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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346772/tools-in-science
#1
EDITORIAL
Anna Zakrisson, Christine Kronfoth
When talking to non-scientists, it is rather amusing how much the Victorian view of a scientist still lingers. Many people, still view us [scientists] as crazy people working in basements (alright, that might contain some truth), who solve unholy puzzles using tools like beakers with colorful liquids and fuming test tubes. Sometimes, we burst out into euphoric cries of EUREKA when some incomprehensible problem is solved just prior to a minor explosion that causes our hair to stand up in disarray. This article is protected by copyright...
March 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346695/contribution-of-small-conductance-k-channels-to-sinoatrial-node-pacemaker-activity-insights-from-atrial-specific-na-ca-2-exchange-knockout-mice
#2
Angelo G Torrente, Rui Zhang, Heidi Wang, Audrey Zaini, Brian Kim, Xin Yue, Kenneth D Philipson, Joshua I Goldhaber
Small conductance K(+) (SK) channels have been implicated as modulators of spontaneous depolarization and electrical conduction that may be involved in cardiac arrhythmia. However, neither their presence nor their contribution to sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity have been investigated. Using quantitative PCR (q-PCR), immunostaining and patch clamp recordings of membrane current and voltage, we identified all three SK isoforms (SK1, SK2 and SK3) in mouse SAN. Inhibition of SK channels with the specific blocker apamin prolonged action potentials (APs) in isolated SAN cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#3
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346226/a-tlr9-dependent-checkpoint-governs-b-cell-responses-to-dna-containing-antigens
#4
Vishal J Sindhava, Michael A Oropallo, Krishna Moody, Martin Naradikian, Lauren E Higdon, Lin Zhou, Arpita Myles, Nathaniel Green, Kerstin Nündel, William Stohl, Amanda M Schmidt, Wei Cao, Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Taku Kambayashi, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Michael P Cancro
Mature B cell pools retain a substantial proportion of polyreactive and self-reactive clonotypes, suggesting that activation checkpoints exist to reduce the initiation of autoreactive B cell responses. Here, we have described a relationship among the B cell receptor (BCR), TLR9, and cytokine signals that regulate B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens. In both mouse and human B cells, BCR ligands that deliver a TLR9 agonist induce an initial proliferative burst that is followed by apoptotic death. The latter mechanism involves p38-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest and subsequent intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and is shared by all preimmune murine B cell subsets and CD27- human B cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345953/reperfusion-ventricular-arrhythmia-bursts-identify-larger-infarct-size-in-spite-of-optimal-epicardial-and-microvascular-reperfusion-using-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Kirian van der Weg, Wichert J Kuijt, Sebastiaan Cam Bekkers, Jan Gp Tijssen, Cynthia L Green, Miguel E Lemmert, Mitchell W Krucoff, Anton Pm Gorgels
AIMS: Ventricular arrhythmia (VA) bursts following recanalisation in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are related to larger infarct size (IS). Inadequate microvascular reperfusion, as determined by microvascular obstruction (MVO) using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), is also known to be associated with larger IS. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that VA bursts identify larger infarct size in spite of optimal microvascular reperfusion. METHODS: All 65 STEMI patients from the Maastricht ST elevation (MAST) study with brisk epicardial flow (TIMI 3), complete ST recovery post-percutaneous coronary intervention and early CMR were included...
March 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345891/tailored-chemical-properties-of-4-arm-star-shaped-poly-d-l-lactide-as-cell-adhesive-three-dimensional-scaffolds
#6
Chelladurai Karthikeyan Balavigneswaran, Sanjeev Kumar Mahto, Subia Bano, Arumugam Prabhakar, Kheyanath Mitra, Vivek Rao, Munia Ganguli, Biswajit Ray, Pralay Maiti, Nira Misra
Biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is widely used to fabricate 3D scaffolds for tissue regeneration. However, PLA lacks cell adhering functional moieties, which limit its successful application in tissue engineering. Herein, we have tailored the cell adhesive properties of star shaped poly(D,L-Lactide) (ss-PDLLA) by grafting gelatin to their 4 arms. Grafting of gelatin on PDLLA backbone was confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR. The synthesized star shaped poly(D,L-Lactide)-b-Gelatin (ss-pLG) exhibited enhanced wettability and protein adsorption...
March 27, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345889/ape1-accelerates-turnover-of-hogg1-by-preventing-retrograde-binding-to-the-abasic-site-product
#7
Alexandre Esadze, Gaddiel Rodriguez, Shannen Lee Cravens, James T Stivers
A major product of oxidative DNA damage is 8-oxoguanine. In humans, 8-oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase (hOGG1) facilitates removal of these lesions, producing an abasic (AP) site in the DNA that is subsequently incised by AP-endonuclease 1 (APE1). APE1 stimulates turnover of several glycosylases by accelerating rate-limiting product release. However, there have been conflicting accounts of whether hOGG1 follows a similar mechanism. In pre-steady state kinetic measurements, we found that addition of APE1 had no effect on the rapid burst phase of 8-oxoguanine excision by hOGG1, but accelerated steady-state turnover (kcat) by ~10-fold...
March 27, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345771/effect-of-intra-cellular-trafficking-on-flow-cytometric-measurement-of-neutrophil-s-oxidative-status-in-iron-deficient-pregnant-females
#8
Soha R Youssef, Sherif F Hendawy, Noha H Boshnak, Mariana S Sedhom
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. METHOD: Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344733/an-acute-bout-of-a-controlled-breathing-frequency-lowers-sympathetic-neural-outflow-but-not-blood-pressure-in-healthy-normotensive-subjects
#9
Shannon L McClain, Alexa M Brooks, Sara S Jarvis
Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual's spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344550/hyperpolarization-activated-current-induces-period-doubling-cascades-and-chaos-in-a-cold-thermoreceptor-model
#10
Kesheng Xu, Jean P Maidana, Mauricio Caviedes, Daniel Quero, Pablo Aguirre, Patricio Orio
In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344549/functional-brain-activation-in-response-to-a-clinical-vestibular-test-correlates-with-balance
#11
Fatemeh Noohi, Catherine Kinnaird, Yiri DeDios, Igor S Kofman, Scott Wood, Jacob Bloomberg, Ajitkumar Mulavara, Rachael Seidler
The current study characterizes brain fMRI activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: Skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either a vestibulo-spinal reflex [saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)], or an ocular muscle response [utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)]. Research suggests that the skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for subjects than the high decibel tones required to elicit VEMPs...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343903/-spinal-cord-injuries-resulting-from-diving-accidents-in-the-canary-islands
#12
Enrique Bárbara-Bataller, José Luis Méndez-Suárez, Carolina Alemán-Sánchez, Jesús Sánchez-Enríquez, Manuel Sosa-Henríquez
OBJECTIVE: Diving accidents is one of the leading causes of spinal cord injury after falls and car accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these patients in our setting to better prevent these injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective, descriptive study of patients who have suffered from a traumatic spinal cord injury after a diving accident in the Canary Islands, Spain from 2000 to 2014...
March 23, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#13
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343026/comparison-of-unilateral-versus-bilateral-pedicle-screw-fixation-at-the-level-of-fracture-using-posterior-short-segment-pedicle-instrumentation-in-the-treatment-of-severe-thoracolumbar-burst-fractures
#14
Chao Sun, Xinhui Liu, Jiwei Tian, Guoping Guan, Hailong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Thoracolumbar burst fractures (TBFs) are often followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation(BPSF) at the level of fracture using posterior short-segment pedicle instrumentation (SSPI). There has been increasing support for unilateral pedicle screw fixation (UPSF) in an attempt to reduce complications and costs. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiologic results of UPSF versus BPSF at the level of fracture using SSPI in the treatment of severe TBFs. METHODS: The records of 42 consecutive patients with severe TBFs who underwent SSPI were divided into 2 groups according to the number of screws in the fracture level, including 20 patients (five screws) in UPSF group and 22 patients(six screws) in BPSF...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342754/dietary-supplementation-of-thiamine-and-pyridoxine-loaded-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-microspheres-enhances-growth-performance-metabolic-and-immune-responses-in-experimental-rats
#15
C S Tejpal, N S Chatterjee, K Elavarasan, R G K Lekshmi, R Anandan, K K Asha, B Ganesan, S Mathew, C N Ravishankar
In the present investigation, the effect of dietary supplementation of thiamine and pyridoxine loaded vanillic acid-grafted chitosan microspheres (TPVGC) on growth, metabolic and immune responses in Wistar strain albino rats was studied. Eight experimental groups, namely four groups each for male and female rats were fed with 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% of TPVGC in the diet. At the end of 45days feeding trials, both male and female rats supplemented with TPVGC had higher weight gain % and specific growth rate than the control groups...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342599/concentrate-supplementation-of-a-diet-based-on-medium-quality-grass-silage-for-4-weeks-prepartum-effects-on-cow-performance-health-metabolic-status-and-immune-function
#16
M W Little, N E O'Connell, M D Welsh, F J Mulligan, C P Ferris
Because negative energy balance (EB) contributes to transition-period immune dysfunction in dairy cows, dietary management strategies should aim to minimize negative EB during this time. Prepartum diets that oversupply energy may exacerbate negative EB in early lactation, with detrimental effects on immune function. However, with lower body condition score (BCS) cows, it has been shown that offering concentrates in addition to a grass silage-based diet when confined during an 8-wk dry period resulted in increased neutrophil function in early lactation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342324/short-bursts-of-cyclic-mechanical-compression-modulate-tissue-formation-in-a-3d-hybrid-scaffold
#17
M Brunelli, C M Perrault, D Lacroix
Among the cues affecting cells behaviour, mechanical stimuli are known to have a key role in tissue formation and mineralization of bone cells. While soft scaffolds are better at mimicking the extracellular environment, they cannot withstand the high loads required to be efficient substitutes for bone in vivo. We propose a 3D hybrid scaffold combining the load-bearing capabilities of polycaprolactone (PCL) and the ECM-like chemistry of collagen gel to support the dynamic mechanical differentiation of human embryonic mesodermal progenitor cells (hES-MPs)...
March 18, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341173/preparation-and-characterization-of-reinforced-papers-using-nano-bacterial-cellulose
#18
Taghi Tabarsa, Somayeh Sheykhnazari, Alireza Ashori, Mahd Mashkour, Abolghasem Khazaeian
The main goal of this work was to reinforce softwood pulp (SP) with bacterial cellulose (BC) to generate a sustainable biocomposite. BC is a nanocellulose, which was anticipated to increase interfacial adhesion between the cellulosic fibers and BC. The organism used was Gluconacetobacter xylinus, which was incubated in a static Hestrin-Schramm culture at 28°C for 14 days. The specimens of BC, SP and the reinforced SP with BC were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, FESEM, and physico-mechanical testing...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341154/the-short-term-effects-of-farmed-fish-food-consumed-by-wild-fish-congregating-outside-the-farms
#19
D Gonzalez-Silvera, F A Guardiola, H Cordero, A Cuesta, M A Esteban, F J Martínez-López, J A López-Jiménez
We simulated in the laboratory the possible effects on fatty acids and immune status of wild fish arriving for the first time in the vicinity of a sea-cage fish farm, shifting their natural diet to commercial feed consumption, rich in fatty acids of vegetable origin. The flesh fatty acid profile of golden mullet specimens was altered after 2weeks of commercial feed consumption, showing an increase in fatty acids of vegetable origin. The serum peroxidase and bactericidal activities, and head-kidney leucocyte phagocytic capacity, increased after eight weeks of the new diet, while the respiratory burst activity decreased...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341132/stochastic-modeling-and-numerical-simulation-of-gene-regulatory-networks-with-protein-bursting
#20
Manuel Pájaro, Antonio A Alonso, Irene Otero-Muras, C Vázquez
Gene expression is inherently stochastic. Advanced single-cell microscopy techniques together with mathematical models for single gene expression led to important insights in elucidating the sources of intrinsic noise in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In addition to the finite size effects due to low copy numbers, translational bursting is a dominant source of stochasticity in cell scenarios involving few short lived mRNA transcripts with high translational efficiency (as is typically the case for prokaryotes), causing protein synthesis to occur in random bursts...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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