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Galactomannan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334321/biosynthesis-of-galactomannans-found-in-filamentous-fungi-belonging-to-pezizomycotina
#1
Takuji Oka
The galactomannans (GMs) that are produced by filamentous fungi belonging to Pezizomycotina, many of which are pathogenic for animals and plants, are polysaccharides consisting of α-(1→2)-/α-(1→6)-mannosyl and β-(1→5)-/β-(1→6)-galactofuranosyl residues. GMs are located at the outermost layer of the cell wall. When a pathogenic fungus infects a host, its cell surface must be in contact with the host. The GMs on the cell surface may be involved in the infection mechanism of a pathogenic fungus or the defense mechanism of a host...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333407/the-limited-role-of-serum-galactomannan-assay-in-screening-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-on-micafungin-prophylaxis-a-retrospective-study
#2
Ryul Kim, Youngil Koh, Dong-Yeop Shin, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Nam Joong Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Myoung-Don Oh, Wan Beom Park, Inho Kim
Background: We evaluated the outcomes of serum galactomannan (GM) assay for the screening of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) recipients while on primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP). Methods: This study included patients with hematologic disorders who underwent alloHSCT from January 2013 to November 2015. Patients received routine PAP with fluconazole before 2014 and micafungin after 2014; serum GM tests were performed and retrospectively analyzed...
December 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322720/invasive-aspergillus-pseudomembranous-and-obstructive-tracheo-bronchitis-in-an-immuno-competent-patient
#3
Ramesh S Pal, Sonam Spalgais, Amit Kumar Murar, Umesh Chandra Ojha
A 19 year female, presented with life threatening haemoptysis and cough with minimum expectoration for 3 months. Bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in airway. The direct microscopy and culture of sputum revealed fungal elements and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Serum Galactomannan was positive. Thus diagnosis of invasive aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis made. She responded to voriconazole. Aspergillus tracheo-bronchitis is a rare form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immuno-competent host. Aspergillus spp in respiratory samples should not be routinely discarded as colonization...
November 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305697/trp-residue-at-subsite-%C3%A2-5-plays-a-critical-role-in-the-substrate-binding-of-two-protistan-gh26-%C3%AE-mannanases-from-a-termite-hindgut
#4
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281730/correction-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-detecting-galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-invasive-aspergillosis
#5
Mingxiang Zou, Lanhua Tang, Shushan Zhao, Zijin Zhao, Luyao Chen, Peng Chen, Zebing Huang, Jun Li, Lizhang Chen, Xuegong Fan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043347.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259396/galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosis-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-with-nonneutropenic-patients
#6
Qidong Zhuang, Hongying Ma, Yun Zhang, Lei Chen, Li Wang, Lin Zheng, Zaichun Deng, Zhongbo Chen
Background: We evaluated the utility of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in nonneutropenic patients. Methods: A total of 183 patients were included in the final analysis. Bronchoscopies and the detection of GM in BALF were all performed on them. Results: Ten cases of IPA were diagnosed. ROC data demonstrated that, for diagnosing IPA, an optimal cutoff value for GM in BALF of 0...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248586/improving-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-by-the-detection-of-aspergillus-in-broncho-alveolar-lavage-fluid-comparison-of-non-culture-based-assays
#7
Hélène Guegan, Florence Robert-Gangneux, Christophe Camus, Sorya Belaz, Tony Marchand, Marion Baldeyrou, Jean-Pierre Gangneux
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate new tools to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) directly from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples. METHODS: All consecutive patients with suspected IA who underwent bronchoscopy with BAL were prospectively included. Mycological culture and ELISA detection of galactomannan (GM) were performed on BAL. Two in-house and two marketed PCR assays were used on BAL DNA extracts to detect Aspergillus species. Susceptibility testing was performed after culture; marketed PCR assays detected mutations in the CYP51A gene associated to resistance...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245249/characteristics-of-culture-positive-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-hematologic-diseases-comparison-between-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-non-fumigatus-aspergillus-species
#8
Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee, Jae-Ki Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, Si-Hyun Kim, Sun Hee Park, Su-Mi Choi, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Yeon-Joon Park, Jong-Wook Lee
While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245184/evaluation-of-the-use-of-novel-biomarkers-to-augment-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-activities
#9
Kayla R Stover, Rachel M Kenney, Travis S King, Alan E Gross
As antimicrobial stewardship increasingly receives worldwide attention for improving patient care by optimizing antimicrobial therapy, programs are evaluating new tools that may augment antimicrobial stewardship activities. Biomarkers are objective, accurate, and reproducible measures that provide information about medical conditions. A systematic literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE databases was performed to evaluate the use of novel biomarkers as additions to the antimicrobial stewardship armamentarium...
December 15, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218650/structural-characterization-and-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-a-novel-exopolysaccharide-from-lachnum-ym130
#10
Ping Xu, Ruyue Yuan, Guohua Hou, Jinglei Li, Ming Ye
Exopolysaccharide of Lachnum YM130 (LEP) was purified by diethylaminoethyl cellulose 52 and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. LEP-2a was identified to be a homogeneous component with an average molecular weight of 1.31 × 106 Da, which was consisted of mannose and galactose in a molar ratio of 3.8:1.0. The structure of LEP-2a was characterized by methylation analysis, FT-IR analysis, and NMR analysis. Results indicated that LEP-2a was a galactomannan with a backbone, composed of 1,2-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,2,6-linked-α-D-Manp, 1,3,4-linked-α-D-Manp, and 1,3-linked-β-D-Galp, which was substituted at O-2, O-3, O-4, and O-6 by branches...
December 8, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195933/effect-of-the-molecular-weight-of-a-neutral-polysaccharide-on-soy-protein-gelation
#11
Sónia R Monteiro, José A Lopes-da-Silva
The effects of galactomannans with different molecular weights on the heat-induced gelation characteristics of soybean protein were investigated using dynamic small-strain rheometry, under conditions where the proteins carry a net negative charge (pH7). Microstructure of the resulting gels was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Phase-separated systems were obtained with different morphologies and degree of phase separation, depending on both biopolymer concentrations and polysaccharide molecular weight...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193664/genome-wide-discovery-of-tissue-specific-mirnas-in-clusterbean-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-indicates-their-association-with-galactomannan-biosynthesis
#12
Anshika Tyagi, Deepti Nigam, S V Amitha Mithra, Amolkumar U Solanke, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Tilak Raj Sharma, Kishor Gaikwad
Owing to the presence of 80% soluble dietary fiber, high protein content and high value gum, clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) has recently emerged as an economically important legume. The developing clusterbean seeds accumulate 90% galactomannans in the endosperm, and therefore, can be used as a model crop to understand galactomannan biosynthesis and its regulation. miRNAs are tiny master regulators of their corresponding target genes, resulting in variations in the amounts of their metabolic end products...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192904/specific-substrate-driven-changes-in-human-faecal-microbiota-composition-contrast-with-functional-redundancy-in-short-chain-fatty-acid-production
#13
Nicole Reichardt, Maren Vollmer, Grietje Holtrop, Freda M Farquharson, Daniel Wefers, Mirko Bunzel, Sylvia H Duncan, Janice E Drew, Lynda M Williams, Graeme Milligan, Thomas Preston, Douglas Morrison, Harry J Flint, Petra Louis
The diet provides carbohydrates that are non-digestible in the upper gut and are major carbon and energy sources for the microbial community in the lower intestine, supporting a complex metabolic network. Fermentation produces the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, which have health-promoting effects for the human host. Here we investigated microbial community changes and SCFA production during in vitro batch incubations of 15 different non-digestible carbohydrates, at two initial pH values with faecal microbiota from three different human donors...
December 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189511/invasive-fungal-disease-in-pediatric-acute-leukemia-in-the-nontransplant-setting-8-years-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#14
Anirban Das, Sapna Oberoi, Amita Trehan, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Deepak Bansal, Akshay K Saxena, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Nandita Kakkar, Radhika Srinivasan
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this article is to study the spectrum, changing prevalence, and predictors for mortality of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in pediatric leukemia in a resource-limited setting. OBSERVATIONS: Prevalence was 7% (proven, 69%; probable, 16.4%; possible, 14.6%) and did not differ between acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Lungs were frequently involved (46%). Aspergillus was the commonest fungus (47%). Visceral abscesses were frequent with candidiasis as compared with invasive molds (P=0...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187714/-preparation-and-biological-characterization-of-limulus-factor-g-activating-substance-of-aspergillus-spp
#15
Yuichiro Kurone, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Noriko N Miura, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
Aspergillus is a medically important fungal genus that causes a life-threatening infection known as aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. β-1,3-Glucan is detected in the plasma of patients with aspergillosis and appears to be useful for the diagnosis of aspergillosis. In this study, we cultured Aspergillus spp. in a chemically defined liquid medium and prepared an Aspergillus water-soluble fraction (ASWS) from the culture supernatants. ASWS was found to be primarily composed of polysaccharides and proteins...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172032/galactomannan-use-in-clinical-practice-providing-free-testing-is-not-the-answer
#16
Jeniffer S Dos Santos, Djuli M Hermes, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
INTRODUCTION: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a condition associated with a high mortality rate due to difficulties in performing an early diagnosis. In recent years, galactomannan (GM) detection has markedly improved the diagnosis of IA, but very little is known on how physicians deal with this test in clinical practice. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the indications for the use of serum GM in a large Brazilian hospital, between 2015 and 2016...
November 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163378/circulating-aspergillus-fumigatus-dna-is-quantitatively-correlated-to-galactomannan-in-serum
#17
Alexandre Alanio, Jean Menotti, Maud Gits-Muselli, Samia Hamane, Blandine Denis, Emmanuel Rafoux, Régis Peffault de la Tour, Sophie Touratier, Anne Bergeron, Nicolas Guigue, Stéphane Bretagne
The performance of antigen galactomannan (GM) for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) is hampered by the occurrence of false-positive results. Quantitative PCR has been proposed to improve the diagnosis of IA. Therefore, we analyzed the value of performing a PCR test to the GM-positive serum sample. Using a quantitative PCR assay specific for Aspergillus fumigatus 28S ribosomal DNA, we retrospectively tested 422 GM-positive (Platelia Bio-Rad kit) serum samples collected over 1 year from 147 patients. The cases were classified based on EORTC criteria as "proven," "probable," and "no-IA" before availability of the PCR results...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141316/-a-clinical-analysis-of-micafungin-treatment-of-pulmonary-invasive-fungal-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-leukemia-or-post-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplantation
#18
K Huang, K Y Qiu, L L Deng, J P Fang, Y Li, H X Guo, D H Zhou
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of micafungin (MCF) for pulmonary invasive fungal disease (PIFD) in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Method: Twenty-five neutropenic PIFD children with acute leukemia or post hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were selected from January 2012 to June 2015, including 12 males and 13 females, age range 2-15 (average 6.2±2.0) years. There were 12 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after chemotherapy, 4 cases of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and 9 cases of β-thalassemia major after allo-HSCT...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125713/outbreak-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-heart-transplant-recipients-the-role-of-screening-computed-tomography-scans-in-asymptomatic-patients-and-universal-antifungal-prophylaxis
#19
Dima Kabbani, Livia Goldraich, Heather Ross, Coleman Rotstein, Shahid Husain
BACKGROUND: Delays in diagnosing pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA), a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among heart transplant recipients (HTRs), may impact on successful treatment. The appropriate screening strategy for IA in these patients remains undefined, particularly in the setting of nosocomial outbreaks. We describe our experience employing chest computed tomography (CT) scans as a screening method for IA. In addition, we comment on antimicrobial prophylaxis in HTRs in the setting of an outbreak...
November 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125373/use-of-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-hematology-patients
#20
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematology patients. Within a diagnostic-driven approach, the use of the serum (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) test represents a valid tool for the early diagnosis and treatment of IFD. Areas covered: The available literature on the use of BDG in hematology patients was systematically retrieved. Then, it was reviewed and discussed, to identify key issues pertaining to a clinically-oriented narrative presentation of the topic. Expert commentary: The use of BDG in hematology patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is secondary to the use of galactomannan...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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