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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088738/piperine-modulates-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-ischemia-through-antioxidant-and-anti-dyslipidemic-effect-in-male-wistar-rats
#1
Velumani Dhivya, Lohanathan Bharathi Priya, Hilda T Chirayil, Swamiappan Sathiskumar, Chih-Yang Huang, Viswanadha Vijaya Padma
Myocardial infarction due to ischemia accounts for majority of deaths among cardiovascular disorders. Isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction and the protection offered by piperine was investigated in the present report. Lipid profile analysis by determining the levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides and lipoproteins in serum and heart tissues showed anti-dyslipidemic action of piperine against ISO induced myocardial injury by modulating the ISO induced altered lipid profiles, maintaining to near control values...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081471/in-situ-morphological-assessment-of-apoptosis-induced-by-phaleria-macrocarpa-boerl-fruit-ethyl-acetate-fraction-pmeaf-in-mda-mb-231-cells-by-microscopy-observation
#2
Nowroji Kavitha, Yeng Chen, Jagat R Kanwar, Sreenivasan Sasidharan
Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl.) is a well-known medicinal plant and have been extensively used as traditional medicine for ages in treatment of various diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the in situ cytotoxicity effect P. macrocarpa fruit ethyl acetate fraction (PMEAF) by using various conventional and modern microscopy techniques. The cytotoxicity of PMEAF treated MDA-MB-231 cells was determined through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay and CyQuant Cell Proliferation Assay after 24h of treatment...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079884/lack-of-collagen-xv-is-protective-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#3
Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko T Huuskonen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Ritva Heljasvaara, Denis Vivien, Katja M Kanninen, Tarja Malm, Jari Koistinaho, Sighild Lemarchant
Collagens are key structural components of basement membranes, providing a scaffold for other components or adhering cells. Collagens and collagen-derived active fragments contribute to biological activities such as cell growth, differentiation and migration. Here, we report that collagen XV knock-out (ColXV KO) mice are resistant to experimental ischemic stroke. Interestingly, the infarcts of ColXV KO mice were as small as those of wild-type (WT) mice thrombolysed with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), the actual treatment for ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078613/l-f001-a-multifunction-rock-inhibitor-prevents-6-ohda-induced-cell-death-through-activating-akt-gsk-3beta-and-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells-and-attenuates-mptp-induced-dopamine-neuron-toxicity-in-mice
#4
Liting Luo, Jingkao Chen, Dan Su, Meihui Chen, Bingling Luo, Rongbiao Pi, Lan Wang, Wei Shen, Rikang Wang
Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076846/effect-of-trp53-gene-deficiency-on-brain-injury-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#5
Ana A Baburamani, Kristina S Sobotka, Regina Vontell, Carina Mallard, Veena G Supramaniam, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) can result in permanent life-long injuries such as motor and cognitive deficits. In response to cellular stressors such as hypoxia, tumor suppressor protein p53 is activated, potently initiating apoptosis and promoting Bax-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Trp53 genetic inhibition on injury development in the immature brain following HI. HI (50 min or 60 min) was induced at postnatal day 9 (PND9) in Trp53 heterozygote (het) and wild type (WT) mice...
January 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076803/drunken-membranes-short-chain-alcohols-alter-fusion-of-liposomes-to-planar-lipid-bilayers
#6
Jason Paxman, Brady Hunt, David Hallan, Samuel R Zarbock, Dixon J Woodbury
Although the effects of ethanol on protein receptors and lipid membranes have been studied extensively, ethanol's effect on vesicles fusing to lipid bilayers is not known. To determine the effect of alcohols on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay to measure fusion of liposomes to a planar lipid bilayer (BLM). The addition of ethanol excited fusion when applied on the cis (vesicle) side, and inhibited fusion on the trans side. Other short-chain alcohols followed a similar pattern. In general, the inhibitory effect of alcohols (trans) occurs at lower doses than the excitatory (cis) effect, with a decrease of 29% in fusion rates at the legal driving limit of 0...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073163/hydrocarbon-stapled-lipopeptides-exhibit-selective-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Zachary B Jenner, Christopher M Crittenden, Martín Gonzalez, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Kerry A Bruns
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) occur widely in nature and have been studied for their therapeutic potential. AMPs are of interest due to the large number of possible chemical structural combinations using natural and unnatural amino acids, with varying effects on their biological activities. Using physicochemical properties from known naturally occurring amphipathic cationic AMPs, several hydrocarbon-stapled lipopeptides (HSLPs) were designed, synthesized, and tested for antimicrobial properties. Peptides were chemically modified by N-terminal acylation, C-terminal amidation, and some were hydrocarbon stapled by intramolecular olefin metathesis...
January 10, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070799/metabolic-alterations-and-the-protective-effect-of-punicalagin-against-glutamate-induced-oxidative-toxicity-in-ht22-cells
#8
Kavitha Pathakoti, Lavanya Goodla, Manjunath Manubolu, Tewin Tencomnao
Oxidative stress is involved in many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Punicalagin (PC) is a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Punica granatum and a potent antioxidant. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of PC on glutamate-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22. PC treatment protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner, potentially attenuated glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restored the mitochondrial membrane depolarization...
January 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069812/cooperative-substrate-cofactor-interactions-and-membrane-localization-of-the-bacterial-pla2-enzyme-exou
#9
Maxx H Tessmer, David M Anderson, Adam Buchaklian, Dara W Frank, Jimmy B Feix
The ExoU type III secretion enzyme is a potent phospholipase A2 secreted by the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Activation of phospholipase activity is induced by protein-protein interactions with ubiquitin in the cytosol of a targeted eukaryotic cell, leading to destruction of host cell membranes. Previous work in our laboratory suggested that conformational changes within a C-terminal domain of the toxin might be involved in the activation mechanism. In this study, we use site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate conformational changes in a C-terminal four-helical bundle region of ExoU as it interacts with lipid substrates and ubiquitin, and to examine the localization of this domain with respect to the lipid bilayer...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068062/sequence-defined-backbone-modifications-regulate-antibacterial-activity-of-oligoteas
#10
Mintu Porel, Dana N Thornlow, Christine M Artim, Christopher A Alabi
In response to the urgent need for new antibiotic development strategies, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other synthetic polymers are being actively investigated as promising alternatives to traditional antibiotics. Although most AMPs display lytic activity against several types of bacteria, they have poor toxicology profiles and are susceptible to proteolysis in vivo. While many synthetic variants have been created to mimic AMPs by tuning the hydrophobic to cationic ratio of the side-chain groups, few have decoupled the effects of charge from hydrophobicity in discrete systems, and none have investigated the effect of backbone hydrophobicity...
January 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067045/neurotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-deathly-mechanisms-elicited-by-methylone-and-mdpv-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells
#11
Maria Joao Valente, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Eduarda Fernandes, Félix Carvalho, Paola Guedes de Pinho, Marcia Carvalho
Synthetic cathinones (β-keto amphetamines) act as potent CNS stimulants similarly to classical amphetamines, which raise concerns about their potential neurotoxic effects. The present in vitro study aimed to explore and compare the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), with those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), using undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
January 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067008/histidine-rich-designer-peptides-of-the-lah4-family-promote-cell-delivery-of-a-multitude-of-cargo
#12
Gilles Moulay, Christian Leborgne, A James Mason, Christopher Aisenbrey, Antoine Kichler, Burkhard Bechinger
The histidine-rich designer peptides of the LAH4 family exhibit potent antimicrobial, transfection, transduction and cell-penetrating properties. They form non-covalent complexes with their cargo, which often carry a negative overall charge at pH 7.4 and include a large range of molecules and structures such as oligonucleotides, including siRNA and DNA, peptides, proteins, nanodots and adeno-associated viruses. These complexes are thought to enter the cells through an endosomal pathway where the acidification of the organelle is essential for efficient endosomal escape...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066958/comparison-of-patient-derived-high-and-low-phosphatidylserine-exposing-colorectal-carcinoma-cells-in-their-interaction-with-anti-cancer-peptides
#13
Dominik Wilms, Jörg Andrä
Current cancer treatment is frequently compromised by severe adverse effects on healthy cells and tissues as well as by the increasing burden of (multi-)drug resistances. Some representatives of small, amphipathic peptides known as host defense peptides possess the potential to overcome these limitations and to evolve as future anti-cancer therapeutics. Peptide NK-2, derived from porcine NK-lysin, was originally discovered due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. Today, also potent anti-cancer activity is proven and accompanied by low toxicity towards normal human cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065268/enzymatic-assays-for-studying-intramembrane-proteolysis
#14
D M Bolduc, D J Selkoe, M S Wolfe
Proteolysis within the membrane is catalyzed by a diverse family of proteases immersed within the hydrophobic environment of cellular membranes. These ubiquitous intramembrane-cleaving proteases (I-CLiPs) hydrolyze the transmembrane domains of a large variety of membrane-embedded proteins to facilitate signaling events essential to normal biological functions found in all forms of life. The importance of this unique class of enzyme is highlighted by its central involvement in a variety of human pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, cancer, and the virulence of a number of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064500/polycarbonates-with-potent-and-selective-antimicrobial-activity-toward-gram-positive-bacteria
#15
Alekhya Nimmagadda, Xuan Liu, Peng Teng, Ma Su, Yaqiong Li, Qiao Qiao, Nawal K Khadka, Xiaoting Sun, Jianjun Pan, Hai Xu, Qi Li, Jianfeng Cai
The resistance developed by life-threatening bacteria toward conventional antibiotics has become a major concern in public health. To combat antibiotic resistance, there has been a significant interest in the development of antimicrobial cationic polymers due to the ease of synthesis and low manufacturing cost compared to host-defense peptides (HDPs). Herein, we report the design and synthesis of amphiphilic polycarbonates containing primary amino groups. These polymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity and excellent selectivity to Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug resistant pathogens...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063354/diaryltriazenes-as-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#16
Jure Vajs, Conor Proud, Anamaria Brozovic, Martin Gazvoda, Adrian Lloyd, David I Roper, Maja Osmak, Janez Košmrlj, Christopher G Dowson
Diaryltriazene derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial properties. Initial experiments showed some of these compounds to have activity against both methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium smegmatis, with MICs of 0.02 and 0.03 μg/mL respectively. Those compounds with potent anti-staphylococcal and anti-mycobacterial activity were not found to act as growth inhibitors of mammalian cell lines or yeast. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one of the most active anti-MRSA diaryltriazene derivatives was subject to very low frequencies of resistance at <10(-9)...
December 31, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060701/perisomatic-gabaergic-synapses-of-basket-cells-effectively-control-principal-neuron-activity-in-amygdala-networks
#17
Judit M Veres, Gergő A Nagy, Norbert Hájos
Efficient control of principal neuron firing by basket cells is critical for information processing in cortical microcircuits, however, the relative contribution of their perisomatic and dendritic synapses to spike inhibition is still unknown. Using in vitro electrophysiological paired recordings we reveal that in the mouse basal amygdala cholecystokinin- and parvalbumin-containing basket cells provide equally potent control of principal neuron spiking. We performed pharmacological manipulations, light and electron microscopic investigations to show that, although basket cells innervate the entire somato-denditic membrane surface of principal neurons, the spike controlling effect is achieved primarily via the minority of synapses targeting the perisomatic region...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054660/antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-three-chensinin-1-peptides-containing-mutation-of-glycine-and-histidine-residues
#18
Weibing Dong, Xiaoman Mao, Yue Guan, Yao Kang, Dejing Shang
The natural peptide chensinin-1 doesnot exhibit its desired biological properties. In this study, the mutant MC1-1 was designed by replacing Gly in the chensinin-1 sequence with Trp. Mutants MC1-2 and MC1-3 were designed based on the MC1-1 sequence to investigate the specific role of His residues. The mutated peptides presented α-helicity in a membrane-mimetic environment and exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities; in contrast to Trp residues, His residues were dispensable for interacting with the cell membrane...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053105/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-latent-membrane-protein-1-upregulates-glucose-transporter-1-transcription-via-the-mtorc1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#19
Jun Zhang, Lin Jia, Weitao Lin, Yim Ling Yip, Kwok Wai Lo, Victoria Ming Yi Lau, Dandan Zhu, Chi Man Tsang, Yuan Zhou, Wen Deng, Hong Lok Lung, Maria Li Lung, Lai Man Cheung, Sai Wah Tsao
: Accumulating evidence indicates that oncogenic viral protein exerts a crucial role in activating aerobic glycolysis during tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are largely undefined. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a trans-membrane protein with potent cell signaling properties and has tumorigenic transformation property. Activation of NF-κB is a major signaling pathway mediating many downstream transformation properties of LMP1. Here we report that activation of mTORC1 by LMP1 is a key modulator for activation of NF-κB signaling to mediate aerobic glycolysis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051856/enhanced-cellular-internalization-a-bactericidal-mechanism-more-relative-to-biogenic-nanoparticles-than-chemical-counterparts
#20
Madhuree Kumari, Shatrunajay Shukla, Shipra Pandey, Ved P Giri, Anil Bhatia, Tusha Tripathi, Poonam Kakkar, Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal, Aradhana Mishra
Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity has gained a lot of momentum making it an urgent need to search for a suitable bio-candidate which could be utilized for efficient capping and shaping of silver nanoparticles with enhanced bactericidal activity utilising its secondary metabolites. Current work illustrates the enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of silver nanoparticles by reducing and modifying their surface with antimicrobial metabolites of cell free extract of Trichoderma viride (MTCC 5661) in comparison to citrate stabilized silver nanoparticles...
January 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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