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Developmental trauma disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427778/factors-associated-with-delayed-presentation-and-misdiagnosis-of-testicular-torsion-a-case-control-study
#1
Christopher E Bayne, Jeffrey Villanueva, Tanya D Davis, Hans G Pohl, H G Rushton
We identified factors associated with delay in presentation and misdiagnosis of testicular torsion. Compared with acute cases, delayed presentations were more likely to report isolated abdominal pain, developmental disorders, and history of recent genital trauma. Failure to perform a genitourinary examination or scrotal imaging was associated with misdiagnosis.
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378102/posttraumatic-stress-and-problem-drinking-at-the-transition-out-of-college
#3
Jennifer P Read, Sharon Radomski, Jeffrey D Wardell
The objective of the present study was to examine how symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may confer drinking risk as students with trauma histories complete college and move toward independent adulthood. Students (N = 283) completed assessments of trauma, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use and consequences at four time points during the year following their fourth year of college. Some students had transitioned out of the college environment, whereas others had not. We examined how transition status moderated within-person associations between changes in PTSD and corresponding changes in alcohol outcomes over time...
April 4, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377126/vascular-impairment-as-a-pathological-mechanism-underlying-long-lasting-cognitive-dysfunction-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Ichkova Aleksandra, Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Claire Bar, Frederic Villega, Jan Pieter Konsman, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same degree of injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361213/food-addiction-as-a-proxy-for-eating-disorder-and-obesity-severity-trauma-history-ptsd-symptoms-and-comorbidity
#5
REVIEW
Timothy D Brewerton
PURPOSE: Food addiction (FA) is a newly defined yet still controversial condition that has important etiological, developmental, treatment, prevention, and social policy implications. In this review, the case is made that FA (or high scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale) may be used as a proxy measure for a matrix of interrelated clinical features, including greater eating disorder severity, greater obesity severity, more severe trauma histories, greater symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), greater psychiatric comorbidity, as well as greater medical morbidity and mortality...
March 30, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343323/post-traumatic-sleep-wake-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Tatyana Mollayeva, Andrea D'Souza, Shirin Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio
All living organisms that face a traumatic life event are susceptible to sleep-wake disturbances. Stress, which can result in trauma, evokes a high level of physiological arousal associated with sympathetic nervous system activation, during both sleep and wakefulness. Heredity, sex hormones, early losses, developmental factors and intra- and interpersonal conflicts, contribute to the level of baseline physiological arousal, producing either subclinical, clinical or complex clinical traits, acutely and at any time after exposure to a traumatic event...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331572/environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-an-evidence-based-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#7
REVIEW
Amirhossein Modabbernia, Eva Velthorst, Abraham Reichenberg
BACKGROUND: According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. FINDINGS: Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279865/post-traumatic-stress-as-a-pathway-to-psychopathology-among-adolescents-at-high-risk-for-victimization
#8
Kelly D Cromer, Miguel T Villodas
OBJECTIVE: Victimization by violence elevates adolescents' risk for developing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Recent findings suggest that disruptions in developmental processes associated with post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions may partially account for the relationship between victimization and the subsequent development of psychopathology during adolescence. The present study tested the temporal sequencing of these associations using multi-informant measurements in a large, diverse sample of adolescents at high-risk for victimization...
March 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261144/parallel-distinct-structures-of-internal-world-and-external-reality-disavowing-and-re-claiming-the-self-identity-in-the-aftermath-of-trauma-generated-dissociation
#9
Vedat Şar
The nature of consciousness and the autonomy of the individual's mind have been a focus of interest throughout the past century and inspired many theories and models. Revival of studies on psychological trauma and dissociation, which remained outside mainstream psychiatry, psychology, and psychoanalysis for the most part of the past century, has provided a new opportunity to revisit this intellectual and scientific endeavor. This paper attempts to integrate a series of empirical and theoretical studies on psychological consequences of developmental traumatization, which may yield further insight into factors which threaten the integrity of human consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235660/targeting-the-tlr4-signaling-pathway-by-polyphenols-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-neuroinflammation
#10
REVIEW
Mahban Rahimifard, Faheem Maqbool, Shermineh Moeini-Nodeh, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
A wide array of cell signaling mediators and their interactions play vital roles in neuroinflammation associated with ischemia, brain trauma, developmental disorders and age-related neurodegeneration. Along with neurons, microglia and astrocytes are also affected by the inflammatory cascade by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. The release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to neural dysfunction may be helpful, neutral or even deleterious to normal cellular survival...
February 21, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#11
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis. Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170306/evaluating-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-fifth-edition-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-diagnostic-criteria-in-older-children-and-adolescents
#12
Amy J Mikolajewski, Michael S Scheeringa, Carl F Weems
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have assessed how the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) apply to older children and adolescents. With the introduction of a new, developmentally sensitive set of criteria for very young children (age 6 years and younger) in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), this raises new questions about the validity of the criteria for older children and adolescents. The current study investigated how diagnostic changes in DSM-5 impact diagnosis rates in 7-18-year olds...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141715/-when-the-prescription-pad-is-not-enough-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-management-2-0
#13
Jenny Radesky, Arathi Reddy, Naomi Steiner, Marilyn Augustyn
Jose is a 13-year-old boy who presents to his primary care provider after struggling in school for many years. When he was in the first grade, he was diagnosed at a tertiary center with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple medication trials have produced few benefits and many side effects including poor sleep, morbid thoughts, lack of motivation, and, according to his parents, "he seemed like a robot."He comes now for his annual physical in April, and the parents tell you that the school is threatening that he be retained in the seventh grade...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128430/-the-neural-networks-of-facial-expression
#14
REVIEW
F Gordillo, L Mestas, G Castillo, M A Perez, R M Lopez, J M Arana
INTRODUCTION: Face perception involves a broad network of connections between cortical and subcortical regions for the exchange and synchronization of information using white matter fibers. This precise communication system can be affected by the structures and the pathways that connect them. AIMS: To establish the neural substrate underlying the perception of facial expression and to analyze the different factors involved in modulating the integrity of this neural network, with the aim being to introduce improvements into rehabilitation programs...
February 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#15
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002080/on-the-etiology-of-listening-difficulties-in-noise-despite-clinically-normal-audiograms
#16
Martin Pienkowski
Many people with difficulties following conversations in noisy settings have "clinically normal" audiograms, that is, tone thresholds better than 20 dB HL from 0.1 to 8 kHz. This review summarizes the possible causes of such difficulties, and examines established as well as promising new psychoacoustic and electrophysiologic approaches to differentiate between them. Deficits at the level of the auditory periphery are possible even if thresholds remain around 0 dB HL, and become probable when they reach 10 to 20 dB HL...
March 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907846/modelling-life-satisfaction-and-adjustment-to-trauma-in-children-exposed-to-ongoing-military-violence-an-exploratory-study-in-palestine
#17
Guido Veronese, Alessandro Pepe, Alaa Jaradah, Feda Al Muranak, Husam Hamdouna
Exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health risks among children, especially in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive or somatic symptoms. However, an exclusive focus on negative functioning can lead to underestimating the coping abilities and natural potential for adjusting to trauma of war-affected children at different developmental phases. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the extent to which data gathered in a predominantly nonclinical sample of Palestinian children (N=1276) living in refugee camps supported a conceptual model in which the relationship between subjective wellbeing and the effects of trauma is mainly top-down in direction...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895485/adhd-and-present-hedonism-time-perspective-as-a-potential-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-tool
#18
REVIEW
S Weissenberger, M Klicperova-Baker, P Zimbardo, K Schonova, D Akotia, J Kostal, M Goetz, J Raboch, R Ptacek
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863803/research-domain-criteria-and-the-study-of-trauma-in-children-implications-for-assessment-and-treatment-research
#19
REVIEW
Carla Smith Stover, Brooks Keeshin
By definition, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires exposure to a traumatic event. Yet, the DSM diagnostic requirements for children and adolescents for PTSD may fail to capture traumatized youth with significant distress and functional impairment. Many important studies have utilized PTSD diagnosis as a mechanism for grouping individuals for comparative studies examining brain functioning, neuroendocrinology, genetics, attachment, and cognition; however, focusing only on those with the diagnosis of PTSD can miss the spectrum of symptoms and difficulties that impact children who experience trauma and subsequent impairment...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844058/western-high-fat-diet-consumption-during-adolescence-increases-susceptibility-to-traumatic-stress-while-selectively-disrupting-hippocampal-and-ventricular-volumes
#20
Priya Kalyan-Masih, Julio David Vega-Torres, Christina Miles, Elizabeth Haddad, Sabrina Rainsbury, Mohsen Baghchechi, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
Psychological trauma and obesity co-occur frequently and have been identified as major risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Surprisingly, preclinical studies examining how obesity disrupts the ability of the brain to cope with psychological trauma are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine whether an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) predisposes rats to post-traumatic stress responsivity. Adolescent Lewis rats (postnatal day 28) were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks with either the experimental WD diet (41...
September 2016: ENeuro
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