Read by QxMD icon Read

Vaccination in HIV

Jacob D Estes, Roger LeGrand, Constantinos Petrovas
Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A Slyker, Julie Overbaugh
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Jie Yu, Yaoming Li, Maohua Zhong, Jingyi Yang, Dihan Zhou, Bali Zhao, Yuan Cao, Hu Yan, Ejuan Zhang, Yi Yang, Zhengshan Feng, Xiuwen Qi, Huimin Yan
The development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine is still a global priority. In recent years, vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely used as an HIV-1 vaccine vector, but its immune efficacy against HIV-1 antigens needs to be optimized. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) of VV is capable of faster entry, earlier release, and long-range dissemination. We hypothesized that an improvement in EEV formation by the manipulation of VV genes involved in the EEV release would consequently cause an improved expression of the VV carrying HIV-1 Env antigen and a subsequent enhanced immune response...
March 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
Adan Rios
There is consensus that only a preventive vaccine can contain the HIV/AIDS pandemic. After 30 years still there is no preventive HIV vaccine. This article examines fundamental challenges to the development of a preventive HIV vaccine. They include the initially erroneous but powerful perception of the natural history of HIV disease, as an acute rather than a chronic illness even in the absence of therapy, the lack of appreciation of the quasispecies biology of HIV and the abandonment of principles of immunology theory caused by the allure of technological prowess...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Daniela Fera, Matthew S Lee, Kevin Wiehe, R Ryan Meyerhoff, Alessandro Piai, Mattia Bonsignori, Baptiste Aussedat, William E Walkowicz, Therese Ton, Jeffrey O Zhou, Samuel Danishefsky, Barton F Haynes, Stephen C Harrison
HIV-1 envelope (Env) mimetics are candidate components of prophylactic vaccines and potential therapeutics. Here we use a synthetic V3-glycopeptide ("Man9 -V3") for structural studies of an HIV Env third variable loop (V3)-glycan directed, broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) lineage ("DH270"), to visualize the epitope on Env and to study how affinity maturation of the lineage proceeded. Unlike many previous V3 mimetics, Man9 -V3 encompasses two key features of the V3 region recognized by V3-glycan bnAbs-the conserved GDIR motif and the N332 glycan...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Carlos Fritzsche, M Loebermann, E C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against hepatitis A virus infection is recommended for men who have sex with men and other risk groups. The protection offered by the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is comparable to that offered by the monovalent hepatitis A vaccine. CASE: A 38-year-old HIV-positive patient presented with right upper abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. Serological work-up and detection of hepatitis A RNA in stool sample revealed an acute hepatitis A infection despite a previous complete vaccination with the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine...
March 14, 2018: Infection
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Richard B Pyles, Marc M Baum, John A Moss
Introduction: In the absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for the identification of effective agents that prevent HIV transmission in uninfected individuals. Non-vaccine Biomedical Prevention (nBP) methods, such as topical or systemic pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are promising strategies to slow down the spread of AIDS. Methods: In this study, we investigated the microbicidal efficacy of the viral membrane-disrupting amphipathic SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK peptide called C5A...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Yong Gao, Chanuka Wijewardhana, Jamie F S Mann
It is acknowledged that vaccines remain the best hope for eliminating the HIV-1 epidemic. However, the failure to produce effective vaccine immunogens and the inability of conventional delivery strategies to elicit the desired immune responses remains a central theme and has ultimately led to a significant roadblock in HIV vaccine development. Consequently, significant efforts have been applied to generate novel vaccine antigens and delivery agents, which mimic viral structures for optimal immune induction...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Monica Vaccari, Genoveffa Franchini
Germinal centers (GCs) are organized lymphoid tissue microstructures where B cells proliferate and differentiate into memory B cells and plasma cells. A few distinctive subsets of highly specialized T cells gain access to the GCs by expressing the B cell zone-homing C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) while losing the T cell zone-homing chemokine receptor CCR7. Help from T cells is critical to induce B cell proliferation and somatic hyper mutation and to limit GC reactions. CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH ) cells required for the formation of GCs and for the generation of long-lived, high-affinity B cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jenna Anderson, Thorunn A Olafsdottir, Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Malin Östensson, Josefine Persson, Robin J Shattock, Ali M Harandi
Systems biology approaches have recently provided new insights into the mechanisms of action of human vaccines and adjuvants. Here, we investigated early transcriptional signatures induced in whole blood of healthy subjects following vaccination with a recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein subunit CN54gp140 adjuvanted with the TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) and correlated signatures to CN54gp140-specific serum antibody responses. Fourteen healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years were immunized intramuscularly three times at 1-month intervals and whole blood samples were collected at baseline, 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 days post first immunization...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
M Chen, M H Jia, Y L Ma, H B Luo, H C Chen, C J Yang, J Dai, L Yang, L J Dong, R Lu, L J Song, Y Han, J Y Lu, A K L Cheung, Z W Chen, L Lu
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genotypes in China were first discovered in Yunnan Province before disseminating throughout the country. As the HIV-1 epidemic continues to expand in Yunnan, genetic characteristics and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) should be further investigated among the recently infected population. Among 2828 HIV-positive samples newly reported in the first quarter of 2014, 347 were identified as recent infections with BED-captured enzyme immunoassay (CEIA). Of them, 291 were successfully genotyped and identified as circulating recombinant form (CRF)08_BC (47...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Cora L Bernard, Margaret L Brandeau
Structural assumptions in infectious disease models, such as the choice of network or compartmental model type or the inclusion of different types of heterogeneity across individuals, might affect model predictions as much as or more than the choice of input parameters. We explore the potential implications of structural assumptions on HIV model predictions and policy conclusions. We illustrate the value of inference robustness assessment through a case study of the effects of a hypothetical HIV vaccine in multiple population subgroups over eight related transmission models, which we sequentially modify to vary over two dimensions: parameter complexity (e...
November 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Wolfgang Miehsler, Clemens Dejaco, Hans-Peter Gröchenig, Harry Fuchssteiner, Christoph Högenauer, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Harald Maier, Andreas Mayer, Alexander Moschen, Walter Reinisch, Wolfgang Petritsch, Reingard Platzer, Pius Steiner, Herbert Tilg, Harald Vogelsang, Heimo Wenzl, Gottfried Novacek
Anti-TNFα-antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Due to the increasing application of these substances, the Working Group of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of the Austrian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology intended to update their consensus report on the safe use of Infliximab (published in 2010) and to enlarge its scope to cover all anti-TNFα-antibodies. The present consensus report summarizes the current evidence on the safe use of anti-TNFα-antibodies and covers the following topics: general risk of infection, bacterial infections (i...
March 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Ross D Cranston, Michelle S Cespedes, Pawel Paczuski, Ming Yang, Robert W Coombs, Joan Dragavon, Alfred Saah, Catherine Godfrey, Jennifer Y Webster-Cyriaque, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Barbara Bastow, Timothy Wilkin
BACKGROUND: The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (qHPV; types 6, 11, 16, 18) is indicated for men and women aged 9 to 26 years to prevent HPV associated anogenital high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer. ACTG 5298 was a randomized placebo controlled Phase 3 study in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men, and women of qHPV to prevent persistent anal HPV infection. Baseline data are presented here. METHODS: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men, and women 27 years or older without previous anogenital or oral cancer were enrolled...
April 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Melanie Merbah, Lindsay Wieczorek, Sebastian Molnar, Brendan Mann, Jenica Lee, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Meera Bose, Eric Sanders-Buell, Gustavo H Kijak, Carolina Herrera, Robert McLinden, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Victoria R Polonis, Sodsai Tovanabutra
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 CRF01_AE is dominant in Thailand where RV144 vaccine trial was conducted. To study immune correlates of protection in ongoing trials, CRF01_AE derived reagents are essential. Here we present a panel of 14 HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMC) identified from different stages of infection, and characterization of their neutralization sensitivity using two standard assays. METHODS: One full-length IMC was constructed using a transmitted-founder virus to express Renilla luciferase (LucR) reporter gene and full-length envelopes (envs) of exogenous HIV-1...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS, and related primate lentiviruses show a striking ability to efficiently replicate throughout the lifetime of an infected host. In addition to their high variability, the acquisition of several accessory genes has enabled these viruses to efficiently evade or counteract seemingly strong antiviral immune responses. The respective viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx and Nef, show a stunning functional diversity, acting by various mechanisms and targeting a large variety of cellular factors involved in innate and adaptive immunity...
February 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Quang N Nguyen, David R Martinez, Jonathon E Himes, R Whitney Edwards, Qifeng Han, Amit Kumar, Riley Mangan, Nathan I Nicely, Guanhua Xie, Nathan Vandergrift, Xiaoying Shen, Justin Pollara, Sallie R Permar
BACKGROUND: The initial envelope (Env)-specific antibody response in acutely HIV-1-infected individuals and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys (RMs) is dominated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting Env gp41. In contrast, natural primate SIV hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGMs), develop a predominant Env gp120-specific antibody response to SIV infection. However, the fine-epitope specificity and function of SIV Env-specific plasma IgG, and their potential role on autologous virus co-evolution in SIV-infected AGMs and RMs remain unclear...
March 9, 2018: Retrovirology
Wenwen Dai, Yu Wu, Jinpeng Bi, Shuai Wang, Fang Li, Wei Kong, Julien Barbier, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Feng Gao, Daniel Gillet, Weiheng Su, Chunlai Jiang
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative pathogen of genital herpes and is closely associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The absence of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance to commonly used nucleoside analogs emphasize the urgent need for alternative antivirals against HSV-2. Recently, ABMA [1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine] has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of several pathogens exploiting host-vesicle transport, which also participates in the HSV-2 lifecycle...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"