
Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Avina Sarna
BACKGROUND: WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS recommend a comprehensive package for prevention, treatment, and care of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We describe the uptake of services and the cost of implementing a comprehensive package for HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in Delhi, India. METHODS: A cohort of 3774 PWID were enrolled for a prospective HIV incidence study and provided the comprehensive package: HIV and hepatitis testing and counseling, hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections, clean needles-syringes, condoms, abscess care, and education...
June 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614387/global-sensing-of-the-antigenic-structure-of-herpes-simplex-virus-gd-using-high-throughput-array-based-spr-imaging
#12
Tina M Cairns, Noah T Ditto, Huan Lou, Benjamin D Brooks, Doina Atanasiu, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen
While HSV-2 typically causes genital lesions, HSV-1 is increasingly the cause of genital herpes. In addition, neonatal HSV infections are associated with a high rate of mortality and HSV-2 may increase the risk for HIV or Zika infections, reinforcing the need to develop an effective vaccine. In the GSK Herpevac trial, doubly sero-negative women were vaccinated with a truncated form of gD2 [gD2(284t)], then examined for anti-gD serum titers and clinical manifestations of disease. Surprisingly, few vaccinees were protected against genital HSV-2 but 86% were protected from genital HSV-1...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611512/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-and-hepatitis-a-vaccination-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Kuan-Yin Lin, Guan-Jhou Chen, Yu-Lin Lee, Yi-Chia Huang, Aristine Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Sui-Yuan Chang, Chun-Eng Liu, Chien-Ching Hung
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common infectious etiologies of acute hepatitis worldwide. The virus is known to be transmitted fecal-orally, resulting in symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. HAV can also be transmitted through oral-anal sex. Residents from regions of low endemicity for HAV infection often remain susceptible in their adulthood. Therefore, clustered HAV infections or outbreaks of acute hepatitis A among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users have been reported in countries of low endemicity for HAV infection...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611493/construction-selection-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-fowlpox-candidate-vaccine-co-expressing-hiv-1-gag-and-gp145
#14
Yilong Zhu, Yan Guo, Shouwen Du, Cunxia Liu, Maopeng Wang, Dayong Ren, Fei Zhao, Yanfang Zhang, Wenchao Sun, Yiquan Li, Tingting Cao, Yingyue Jiang, Bin Xing, Bing Bai, Chang Li, Ningyi Jin
An HIV candidate vaccine for the Chinese population was designed by constructing a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HIV-1 gag and HIV gp145 proteins via homologous recombination and plaque screening using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as the reporter gene. EGFP in the recombinant was then knocked out with the Cre/Loxp system yielding rFPVHg-Hp, which was identified at the genomic, transcriptional and translational levels. The immunogenicity of rFPVHg-Hp was analyzed by measuring levels of HIV-specific antibodies and IFN-γ-secreting splenocytes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and IFN enzyme-linked immune spot test in the BALB/c mouse model...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604441/increasing-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-coverage-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-national-hiv-behavioral-surveillance-united-states-2014
#15
Sara E Oliver, Brooke E Hoots, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Lauri E Markowitz, Elissa Meites
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) extended HPV vaccine recommendations to males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Because of this distinction, vaccination for some MSM might rely on sexual behavior disclosure to health care providers. Receipt of ≥1 HPV vaccination among MSM aged 18-26 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) was 4...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602843/combination-of-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-heterologous-dna-prime-protein-boost-strategy-enhances-immune-responses-against-hiv-1-nef-antigen-in-balb-c-mouse-model
#16
Somayeh Kadkhodayan, Behnaz Sadat Jafarzade, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Fateme Motevalli, Elnaz Agi, Azam Bolhassani
To develop a strong HIV specific T-cell response, the HIV-1 Tat and Nef regulatory proteins have been known as attractive antigenic candidates in vaccine design. A peptide transduction domain of Tat (48-60 aa) could act to deliver other therapeutic molecules into different cells. In this line, several cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been designed to transfer DNA, siRNA, polypeptides and proteins into cells through non-covalent approach such as CADY and PEP families. Some studies showed that the endogenous adjuvants including heat shock protein Gp96 could stimulate antigen-specific T cell immune responses...
June 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599793/a-cross-reacting-material-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-induces-diphtheria-toxin-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-children-and-adolescents-infected-or-not-with-hiv
#17
Giselle P Silva, Rafaela S Santos, Wânia F Pereira-Manfro, Bianca Ferreira, Daniella M Barreto, Ana Cristina C Frota, Cristina B Hofer, Lucimar G Milagres
Anti-diphtheria antibody levels decrease with aging, and frequent booster vaccinations are required to maintain herd immunity. We analyzed the diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody (DT-Nab) response induced by a conjugate vaccine (meningococcal C polysaccharide-CRM197) in HIV-vertically infected (HI) children and adolescents and healthy controls (HC) with matched age. We report the association of DT-Nab with the bactericidal antibodies to serogroup C meningococcus (MenC). Before vaccination, 21 HI patients (50%) had no protection against diphtheria (≤0...
June 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#18
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598790/croi-2017-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Joyce Jones, Barbara S Taylor, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured exciting preclinical data on investigational antiretroviral agents with good in vitro efficacy and long half-lives. Investigational medications, including bictegravir, demonstrated excellent efficacy and tolerability, as did dual-agent therapy with dolutegravir paired with rilpivirine or with lamivudine. Dolutegravir monotherapy proved inadvisable due to virologic failure and resistance. The gap between high- and low-income settings along the HIV care continuum is narrowing, with Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia approaching the 90-90-90 targets established by the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), whereas communities in the Southern United States are falling behind...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596770/a-phase-1-human-immunodeficiency-virus-vaccine-trial-for-cross-profiling-the-kinetics-of-serum-and-mucosal-antibody-responses-to-cn54gp140-modulated-by-two-homologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimens
#20
Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Jakub T Kopycinski, Cynthia Bishop, Peter John Hayes, Luke Muir, Christopher L Pinder, Deniz Cizmeci, Deborah King, Yoann Aldon, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent, Kathrin Held, Christof Geldmacher, Len Dally, Nelson S Santos, Tom Cole, Jill Gilmour, Sarah Fidler, Robin J Shattock
A key aspect to finding an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is the optimization of vaccine schedules that can mediate the efficient maturation of protective immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of alternate booster regimens on the immune responses to a candidate HIV-1 clade C CN54gp140 envelope protein, which was coadministered with the TLR4-agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A-aqueous formulation. Twelve study participants received a common three-dose intramuscular priming series followed by a final booster at either 6 or 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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