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Developmental trauma disorder

Joel Wells, Jeffrey J Nepple, Karla Crook, James R Ross, Asheesh Bedi, Perry Schoenecker, John C Clohisy
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia represents a spectrum of complex deformities on both sides of the joint. Although many studies have described the acetabular side of the deformity, to our knowledge, little is known about the three-dimensional (3-D) head and neck offset differences of the femora of dysplastic hips. A thorough knowledge of proximal femoral anatomy is important to prevent potential impingement and improve results after acetabular reorientation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Are there common proximal femoral characteristics in patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO)? (2) Where is the location of maximal femoral head and neck offset deformity in hip dysplasia? (3) Do certain subgroups of dysplastic hips more commonly have cam-type femoral morphology? (4) Is there a relationship between hip ROM as well as impingement testing and 3-D head and neck offset deformity? METHODS: Using our hip preservation database, 153 hips (148 patients) underwent PAO from October 2013 to July 2015...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
October 18, 2016: European Neurology
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
September 13, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andrea Tedeschi, Sebastian Dupraz, Claudia J Laskowski, Jia Xue, Thomas Ulas, Marc Beyer, Joachim L Schultze, Frank Bradke
Injuries to the adult CNS often result in permanent disabilities because neurons lose the ability to regenerate their axon during development. Here, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis followed by gain- and loss-of-function experiments identified Cacna2d2, the gene encoding the Alpha2delta2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), as a developmental switch that limits axon growth and regeneration. Cacna2d2 gene deletion or silencing promoted axon growth in vitro. In vivo, Alpha2delta2 pharmacological blockade through Pregabalin (PGB) administration enhanced axon regeneration in adult mice after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 27, 2016: Neuron
Matthew C Morris, Natalie Hellman, James L Abelson, Uma Rao
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically exhibit altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The goals of this study were to determine whether HPA and SNS alterations in the immediate aftermath of trauma predict subsequent PTSD symptom development and whether inconsistencies observed between studies can be explained by key demographic and methodological factors. This work informs secondary prevention of PTSD by identifying subgroups of trauma survivors at risk for PTSD...
September 4, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Beth A Earhart, Marian E Williams, Irina Zamora, Linda Marie Randolph, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Stephanie N Marcy
Duplication 7q11.23 syndrome is the reciprocal of Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome. Studies have reported a recognizable phenotype, including autism, intellectual disability, speech, and language delay, social anxiety, and behavioral difficulties in these individuals. Previous studies revealed a variety of craniofacial abnormalities, brain malformations, and cardiac abnormalities, including aortic dilation. This patient series evaluates five family members aged 2 months to 35 years, all with confirmed 7q11...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Christine Heim
BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Diana Morelen, Rena Menke, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, Maria Muzik
BACKGROUND: This study examined the bidirectional nature of mother-infant positive and negative emotional displays during social interactions across multiple tasks among postpartum women accounting for childhood maltreatment severity. Additionally, effects of maternal postpartum psychopathology on maternal affect and effects of task and emotional valence on dyadic emotional displays were evaluated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 192 mother-infant dyads (51% male infants) were videotaped during free play and the Still-Face paradigm at 6 months postpartum...
September 1, 2016: Psychopathology
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
August 25, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Anna McKinnon, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Peter Watson, Clare Dixon, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Anke Ehlers, Flaura Winston, Patrick Smith, William Yule, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: The revision of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in the DSM-5 (DSM-5, 2013) proposes a cluster-free model of ASD symptoms in both adults and youth. Published evaluations of competing models of ASD clustering in youth have rarely been examined. METHODS: We used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (combined with multigroup invariance tests) to explore the latent structure of ASD symptoms in a trauma-exposed sample of children and young people (N = 594). The DSM-5 structure was compared with the previous DSM-IV conceptualization (4-factor), and two alternative models proposed in the literature (3-factor; 5-factor)...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Hannah Carliner, Katherine M Keyes, Katie A McLaughlin, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Erin C Dunn, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVE: Although potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are established risk factors for substance use disorders among adults, little is known about associations with drug use during adolescence, an important developmental stage for drug use prevention. We examined whether childhood PTEs were associated with illicit drug use among a representative sample of US adolescents. METHOD: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), which included adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (N = 9,956)...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Sinan Guloksuz, Martine van Nierop, Maarten Bak, Ron de Graaf, Margreet Ten Have, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Nicole Gunther, Roselind Lieb, Ruud van Winkel, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: We investigated to what degree environmental exposure (childhood trauma, urbanicity, cannabis use, and discrimination) impacts symptom connectivity using both continuous and categorical measures of psychopathology. METHODS: Outcomes were continuous symptom dimensions of self-reported psychopathology using the Self-report Symptom Checklist-90-R in 3021 participants from The Early Developmental Stages of the Psychopathology (EDSP) study and binary DSM-III-R categories of mental disorders and a binary measure of psychotic symptoms in 7076 participants from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-1)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Bethany L Brand, Vedat Sar, Pam Stavropoulos, Christa Krüger, Marilyn Korzekwa, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Warwick Middleton
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Micol Parolin, Alessandra Simonelli, Daniela Mapelli, Marianna Sacco, Patrizia Cristofalo
Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Taylor J Keding, Ryan J Herringa
The neural substrates of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain incompletely understood, but likely involve abnormal function and development of emotion processing circuitry. Valence-specific and age-related abnormalities during emotion processing have not been elucidated. We examined implicit emotional face processing in pediatric PTSD, predicting abnormalities specific to threat-related emotion. Youth (ages 8-18 years) with PTSD (n=25) and healthy youth (n=28) completed a dynamic emotional face task during fMRI, viewing faces changing from neutral to angry or happy, or changing shape control...
July 20, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A L Holley, A C Wilson, M Noel, T M Palermo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The co-occurrence of chronic pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has gained increasing research attention. Studies on associations among pain and PTSS or PTSD in youth have largely been conducted in the context of acute injury or trauma. Less is known about the risk for co-occurrence with paediatric chronic pain. In this review, we (1) propose a conceptual framework to outline factors salient during childhood that may be associated with symptom severity, co-occurrence and mutual maintenance, (2) present relevant literature on PTSS in youth with acute and chronic pain and identify research gaps and (3) provide recommendations to guide paediatric research examining shared symptomatology...
October 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Rosalind E H Catchpole, E B Brownlie
OBJECTIVE: This study describes clinical characteristics of youth presenting for service at a Canadian youth concurrent mental health and substance use disorders (SUD) program. METHOD: Participants were 100 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 14-25) who attended a Canadian concurrent mental health and substance use disorders outpatient program. SUDs were assigned using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Self-reported mental health symptoms, trauma exposure and adaptive functioning were also assessed...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Richard Lieberman, Stephen Armeli, Denise M Scott, Henry R Kranzler, Howard Tennen, Jonathan Covault
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Denny Borsboom, Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel psychometric framework for the study of mental disorders. Using general population data, we construct network models for the relation between 3 environmental risk factors (cannabis use, developmental trauma, and urban environment), dimensional measures of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobic anxiety, somatizations, and hostility), and a composite measure of psychosis expression...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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