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Wenyue Jiang, Lu Gao, Pengdong Li, Hong Kan, Jiale Qu, Lihui Men, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhongying Liu
Fenugreek is a traditional plant for the treatment of diabetes. Galactomannan, an active major component in fenugreek seeds, has shown hypoglycemic activity. The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism underlying fenugreek galactomannan (F-GAL) in treating diabetes, using a metabonomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The F-GAL used for study was highly purified, and its yield, purity, and galactose/mannose ratio were characterized by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Miguel A Cerqueira, António A Vicente, José A Teixeira, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha
Galactomannan extracted from Cassia grandis seeds was used for the production of films containing different concentrations of the bioactive compounds lactoferrin (LF), bioactive peptides (BAPs), and phytosterols. SEM, FTIR, mechanical and thermal properties, colour, moisture content (MC), solubility, water vapour permeability (WVP), and contact angle (CA) were performed evaluating the effect of increasing concentrations of bioactive compounds on the films' physicochemical properties. The immobilization of bioactive compounds leads to films with roughness on their surface, as observed by SEM...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sébastien Gillet, Mario Aguedo, Raul Petrut, Gilles Olive, Paul Anastas, Christophe Blecker, Aurore Richel
Two fractions of carob galactomannans (GM25 and GM80) were extracted at respectively 25°C and 80°C from crude locust bean gum. Those fractions having slightly different chemical structures, previously characterized, were studied for their viscosity properties over a wide range of concentrations: diluted solution, unperturbed state and gel state. For each of the physical properties, links to the chemical fine structure could be established, expanding knowledge on the topic: in dilute solution, GM25 is more soluble in water while GM80 seems to tend to self-association due to its structure as highlighted by intrinsic viscosity measurements ([η]GM25=9...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Paola Campia, Erika Ponzini, Bianca Rossi, Stefano Farris, Tiziana Silvetti, Luca Merlini, Milena Brasca, Rita Grandori, Yves M Galante
We describe aerogels obtained by laccase/TEMPO-oxidation and lyophilization of galactomannans (GM) from fenugreek, sesbania and guar. Enzymatic oxidation of GM in aqueous solution caused viscosity increase up to fifteen-fold, generating structured, elastic, stable hydrogels, presumably due to establishment of hemiacetalic bonds between newly formed carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization, water-insoluble aerogels were obtained, whose mechanical properties and porosity were investigated...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yantao Liu, Zhenglong Xu, Weian Zhang, Jiufang Duan, Jianxin Jiang, Dafeng Sun
The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated in different stages, presented different characteristics, including polymer recovery, mannose/galactose ratio, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphological appearance. The galactomannan recovery of GSG and GMG in 33...
December 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lina F Ballesteros, José A Teixeira, Solange I Mussatto
The extraction of polysaccharides by autohydrolysis of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Experimental assays were performed using different temperatures (160-200°C), liquid/solid ratios (5-15ml water/g SCG) and extraction times (10-50min) in order to determine the conditions that maximize the extraction of polysaccharides with high antioxidant activity. Autohydrolysis was demonstrated to be an efficient technique to recover antioxidant polysaccharides from SCG. The best process conditions consisted in using 15ml water/g SCG, during 10min at 160°C...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vitor M R Martins, Joana Simões, Isabel Ferreira, Maria Teresa Cruz, M Rosário Domingues, Manuel A Coimbra
Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk. decoctions of dried inflorescences are used in Portugal due to their claimed beneficial properties for various health disorders. To disclose the potential contribution of its polysaccharides to health benefits, in this work, hot water extracts from P. tridentatum inflorescences were prepared and fractionated by ethanol precipitation and anion exchange chromatography. The fraction rich in acetylated galactomannans evidenced an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Abayomi T Ogunjimi, Shaiani M G Melo, Carem G Vargas-Rechia, Flávio S Emery, Renata F V Lopez
Delonix is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm of Delonix regia plant. This study aims at the development of Delonix nanoparticle and assesses its potential for ocular delivery by evaluating its in-vitro stability, toxicity and cellular uptake. Fluorescent nanoparticles (BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles) were prepared by a Quality-by-Design modified nanoprecipitation technique. Optimized nanoparticles had mean sizes <240nm, PdI<0.2 and zeta potential of <-30mV. Mixture of surfactants with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance controlled nanoparticle swelling...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
M Teresa Brufau, Joan Campo-Sabariz, Sergi Carné, Ruth Ferrer, Raquel Martín-Venegas
Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are mannose-rich substrates with several intestinal health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential capacity of Salmosan (S-βGM), a β-galactomannan-rich MOS product, to restore epithelial barrier function independently from its capacity to reduce bacterial invasion. In addition, the combination of S-βGM with the proven probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) was also tested. Paracellular permeability was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in co-cultures of Caco-2 cells and macrophages (differentiated from THP-1 cells) stimulated with LPS of Salmonella Enteritidis and in Caco-2 cell cultures stimulated with TNF-α in the absence or presence of 500 μg/ml S-βGM, LP (MOI 10) or a combination of both...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Matxalen Vidal-García, Pilar Sáncehez-Chueca, María Pilar Domingo, Carlos Ballester, Lourdes Roc, Isabel Ferrer, María José Revillo, Julián Pardo, Eva María Gálvez, Antonio Rezusta
BACKGROUND: Disseminated invasive aspergillosis is an exceptional finding in immunocompetent hosts. As in immunocompromised patients, it has high mortality rates. Early diagnostic methods are required in order to properly manage the patient. Bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (bmGT) is a novel biomarker, useful in onco-hematological patients. CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old male, with non-insulin dependent type II diabetes mellitus and a past surgery history of aortic valve replacement with coronary by-pass five years ago, was seen in the emergency department with blurred vision...
December 8, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
P C Lin, Q Q Lai, Y Zhou, J R Ye, Q Wu, C S Chen, Y P Li
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of galactomannan(GM)detection in serum and BALF for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-neutropenic hosts. Methods: A pospective study was performed for 1 356 non-neutropenic hosts admitted to the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from September 2014 to October 2015. Serum GM test was performed for all, and BALF GM test for a proportion of the patients. The patients were divided into an IPA group and a non-IPA group...
December 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Fang Zheng, Yelian Gu, Hui Zha, Jun Deng, Zhiquan Zhang
The value of (1 → 3)-beta-D-glucans (BG) and galactomannan (GM) assays on diagnostic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has been observed in adult ICU and in children with hematological malignancies. Only scant data evaluated non-hematological in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Here, we retrospectively analyzed the role of bacterial infection to the reactivity of BG and GM assays in PICU. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteremia was 13.8% (65/470). The most common underlying disease was pneumonia (81...
December 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
Hayati Demiraslan, M Altay Atalay, Esma Eren, Koray Demir, Leylagul Kaynar, A Nedret Koc, Mehmet Doganay
Galactomannan (GM) assay is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in high-risk hematology patients. False positivity is frequently observed in GM with the use of piperacillin/tazobactam. The usage of generic drugs over the original brand has a significant cost advantage. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of GM test among patients receiving original and generic piperacillin/tazobactam formulations. The study included 85 adult patients; 62.4% were male with hematological malignancy currently receiving piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Ana I Aller-García, Carmen Castro-Méndez, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Elena M Marín-Martínez, Ismail Zakariya-Yousef Breval, Carmen Couto-Caro, Juan C López-Marín, Nicolás Peña-Griñán, Maite Ruiz de Pipaon, Ana M Romero-Mejías, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is challenging. The objective of the study was to assess the value of microbiological tests to the diagnosis of IPA in the absence of non-specific radiological data. A retrospective study of 23 patients with suspicion of IPA and positivity of some microbiological diagnostic tests was performed. These tests included conventional microbiological culture, detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen and in some patients (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) and Aspergillus fumigatus DNA using the LightCycler(®) SeptiFast test...
December 2, 2016: Mycopathologia
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Johan A Maertens, Ola Blennow, Rafael F Duarte, Patricia Muñoz
Diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) has long been challenging due to the inability to culture the causal Aspergillus agent from blood or other body fluids. This shortcoming has fuelled an interest in non-culture-based diagnostic techniques such as the detection of galactomannan (GM) in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the detection of 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG) in blood and the detection of Aspergillus DNA by PCR-based techniques. Past decades have witnessed important improvements in our understanding of the strengths and limitations of antigen assays and in the standardization of PCR-based DNA techniques...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Viktoria Bågenholm, Sumitha K Reddy, Hanene Bouraoui, Johan Morrill, Evelina Kulcinskaja, Constance M Bahr, Oskar Aurelius, Theresa Rogers, Yao Xiao, Derek T Logan, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin, Henrik Stålbrand
A recently identified polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC 8483 is transcriptionally up-regulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) β-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 α-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan-binding proteins, confirmed by β-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prashant Gupta, Abrar Ahmad, Vineeta Khare, Archana Kumar, Gopa Banerjee, Nitya Verma, Mastan Singh
Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines...
November 16, 2016: Mycoses
Jan Springer, Jürgen Löffler
PCR-based detection of fungal pathogens offers a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. A large variety of different clinical specimen types can be used as original material. However, certain precautions, in addition to the published MIQE guidelines [1], need to be taken to prevent contaminations from airborne fungal spores and PCR reagents. In addition, the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) recently defined standards for Aspergillus PCR [2, 3], following these recommendations leads to superior sensitivity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Barbora Weinbergerova, Iva Kocmanova, Zdenek Racil, Jiri Mayer
The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) based on clinical, radiological, and conventional microbiological findings is not reliable and is often delayed. Non-culture-based methods with higher sensitivity and specificity may reduce diagnostic time and result in decreased IFD morbidity and mortality. These methods are now increasingly used to manage patients at risk of IFD. Among available biomarkers, fungal antigens have been investigated as an aid to early diagnosis and are predominantly used as screening tests to prompt antifungal treatment mainly in patients with hematological malignancies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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