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Developmental trauma disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907846/modelling-life-satisfaction-and-adjustment-to-trauma-in-children-exposed-to-ongoing-military-violence-an-exploratory-study-in-palestine
#1
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Al Muranak, Husam Hamdouna
Exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health risks among children, especially in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive or somatic symptoms. However, an exclusive focus on negative functioning can lead to underestimating the coping abilities and natural potential for adjusting to trauma of war-affected children at different developmental phases. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the extent to which data gathered in a predominantly nonclinical sample of Palestinian children (N=1276) living in refugee camps supported a conceptual model in which the relationship between subjective wellbeing and the effects of trauma is mainly top-down in direction...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895485/adhd-and-present-hedonism-time-perspective-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool
#2
REVIEW
S Weissenberger, M Klicperova-Baker, P Zimbardo, K Schonova, D Akotia, J Kostal, M Goetz, J Raboch, R Ptacek
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#3
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844058/western-high-fat-diet-consumption-during-adolescence-increases-susceptibility-to-traumatic-stress-while-selectively-disrupting-hippocampal-and-ventricular-volumes
#4
Priya Kalyan-Masih, Julio David Vega-Torres, Christina Miles, Elizabeth Haddad, Sabrina Rainsbury, Mohsen Baghchechi, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830573/developmental-contributors-to-trauma-response-the-importance-of-sensitive-periods-early-environment-and-sex-differences
#5
Jennifer S Stevens, Sanne J H van Rooij, Tanja Jovanovic
This review considers early factors that interact with development to contribute to later trauma responses, including developmental sensitive periods, the effects of early environment, and the emergence of sex differences. We also describe development of neural substrates that have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and specifically focus on fear behavior and circuitry. Emerging evidence suggests that there may be developmental shifts around age 10 in these underlying circuits that may contribute to vulnerability...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799420/public-health-implications-and-risks-for-children-and-families-resettled-after-exposure-to-armed-conflict-and-displacement
#6
Rachel Calam
Early adverse experiences can precede long-term negative effects on physical health. Children experiencing armed conflict, flight and displacement, and refugee life may be at enhanced risk. Recent psychobiological models integrating knowledge about perinatal and childhood stress with susceptibility to chronic illnesses in later life make clear the pressing need for protective provision for war-affected children, who experience multiple traumas and continuing stressors. There is increasing recognition of the mechanisms linking physical and mental health with adult diseases seen as developmental disorders with origins early in life...
October 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752989/femoral-morphology-in-the-dysplastic-hip-three-dimensional-characterizations-with-ct
#7
Joel Wells, Jeffrey J Nepple, Karla Crook, James R Ross, Asheesh Bedi, Perry Schoenecker, John C Clohisy
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia represents a spectrum of complex deformities on both sides of the joint. Although many studies have described the acetabular side of the deformity, to our knowledge, little is known about the three-dimensional (3-D) head and neck offset differences of the femora of dysplastic hips. A thorough knowledge of proximal femoral anatomy is important to prevent potential impingement and improve results after acetabular reorientation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Are there common proximal femoral characteristics in patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO)? (2) Where is the location of maximal femoral head and neck offset deformity in hip dysplasia? (3) Do certain subgroups of dysplastic hips more commonly have cam-type femoral morphology? (4) Is there a relationship between hip ROM as well as impingement testing and 3-D head and neck offset deformity? METHODS: Using our hip preservation database, 153 hips (148 patients) underwent PAO from October 2013 to July 2015...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750253/toward-a-theory-of-stuttering
#8
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744270/mental-health-problems-among-children-and-adolescents-experiencing-two-major-earthquakes-in-remote-mountainous-regions-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
January 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728852/is-developmental-timing-of-trauma-exposure-associated-with-depressive-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-adulthood
#10
Erin C Dunn, Kristen Nishimi, Abigail Powers, Bekh Bradley
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720483/the-calcium-channel-subunit-alpha2delta2-suppresses-axon-regeneration-in-the-adult-cns
#11
Andrea Tedeschi, Sebastian Dupraz, Claudia J Laskowski, Jia Xue, Thomas Ulas, Marc Beyer, Joachim L Schultze, Frank Bradke
Injuries to the adult CNS often result in permanent disabilities because neurons lose the ability to regenerate their axon during development. Here, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis followed by gain- and loss-of-function experiments identified Cacna2d2, the gene encoding the Alpha2delta2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), as a developmental switch that limits axon growth and regeneration. Cacna2d2 gene deletion or silencing promoted axon growth in vitro. In vivo, Alpha2delta2 pharmacological blockade through Pregabalin (PGB) administration enhanced axon regeneration in adult mice after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623149/cortisol-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-as-early-markers-of-ptsd-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Matthew C Morris, Natalie Hellman, James L Abelson, Uma Rao
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically exhibit altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. The goals of this study were to determine whether HPA and SNS alterations in the immediate aftermath of trauma predict subsequent PTSD symptom development and whether inconsistencies observed between studies can be explained by key demographic and methodological factors. This work informs secondary prevention of PTSD by identifying subgroups of trauma survivors at risk for PTSD...
November 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615053/phenotype-of-7q11-23-duplication-a-family-clinical-series
#13
Beth A Earhart, Marian E Williams, Irina Zamora, Linda Marie Randolph, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Stephanie N Marcy
Duplication 7q11.23 syndrome is the reciprocal of Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome. Studies have reported a recognizable phenotype, including autism, intellectual disability, speech, and language delay, social anxiety, and behavioral difficulties in these individuals. Previous studies revealed a variety of craniofacial abnormalities, brain malformations, and cardiac abnormalities, including aortic dilation. This patient series evaluates five family members aged 2 months to 35 years, all with confirmed 7q11...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604117/-early-life-stress-and-vulnerability-for-disease-in-later-life
#14
Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Christine Heim
BACKGROUND: The rapidly growing research field of developmental programming of health and disease risk investigates the early life origins of individual vulnerability for common, complex disorders that confer a major burden of disease. OBJECTIVES: The present article introduces the concept of developmental programming of disease vulnerability and summarizes studies on the mental and physical health consequences of exposure to childhood trauma and prenatal stress...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576477/understanding-bidirectional-mother-infant-affective-displays-across-contexts-effects-of-maternal-maltreatment-history-and-postpartum-depression-and-ptsd-symptoms
#15
Diana Morelen, Rena Menke, Katherine Lisa Rosenblum, Marjorie Beeghly, Maria Muzik
BACKGROUND: This study examined the bidirectional nature of mother-infant positive and negative emotional displays during social interactions across multiple tasks among postpartum women accounting for childhood maltreatment severity. Additionally, effects of maternal postpartum psychopathology on maternal affect and effects of task and emotional valence on dyadic emotional displays were evaluated. SAMPLING AND METHODS: A total of 192 mother-infant dyads (51% male infants) were videotaped during free play and the Still-Face paradigm at 6 months postpartum...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561662/factors-influencing-clinical-correlates-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
December 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472990/the-latent-structure-of-acute-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-trauma-exposed-children-and-adolescents
#17
Anna McKinnon, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Peter Watson, Clare Dixon, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Anke Ehlers, Flaura Winston, Patrick Smith, William Yule, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: The revision of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in the DSM-5 (DSM-5, 2013) proposes a cluster-free model of ASD symptoms in both adults and youth. Published evaluations of competing models of ASD clustering in youth have rarely been examined. METHODS: We used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (combined with multigroup invariance tests) to explore the latent structure of ASD symptoms in a trauma-exposed sample of children and young people (N = 594). The DSM-5 structure was compared with the previous DSM-IV conceptualization (4-factor), and two alternative models proposed in the literature (3-factor; 5-factor)...
November 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453084/childhood-trauma-and-illicit-drug-use-in-adolescence-a%C3%A2-population-based-national-comorbidity-survey-replication-adolescent-supplement-study
#18
Hannah Carliner, Katherine M Keyes, Katie A McLaughlin, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Erin C Dunn, Silvia S Martins
OBJECTIVE: Although potentially traumatic events (PTEs) are established risk factors for substance use disorders among adults, little is known about associations with drug use during adolescence, an important developmental stage for drug use prevention. We examined whether childhood PTEs were associated with illicit drug use among a representative sample of US adolescents. METHOD: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), which included adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (N = 9,956)...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391407/exposure-to-environmental-factors-increases-connectivity-between-symptom-domains-in-the-psychopathology-network
#19
Sinan Guloksuz, Martine van Nierop, Maarten Bak, Ron de Graaf, Margreet Ten Have, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Nicole Gunther, Roselind Lieb, Ruud van Winkel, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: We investigated to what degree environmental exposure (childhood trauma, urbanicity, cannabis use, and discrimination) impacts symptom connectivity using both continuous and categorical measures of psychopathology. METHODS: Outcomes were continuous symptom dimensions of self-reported psychopathology using the Self-report Symptom Checklist-90-R in 3021 participants from The Early Developmental Stages of the Psychopathology (EDSP) study and binary DSM-III-R categories of mental disorders and a binary measure of psychotic symptoms in 7076 participants from The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-1)...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384396/separating-fact-from-fiction-an-empirical-examination-of-six-myths-about-dissociative-identity-disorder
#20
Bethany L Brand, Vedat Sar, Pam Stavropoulos, Christa Krüger, Marilyn Korzekwa, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Warwick Middleton
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex, posttraumatic, developmental disorder for which we now, after four decades of research, have an authoritative research base, but a number of misconceptualizations and myths about the disorder remain, compromising both patient care and research. This article examines the empirical literature pertaining to recurrently expressed beliefs regarding DID: (1) belief that DID is a fad, (2) belief that DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, (3) belief that DID is rare, (4) belief that DID is an iatrogenic, rather than trauma-based, disorder, (5) belief that DID is the same entity as borderline personality disorder, and (6) belief that DID treatment is harmful to patients...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
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