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Maya Hites, Eduardo Wilfrido Goicoechea Turcott, Fabio Silvio Taccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Dmitry A Argunov, Vadim B Krylov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
A new pyranoside-into-furanoside (PIF) rearrangement of selectively protected galactopyranosides, followed by controlled O(5) → O(6) benzoate migration, gives either 5-OH or 6-OH products. It has been applied for the synthesis of four oligosaccharides related to the galactomannan from Aspergillus fumigatus. The assembly of target oligosaccharides containing both (1→5) and (1→6) linkages between galactofuranosyl residues was performed by applying terminal mannoside and digalactofuranoside blocks, forming a versatile approach toward fungal and bacterial carbohydrate antigens containing both 5-O- and 6-O-substituted galactofuranoside residues...
October 19, 2016: Organic Letters
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Hoang-Minh Nguyen, Geir Mathiesen, Elena Maria Stelzer, Mai Lan Pham, Katarzyna Kuczkowska, Alasdair Mackenzie, Jane W Agger, Vincent G H Eijsink, Montarop Yamabhai, Clemens K Peterbauer, Dietmar Haltrich, Thu-Ha Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a potential cell factory because of its GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status and long history of use in food applications. Its possible applications include in situ delivery of proteins to a host, based on its ability to persist at mucosal surfaces of the human intestine, and the production of food-related enzymes. By displaying different enzymes on the surface of L. plantarum cells these could be used as whole-cell biocatalysts for the production of oligosaccharides...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Li Du, Yun Xia, Yunyan He, Qingquan Pu, Ruoyi Hua, Wenyao Wu
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples has been a major challenge in the early diagnosis of IA. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA-ELISA) was developed to fulfil the need for the efficient diagnosis of these infections. The primers targeting 18S rRNA were selected for the amplification of Aspergillus RNA by the isothermal digoxigenin (DIG)-labeling NASBA process...
December 2016: AMB Express
Annegret Wiedemann, Anja Spadinger, Axel Löwe, Allison Seeger, Frank Ebel
Treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. We found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic Aspergillus, Lichtheimia, Rhizopus and Scedosporium species. Only A. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even though it is sensitive to iprodione and able to adapt to hyperosmotic conditions...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Horacio Gil, Maria Candida Monteiro, Teresa Pelaez, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed...
2016: PloS One
Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Opportunistic mycoses remain a significant complication in organ recipients. Areas covered: This review is an evidence-based presentation of current state-of-knowledge and our perspective on recent developments in the field Expert commentary: Invasive fungal infections are associated with reduced allograft and patient survival, increase in healthcare resource utilization, and newly appreciated but largely unrecognized immunologic sequelae, such as immune reconstitution syndrome. Given adverse outcomes associated with established infections, prophylaxis is a widely used strategy for the prevention of these infections...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Katerina Vikelouda, Emmanuel Roilides
The optimal management of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in children requires prompt and precise diagnosis that enables timely implementation of appropriate antifungal therapy and decreased use of unnecessary toxic antifungals. Areas covered: Traditional approaches such as culture, microscopy and histopathology remain the gold standard but are often not sufficiently sensitive and specific. These limitations have led to the development of alternative non-invasive diagnostic methods that in most cases detect fungal components, such as antigens or nucleic acids...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Fang Zheng, Hui Zha, Dandan Yang, Jun Deng, Zhiquan Zhang
The relationship among (1,3)-β-D-glucans (BG), galactomannan (GM), and the risk of developing invasive fungal infections (IFI) has been observed in adult ICU and in children with hematological malignancies. Only scant data evaluated the value of BG/GM assays for diagnosis of IFI in patients with nonhematological diseases in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of these markers for IFI in PICU. The records of 230 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Out of 117 patients (7 proven, 23 probable, and 87 cases without evidence of IFI) performed GM and BG assays...
September 23, 2016: Mycopathologia
E Swoboda-Kopeć, M Sikora, K Piskorska, M Gołaś, I Netsvyetayeva, D Przybyłowska, E Mierzwińska-Nastalska
Culturing strains from clinical samples is the main method to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Detecting the galactomannan antigen in serum samples is an auxiliary examination. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency with which Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in clinical samples taken from patients hospitalized in the the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in the period of 2013-2014. Specimens from the respiratory tract and blood were cultured for mycological and serological assessments...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
F Sunzini, C Barbato, C Canofari, L Lugari, R Perricone, A Bergamini
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus that mainly affects patients with asthma. For diagnosis, elevated serum IgE level are needed according to Greenberger and Patterson criteria. We report a case of 43 years-old woman who developed ABPA with productive cough, fever and radiological findings of multiple confluent areas of consolidation in both upper lobes. Laboratory tests showed elevated peripheral eosinophil counts (9.3 x 10(3)/ml). In bronchial washing A...
September 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
J T Ramos, L Francisco, Z Daoud
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised adults and children. The purpose of this review was to update the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic options in children, and to compare them with the adult population. Although there are important differences, the epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for IFI have many similarities. Patient at risk include neutropenic hematology children, in whom Candida spp. y Aspergillus spp. predominate; primary immunodeficiencies, particularly chronic granulomatous disease with high susceptibility for Aspergillus spp...
September 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Alexandre Mery, Boualem Sendid, Nadine François, Marjorie Cornu, Julien Poissy, Yann Guerardel, Daniel Poulain
BACKGROUND: We recently developed a mass spectrometry (MS) procedure based on the detection of a serum disaccharide (MS-DS) in patients with invasive candidiasis (IC). Here, we compare the performance of MS-DS for the diagnosis of IC, invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis (MM) with commercially available antigen detection tests. METHODS: This retrospective study included 48 patients (23 IC/74 sera, 15 IA/40 sera and 10 MM/15 sera) and 49 appropriate controls (102 sera)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Christine Henry, Thierry Fontaine, Christoph Heddergott, Pauline Robinet, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Remi Beau, Anne Beauvais, Isabelle Mouyna, Marie-Christine Prevost, Arnaud Fekkar, Yanan Zhao, David Perlin, Jean-Paul Latgé
The galactomannan is a major cell wall molecule of Aspergillus fumigatus. This molecule is composed of a linear mannan with a repeating unit composed of four α1,6 and α1,2 linked mannose with side chains of galactofuran. To obtain a better understanding of the mannan biosynthesis in A. fumigatus, it was decided to undertake the successive deletion of the 11 genes which are putative orthologs of the mannosyltransferases responsible for establishing α1,6 and α1,2 mannose linkages in yeast. These deletions did not lead to a reduction of the mannan content of the cell wall of the mycelium of A...
September 7, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Thomas Lehrnbecher, Paula D Robinson, Brian T Fisher, Elio Castagnola, Andreas H Groll, William J Steinbach, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Zelalem F Negeri, Joseph Beyene, Bob Phillips, Lillian Sung
We systematically reviewed and analyzed the available data for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BG), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to detect invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with pediatric cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation when used as screening tools during immunosuppression or as diagnostic tests in patients presenting with symptoms such as fever during neutropenia (FN). Of 1532 studies screened, 25 studies reported on GM (n = 19), BG (n = 3), and PCR (n = 11)...
August 27, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Caroline Novak Sakakibara, Maria Rita Sierakowski, Neoli Lucyszyn, Rilton Alves de Freitas
Guar (GG) and locust bean (LBG) galactomannans (GMs) oxidation at C-6 was performed with catalyst TEMPO, in which the reaction progress was monitored by consume of NaOH solution. The products were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, infrared, and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, confirming the presence of aldehydes groups as intermediate of reaction to carboxylic acid. From high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection Man/Gal molar ratio was determined and demonstrated a preference to oxidize Man during the reaction on both GMs, following a first order kinetics of oxidation...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sudip Regmi, Pradeep G C, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Ji Eun Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jin Cheol Yoo
Bacillus sp. CSB39, isolated from popular traditional Korean food (Kimchi), produced a low molecular weight, thermostable mannanase (MnCSB39); 571.14U/mL using locust bean gum galactomannan as a major substrate. It was purified to homogeneity using a simple and effective two-step purification strategy, Sepharose CL-6B and DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, which resulted in 25.47% yield and 19.32-fold purity. The surfactant-, NaCl-, urea-, and protease-tolerant monomeric protein had a mass of ∼30kDa as analyzed by SDS-PAGE and galactomannan zymography...
October 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
G M Chong, M T van der Beek, P A von dem Borne, J Boelens, E Steel, G A Kampinga, L F R Span, K Lagrou, J A Maertens, G J H Dingemans, G R Gaajetaan, D W E van Tegelen, J J Cornelissen, A G Vonk, B J A Rijnders
OBJECTIVES: In patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA), fungal cultures are mostly negative. Consequently, azole resistance often remains undetected. The AsperGenius(®) multiplex real-time PCR assay identifies clinically relevant Aspergillus species and four resistance-associated mutations (RAMs; TR34/L98H/T289A/Y121F) in the Cyp51A gene. This multicentre study evaluated the diagnostic performance of this assay on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and correlated the presence of RAMs with azole treatment failure and mortality...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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