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Galactomannan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220352/purification-characterization-and-overexpression-of-an-endo-1-4-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-thermotolerant-bacillus-sp-swu60
#1
Weeranuch Seesom, Polphet Thongket, Tomohiro Yamamoto, Shigeo Takenaka, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Wasana Sukhumsirichart
Endo-β-1,4-mannanases are important catalytic agents in several industries. The enzymes randomly cleave the β-1,4-linkage in the mannan backbone and release short β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides and mannose. In the present study, mannanase (ManS2) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SWU60 was purified, characterized, and its gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. ManS2 was purified from culture filtrate (300 ml) by using hydrophobic, ion-exchange, and size-exclusive liquid chromatography. The apparent molecular mass was 38 kDa...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207190/diaporthe-soft-tissue-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-patient
#2
Robert M Rakita, Kevin D O'Brien, Lori Bourassa
Infections caused by Diaporthe species are very uncommon. We describe a heart transplant recipient 14 years post transplant who developed a soft tissue fungal infection due to a Diaporthe species that responded well to surgical excision and posaconazole therapy. The Aspergillus galactomannan index was markedly elevated, and returned to normal following treatment. Solid organ transplant patients remain at risk of infection long after transplant and should be counseled about risk avoidance. This article is protected by copyright...
February 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194062/performance-of-galactomannan-antigen-beta-d-glucan-and-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#3
Gökhan Metan, Muzaffer Keklik, Gökçen Dinç, Çiğdem Pala, Afra Yıldırım, Berkay Saraymen, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Leylagül Kaynar, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin
Aspergillus lateral-flow device (LFD) was recently introduced as a practical tool for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We investigated the performance of Aspergillus-LFD as a point-of-care test for the diagnosis of IA. Serum samples were collected twice weekly from patients who received intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia, or recepients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen, 1,3-beta-d-glucan and Aspergillus-LFD tests were carried out according to manufacturers' recommendations...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181136/prognostic-value-of-galactomannan-current-evidence-for-monitoring-response-to-antifungal-therapy-in-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#4
REVIEW
Laura L Kovanda, Amit V Desai, William W Hope
Galactomannan (GM) is a polysaccharide present in the cell wall of Aspergillus spp. that is released during growth of the organism. It has been successfully used to aide in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis allowing for earlier recognition of disease compared to conventional methods. Since its implementation in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, GM has been used in experimental models to measure therapeutic response. Several clinical studies describe the prognostic value of GM. Herein, we review the evidence supporting the utilization of GM antigen as a biomarker to measure response to systemic antifungal therapy...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138379/non-invasive-methods-to-diagnose-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-patients-with-hematologic-disorders
#5
Parisa Badiee, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Mani Ramzi, Mohammad Karimi, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFIs) is a major infectious complication in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis and initiation of antifungal therapy is important to achieve the best outcome. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of IFIs and evaluate the diagnostic performance of non-invasive laboratory tests: serologic (β-D-glucan, galactomannan) and molecular (nested polymerase chain reaction) tests to diagnose fungal infections in hematologic pediatric patients...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131991/is-a-biomarker-based-diagnostic-strategy-for-invasive-aspergillosis-cost-effective-in-high-risk-haematology-patients
#6
N Macesic, C O Morrissey, D Liew, M A Bohensky, S C-A Chen, N M Gilroy, S T Milliken, J Szer, M A Slavin
Empirical antifungal therapy is frequently used in hematology patients at high risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with substantial cost and toxicity. Biomarkers for IA aim for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, data on the cost-effectiveness of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (BDS) are limited. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of BDS using results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and individual patient costing data. Data inputs derived from a published RCT were used to construct a decision-analytic model to compare BDS (Aspergillus galactomannan and PCR on blood) with standard diagnostic strategy (SDS) of culture and histology in terms of total costs, length of stay, IA incidence, mortality, and years of life saved...
January 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115858/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-combination-antifungal-therapy-with-voriconazole-and-anidulafungin-versus-voriconazole-monotherapy-for-primary-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-spain
#7
Santiago Grau, Jose Ramon Azanza, Isabel Ruiz, Carlos Vallejo, Josep Mensa, Johan Maertens, Werner J Heinz, Jon Andoni Barrueta, Carmen Peral, Francisco Jesús Mesa, Miguel Barrado, Claudie Charbonneau, Darío Rubio-Rodríguez, Carlos Rubio-Terrés
OBJECTIVE: According to a recent randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the combination of voriconazole and anidulafungin (VOR+ANI) with VOR monotherapy for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematologic disease or with hematopoietic stem cell transplant, mortality was lower after 6 weeks with VOR+ANI than with VOR monotherapy in a post hoc analysis of patients with galactomannan-based IA. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of VOR+ANI with VOR, from the perspective of hospitals in the Spanish National Health System...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105485/biochemical-characterization-of-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-mannanase-belonging-to-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-134-from-aspergillus-oryzae
#8
Kiyota Sakai, Mai Mochizuki, Miyuki Yamada, Yuta Shinzawa, Miho Minezawa, Saran Kimoto, Shunsuke Murata, Yuhei Kaneko, Saaya Ishihara, Sadanari Jindou, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Masashi Kato, Motoyuki Shimizu
A β-1,4-mannanase, termed AoMan134A, that belongs to the GH 134 family was identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Recombinant AoMan134A was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified enzyme produced mannobiose, mannotriose, mannotetraose, and mannopentaose from galactose-free β-mannan, with mannotriose being the predominant reaction product. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of AoMan134A was 6.8-fold higher toward galactomannan from locust bean gum, than toward galactomannan from guar gum, but similar toward galactomannan from locust bean gum and glucomannan from konjac flour...
January 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063302/metabonomics-study-of-the-therapeutic-mechanism-of-fenugreek-galactomannan-on-diabetic-hyperglycemia-in-rats-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#9
Wenyue Jiang, Lu Gao, Pengdong Li, Hong Kan, Jiale Qu, Lihui Men, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhongying Liu
Fenugreek is a traditional plant for the treatment of diabetes. Galactomannan, an active major component in fenugreek seeds, has shown hypoglycemic activity. The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism underlying fenugreek galactomannan (F-GAL) in treating diabetes, using a metabonomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The F-GAL used for study was highly purified, and its yield, purity, and galactose/mannose ratio were characterized by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049015/immobilization-of-bioactive-compounds-in-cassia-grandis-galactomannan-based-films-influence-on-physicochemical-properties
#10
Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Miguel A Cerqueira, António A Vicente, José A Teixeira, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha
Galactomannan extracted from Cassia grandis seeds was used for the production of films containing different concentrations of the bioactive compounds lactoferrin (LF), bioactive peptides (BAPs), and phytosterols. SEM, FTIR, mechanical and thermal properties, colour, moisture content (MC), solubility, water vapour permeability (WVP), and contact angle (CA) were performed evaluating the effect of increasing concentrations of bioactive compounds on the films' physicochemical properties. The immobilization of bioactive compounds leads to films with roughness on their surface, as observed by SEM...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034826/structure-impact-of-two-galactomannan-fractions-on-their-viscosity-properties-in-dilute-solution-unperturbed-state-and-gel-state
#11
Sébastien Gillet, Mario Aguedo, Raul Petrut, Gilles Olive, Paul Anastas, Christophe Blecker, Aurore Richel
Two fractions of carob galactomannans (GM25 and GM80) were extracted at respectively 25°C and 80°C from crude locust bean gum. Those fractions having slightly different chemical structures, previously characterized, were studied for their viscosity properties over a wide range of concentrations: diluted solution, unperturbed state and gel state. For each of the physical properties, links to the chemical fine structure could be established, expanding knowledge on the topic: in dilute solution, GM25 is more soluble in water while GM80 seems to tend to self-association due to its structure as highlighted by intrinsic viscosity measurements ([η]GM25=9...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024532/-aerogels-of-enzymatically-oxidized-galactomannans-from-leguminous-plants-versatile-delivery-systems-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-enzymes
#12
Paola Campia, Erika Ponzini, Bianca Rossi, Stefano Farris, Tiziana Silvetti, Luca Merlini, Milena Brasca, Rita Grandori, Yves M Galante
We describe aerogels obtained by laccase/TEMPO-oxidation and lyophilization of galactomannans (GM) from fenugreek, sesbania and guar. Enzymatic oxidation of GM in aqueous solution caused viscosity increase up to fifteen-fold, generating structured, elastic, stable hydrogels, presumably due to establishment of hemiacetalic bonds between newly formed carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization, water-insoluble aerogels were obtained, whose mechanical properties and porosity were investigated...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999373/characterization-of-fractional-polysaccharides-from-gleditsia-sinensis-and-gleditsia-microphylla-gums
#13
Yantao Liu, Zhenglong Xu, Weian Zhang, Jiufang Duan, Jianxin Jiang, Dafeng Sun
The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated in different stages, presented different characteristics, including polymer recovery, mannose/galactose ratio, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphological appearance. The galactomannan recovery of GSG and GMG in 33...
December 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987926/extraction-of-polysaccharides-by-autohydrolysis-of-spent-coffee-grounds-and-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-activity
#14
Lina F Ballesteros, José A Teixeira, Solange I Mussatto
The extraction of polysaccharides by autohydrolysis of spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Experimental assays were performed using different temperatures (160-200°C), liquid/solid ratios (5-15ml water/g SCG) and extraction times (10-50min) in order to determine the conditions that maximize the extraction of polysaccharides with high antioxidant activity. Autohydrolysis was demonstrated to be an efficient technique to recover antioxidant polysaccharides from SCG. The best process conditions consisted in using 15ml water/g SCG, during 10min at 160°C...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987893/in-vitro-macrophage-nitric-oxide-production-by-pterospartum-tridentatum-l-willk-inflorescence-polysaccharides
#15
Vitor M R Martins, Joana Simões, Isabel Ferreira, Maria Teresa Cruz, M Rosário Domingues, Manuel A Coimbra
Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk. decoctions of dried inflorescences are used in Portugal due to their claimed beneficial properties for various health disorders. To disclose the potential contribution of its polysaccharides to health benefits, in this work, hot water extracts from P. tridentatum inflorescences were prepared and fractionated by ethanol precipitation and anion exchange chromatography. The fraction rich in acetylated galactomannans evidenced an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987808/hydrophilic-polymeric-nanoparticles-prepared-from-delonix-galactomannan-with-low-cytotoxicity-for-ocular-drug-delivery
#16
Abayomi T Ogunjimi, Shaiani M G Melo, Carem G Vargas-Rechia, Flávio S Emery, Renata F V Lopez
Delonix is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from the endosperm of Delonix regia plant. This study aims at the development of Delonix nanoparticle and assesses its potential for ocular delivery by evaluating its in-vitro stability, toxicity and cellular uptake. Fluorescent nanoparticles (BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles) were prepared by a Quality-by-Design modified nanoprecipitation technique. Optimized nanoparticles had mean sizes <240nm, PdI<0.2 and zeta potential of <-30mV. Mixture of surfactants with different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance controlled nanoparticle swelling...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951516/salmosan-a-%C3%AE-galactomannan-rich-product-in-combination-with-lactobacillus-plantarum-contributes-to-restore-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-by-modulation-of-cytokine-production
#17
M Teresa Brufau, Joan Campo-Sabariz, Sergi Carné, Ruth Ferrer, Raquel Martín-Venegas
Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOSs) are mannose-rich substrates with several intestinal health-promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential capacity of Salmosan (S-βGM), a β-galactomannan-rich MOS product, to restore epithelial barrier function independently from its capacity to reduce bacterial invasion. In addition, the combination of S-βGM with the proven probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) was also tested. Paracellular permeability was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in co-cultures of Caco-2 cells and macrophages (differentiated from THP-1 cells) stimulated with LPS of Salmonella Enteritidis and in Caco-2 cell cultures stimulated with TNF-α in the absence or presence of 500 μg/ml S-βGM, LP (MOI 10) or a combination of both...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939578/disseminated-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-with-detectable-bis-methylthio-gliotoxin-and-negative-galactomannan
#18
Matxalen Vidal-García, Pilar Sáncehez-Chueca, María Pilar Domingo, Carlos Ballester, Lourdes Roc, Isabel Ferrer, María José Revillo, Julián Pardo, Eva María Gálvez, Antonio Rezusta
BACKGROUND: Disseminated invasive aspergillosis is an exceptional finding in immunocompetent hosts. As in immunocompromised patients, it has high mortality rates. Early diagnostic methods are required in order to properly manage the patient. Bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (bmGT) is a novel biomarker, useful in onco-hematological patients. CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old male, with non-insulin dependent type II diabetes mellitus and a past surgery history of aortic valve replacement with coronary by-pass five years ago, was seen in the emergency department with blurred vision...
December 8, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938542/-the-diagnostic-performance-of-galactomannan-detection-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-non-neutropenic-hosts
#19
P C Lin, Q Q Lai, Y Zhou, J R Ye, Q Wu, C S Chen, Y P Li
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of galactomannan(GM)detection in serum and BALF for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-neutropenic hosts. Methods: A pospective study was performed for 1 356 non-neutropenic hosts admitted to the Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from September 2014 to October 2015. Serum GM test was performed for all, and BALF GM test for a proportion of the patients. The patients were divided into an IPA group and a non-IPA group...
December 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928649/the-diagnostic-value-of-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-3-beta-d-glucans-and-galactomannan-assays-in-children-suffering-from-bacteremia-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#20
Fang Zheng, Yelian Gu, Hui Zha, Jun Deng, Zhiquan Zhang
The value of (1 → 3)-beta-D-glucans (BG) and galactomannan (GM) assays on diagnostic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) has been observed in adult ICU and in children with hematological malignancies. Only scant data evaluated non-hematological in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Here, we retrospectively analyzed the role of bacterial infection to the reactivity of BG and GM assays in PICU. The results showed that the overall prevalence of bacteremia was 13.8% (65/470). The most common underlying disease was pneumonia (81...
December 7, 2016: Mycopathologia
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