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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805270/histoplasmosis-in-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Stan Deresinski
Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus that most often causes asymptomatic infection in the immunocompetent population. In immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, however, it is likely to cause severe life-threatening infection. Post-transplant histoplasmosis (PTH) in SOT is uncommon with an incidence of ≤ 1% and is even rarer in HCT patients. The majority of PTH in SOT is diagnosed in the first 2 years following transplantation...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774702/candida-and-invasive-mould-diseases-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients-and-patients-with-haematological-cancer
#2
REVIEW
A L Colombo, J N de Almeida Júnior, Monica A Slavin, Sharon C-A Chen, Tania C Sorrell
Critically ill patients and patients with haematological cancer are HIV-negative populations at high risk of invasive fungal infections. In intensive-care units, candidaemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis predominate, but aspergillosis has emerged as a lethal, under-recognised cause of pneumonia. In patients with haematological malignancies or who have undergone stem-cell transplantations, pulmonary disease due to aspergillus and other mould diseases predominate. In this Series paper, we provide an update on risk assessment, new diagnostic strategies, and therapeutic approaches...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774699/pulmonary-and-sinus-fungal-diseases-in-non-immunocompromised-patients
#3
REVIEW
David W Denning, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. However, many fungi are directly allergenic by colonising the respiratory tract or indirectly through contact with cell wall constituents and proteases, causing or exacerbating allergic disease...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773235/synchrotron-microtomography-reveals-the-fine-three-dimensional-porosity-of-composite-polysaccharide-aerogels
#4
Abdul Ghafar, Kirsti Parikka, David Haberthür, Maija Tenkanen, Kirsi S Mikkonen, Jussi-Petteri Suuronen
This study investigates the impact of ice-templating conditions on the morphological features of composite polysaccharide aerogels in relation to their mechanical behavior and aims to get a better insight into the parameters governing these properties. We have prepared polysaccharide aerogels of guar galactomannan (GM) and tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) by enzymatic oxidation with galactose oxidase (GaO) to form hydrogels, followed by conventional and unidirectional ice-templating (freezing) methods and lyophilization to form aerogels...
July 28, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770205/fatal-mycotic-aneurysm-of-the-basilar-artery-caused-by-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-patient-with-pituitary-adenoma-and-meningitis
#5
Martin Winterholler, Roland Coras, Walter Geißdörfer, Rudolf Rammensee, Philipp Gölitz, Christian Bogdan, Roland Lang
Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) frequently occur in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we describe the case of an immunocompetent 64-year-old man who presented with diplopia, right-sided hemiparesis, and a mild headache after cleaning and replacing nesting boxes of wild birds during the preceding months. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis, elevated protein, and lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Initial imaging showed ischemia in the left thalamus and an enlargement of the sellar region...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768499/simultaneous-primary-invasive-cutaneous-aspergillosis-in-two-preterm-twins-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Floriane Gallais, Julie Denis, Olfa Koobar, Laurence Dillenseger, Dominique Astruc, Raoul Herbrecht, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru, Marcela Sabou
BACKGROUND: Primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. Newborns of very low birth weight present a high risk for this type of infection due to an immaturity of the cutaneous barrier and of the immune system. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe here a case of simultaneous invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins. Two male preterm bichorionic biamniotic twins (A & B) were born at a general hospital by spontaneous normal delivery at 24 weeks and 6 days of gestation...
August 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759746/serum-markers-as-an-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-aids-patients
#7
Ana Isabela Passos, Rachel Polo Dertkigil, Marcelo de Carvalho Ramos, Ariane BussoLopes, Cibele Tararan, Erivan Olinda Ribeiro, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Plinio Trabasso, Mariangela Ribeiro Resende, Maria Luiza Moretti
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients' serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan (BG), galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
July 28, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758330/thermo-physical-properties-of-synthetic-mucus-for-the-study-of-airway-clearance
#8
O Lafforgue, N Bouguerra, S Poncet, I Seyssiecq, J Favier, S Elkoun
In this paper, dynamic viscosity, surface tension, density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of a bronchial mucus simulant proposed by Zahm et al. [1] were experiementally determined. This simulant is mainly composed of a galactomannan gum and a scleroglucan. It was shown that thermophysical properties of synthetic mucus are dependant of scleroglucan concentrations. More importantly and for some scleroglucan concentrations, the syntetic mucus, exhibits, somehow, comparable thermophysical propoerties to real bronchial mucus...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733410/radioactive-labeling-and-fractionation-of-fission-yeast-walls
#9
Pilar Pérez, Juan C Ribas
Fungal cells contain an essential structure external to the cell, made of polysaccharides and proteins, termed the cell wall. Polysaccharides represent ∼96% of the cell wall on a dry-weight basis. They are complex insoluble polymers connected to each other by covalent linkages and hydrogen bonds with specific localizations in the cell wall and septum. Fission yeast contains three β-glucans (a major branched β(1,3)-glucan, a minor linear β(1,3)-glucan, and a minor branched β(1,6)-glucan), two α-glucans (a major α(1,3)-glucan and a minor α(1,4)-glucan), and a minor amount of galactomannan-linked glycoproteins...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732911/toxicity-of-native-and-oxovanadium-iv-v-galactomannan-complexes-on-hepg2-cells-is-related-to-impairment-of-mitochondrial-functions
#10
Monique Meyenberg Cunha-de Padua, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Maria Eliane Merlin Rocha, Ana Lucia Ramalho Mercê, Guilhermina Rodrigues Noleto
Polysaccharides and vanadium compounds have been studied due to their antitumor potential. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of galactomannan preparations on HepG2 cells were investigated. Native galactomannan from S. amazonicum (SAGM) and its modified form (MSAGM) were complexed with oxovanadium resulting in SAGM:VO and MSAGM:VO, respectively. The complexation was confirmed by NMR, FTIR, and AAS. SAGM and MSAGM:VO (250μg/mL) after 72h decreased viability by 51% and 58%, respectively, while the inhibition of the HepG2 cell proliferation was of ∼27% and ∼46%, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732846/physicochemical-study-of-mixed-systems-composed-by-bovine-caseinate-and-the-galactomannan-from-gleditsia-amorphoides
#11
Débora N López, Micaela Galante, Estela M Alvarez, Patricia H Risso, Valeria Boeris
Model systems formed by sodium caseinate (NaCAS) and espina corona gum (ECG) were studied. There was no evidence of attractive interactions between NaCAS and ECG macromolecules. Aqueous mixtures of NaCAS and ECG phase-separate segregatively over a wide range of concentrations. According to the images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, NaCAS particles form larger protein aggregates when ECG is present in the system. An increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NaCAS particles, as a result of ECG addition, was also observed by light scattering in diluted systems...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712957/secretory-expression-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-bacillus-circulans-nt-6-7-in-lactobacillus-plantarum
#12
Kwankanit Intaratrakul, Sunee Nitisinprasert, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Dietmar Haltrich, Suttipun Keawsompong
The β-mannanase gene of Bacillus circulans NT 6.7 was successfully cloned in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 using the pSIP403 expression vector and secreted to the supernatant rather than accumulated in the cells. The highest activity was achieved by controlling the pH at 6 during cultivation. Maximum mannanase activities detected in the supernatant and cell-free extract of 200 ml MRS broth were 8.2 and 0.86 U/ml, respectively. Enzyme activity in the supernatant increased to 27 U/ml by fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor with automatic pH control...
July 13, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712819/clinical-characteristics-radiologic-findings-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-serum-galactomannan-negative-invasive-pulmonary%C3%A2-aspergillosis
#13
Jiwon Jung, Mi Young Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of galactomannan (GM) assay is suboptimal for detecting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in serum samples. However, the clinical characteristics, radiologic findings, and outcomes in patients with GM-negative IPA have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, adult patients with proven or probable IPA by the EORTC/MSG definition were retrospectively enrolled. Patients with negative GM results and positive Aspergillus spp...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702426/the-chemical-characteristics-and-immune-modulating-activity-of-polysaccharides-isolated-from-cold-brew-coffee
#14
Kwang-Soon Shin
To elucidate new biological ingredients in cold-brew coffee extracted with cold water, crude polysaccharide (CCP-0) was isolated by ethanol precipitation, and its immune-stimulating activities were assayed. CCP-0 mainly comprised galactose (53.6%), mannose (15.7%), arabinose (11.9%), and uronic acid (12.4%), suggesting that it might exist as a mixture of galactomannan and arabinogalactan. CCP-0 significantly increased cell proliferation on both murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes in a dose dependent manner...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702318/aspergillus-nodules-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-attributable-to-aspergillus-ochraceus
#15
Samihah Moazam, David W Denning
Aspergillus ochraceus is a rare pulmonary pathogen. A 39 year old male with COPD and chronic granulomatous disease presented with severe breathlessness and recurrent infections. CT scan demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules diagnosed as chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient's sputum grew Aspergillus ochraceus thrice over 6 months, alongside positive Aspergillus IgG and serum galactomannan. Despite treatment with itraconazole, the patient continued to be symptomatic. We present the first case associating A...
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699245/effects-of-intranasally-dosed-posaconazole-on-fungal-load-and-biomarkers-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-immunocompromised-mice
#16
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Yuki Nishimoto, Yuto Suzuki, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
Although anti-fungal triazoles are dosed orally or systemically for Aspergillus fumigatus infection, systemic adverse events and limited exposure of the lung cavity would make a topical treatment for the lung an attractive option. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasally dosed posaconazole on survival rates and biomarkers in A. fumigatus (itraconazole susceptible: ATCC13073 [Af]; or resistant: NCPF7100 [AfR]) infected, temporarily neutropenic A/J mice. Once daily treatment produced a dose-dependent improvement of survival of Af-infected mice (ED50 : 0...
July 11, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696236/combination-therapy-with-isavuconazole-and-micafungin-for-treatment-of-experimental-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#17
Vidmantas Petraitis, Ruta Petraitiene, Matthew W McCarthy, Laura L Kovanda, Myo H Zaw, Kaiser Hussain, Naima Shaikh, Bo Bo W Maung, Navjot K Sekhon, William W Hope, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesized that simultaneous inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and (1→3)-β-D-glucan in the cell wall, respectively, by the antifungal triazole isavuconazole and the echinocandin micafungin, may result in improved outcome in experimental IPA in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Treatment groups included isavuconazole (ISA) at 20 (ISA20), 40 (ISA40), and 60 (ISA60) mg/kg/day, micafungin at 2 mg/kg/day (MFG2), or combinations of (ISA20+MFG2), (ISA40+MFG2), (ISA60+MFG2), and untreated rabbits (UC)...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693685/effect-of-involved-aspergillus-species-on-galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-of-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#18
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad T Hedayati, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Hossein Zarrinfar, Sasan Saber, Paul E Verweij, David W Denning, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
PURPOSE: The detection of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is an important surrogate marker for the early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive aspergillosis (IA), regardless of the involved species of Aspergillus. Here, we utilized the Platelia Aspergillus GM enzyme immunoassay (Bio-Rad) to evaluate the GM index in BAL fluid samples from patients with proven, probable or putative IA due to Aspergillusflavus versus Aspergillusfumigatus. METHODOLOGY: In a prospective study between 2009 and 2015, 116 BAL samples were collected from suspected IA patients referred to two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681812/evaluation-of-serum-galactomannan-enzyme-immunoassay-at-two-different-cut-offs-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#19
Ritin Mohindra, Malini R Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Dinesh K Gupta, B Gupta, Ranadip Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI) detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008) European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Mycoses Study Group (EORTC-MSG) criteria at two different optical density (OD) cut-offs of 0...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680526/lateral-flow-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-current-status
#20
REVIEW
Sven Heldt, Martin Hoenigl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis during early stages of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and targeted antifungal treatment has the potential to improve survival significantly. Despite advances in the diagnostic arsenal, invasive mold infections remain difficult to diagnose-especially at early stages before typical radiological signs develop. Varying availability and time-to-results are important limitations of current approved biomarkers and molecular assays for diagnosis of IA. Here, we will give an update on the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test...
2017: Current Fungal Infection Reports
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