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Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Carolyn H Tuohy
As the National Health Service (NHS) turns 70, it bears comparison with another universal system celebrating an anniversary this year: Canada's 50-year-old medicare model. Each system is iconically popular, and each revolves around a profession-state accommodation. Both the popularity and the central axis of each system have been tested by external shocks in the form of periodic fiscal cycles of investment and austerity, and internal stresses generating organizational cycles of centralization and decentralization...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
Yves Lacasse, Ai-Yui M Tan, François Maltais, Jerry A Krishnan
Two landmark trials conducted more than 35 years ago provided scientific evidence that, under very specific circumstances, long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) may prolong life. These two trials enrolled 290 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe daytime hypoxemia documented by direct arterial blood gas measurement. From this moment, LTOT became a standard of care and the indications for oxygen therapy have expanded to include nocturnal oxygen therapy for isolated nocturnal oxygen desaturation, ambulatory oxygen to correct exercise-induced desaturation, and short-burst oxygen to relieve dyspnea...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Wida Setiawati, Hinky Hindra Irawan Satari, Yunia Irawati, Made Susiyanti
A 4-year-old girl had suffered from multiple pustules and severely swollen eyelids for a week which led to difficulties in opening her eyes. The pustules burst 2 days prior to admission, causing blood and pus to come out. As a result, the evaluation of eye movement, visual acuity and intraocular pressure was hindered. Eyelids were spasming, hyperaemic, warm and of soft consistency on palpation. Crust and necrotic tissues were also observed. The patient had a history of fever with cough and nasal congestion...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Giulia Cisbani, Audrey Le Behot, Marie-Michèle Plante, Paul Préfontaine, Manon Lecordier, Serge Rivest
Stroke is the second cause of mortality worldwide and occurs following the interruption of cerebral blood circulation by cerebral vessel burst or subsequent to a local thrombus formation. Ischemic lesion triggers an important inflammatory response, characterized by massive infiltration of leukocytes, activation of glial cells and neurovascular reorganization. Chemokines and their receptors, such as CCR2 and CX3CR1, play an important role in leukocyte recruitment in the damaged area. Mice genetically depleted for the two receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 underwent focal cerebral ischemia, based on the topical application of ferric chloride to truncate the distal middle cerebral artery...
March 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Sandrina Lampis, Maura Carboni, Daniela Steri, Sergio Murgia, Maura Monduzzi
Lipid based formulations, endowed of long term stability as a result of the formation of lamellar liquid crystals, were prepared using the natural lipids lecithin and glycerol trioleate in water, and characterized using optical microscopy, SAXRD and NMR. The formulations, designed as possible carriers for lysozyme and caffeine, were evaluated for structural features and stability after the loading of the guest molecules. Release experiments were performed at 37 °C using the PBS medium. No burst release was observed either for lysozyme or caffeine...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Iwona Sembratowicz, Katarzyna Ognik
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most examined nanomaterials, but information about their immunogenic potential is still insufficient. Understanding interaction of AuNPs with immune system is essential in designing their safety and possibilities of biomedical applications. An experiment was conducted to determine immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid (AuNPs) administered orally to chickens depending on dose and duration time. 162 birds were assigned to 9 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group (C) did not receive AuNPs...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
David Müller, Andreas Otto, Günter Radons
We show that the output of systems with time-varying delay can exhibit a new kind of chaotic behavior characterized by laminar phases, which are periodically interrupted by irregular bursts. Within each laminar phase the output intensity remains almost constant, but its level varies chaotically from phase to phase. In scalar systems, the periodic dynamics of the lengths and the chaotic dynamics of the intensity levels can be understood and also tuned via two one-dimensional maps, which can be deduced from the nonlinearity of the delay equation and from the delay variation, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mette Korshøj, Marie Birk Jørgensen, David M Hallman, Julie Lagersted-Olsen, Andreas Holtermann, Nidhi Gupta
Objective Low-back pain (LBP) is a massive health problem. Sitting at work has been suggested to be both a risk and protective factor for LBP. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between total and temporal patterns of objectively measured sitting duration and individual time course of LBP. Methods The analysis was performed among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort of mainly blue-collar workers. Sitting at work was measured by accelerometry at baseline, expressed in total duration and temporal pattern [% of working time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate (>5 - ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods (>20 minutes)] of sitting...
March 15, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Alden Curtis, Chase Calvi, James Tinsley, Reed Hollinger, Vural Kaymak, Alexander Pukhov, Shoujun Wang, Alex Rockwood, Yong Wang, Vyacheslav N Shlyaptsev, Jorge J Rocca
Nuclear fusion is regularly created in spherical plasma compressions driven by multi-kilojoule pulses from the world's largest lasers. Here we demonstrate a dense fusion environment created by irradiating arrays of deuterated nanostructures with joule-level pulses from a compact ultrafast laser. The irradiation of ordered deuterated polyethylene nanowires arrays with femtosecond pulses of relativistic intensity creates ultra-high energy density plasmas in which deuterons (D) are accelerated up to MeV energies, efficiently driving D-D fusion reactions and ultrafast neutron bursts...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Tiziana Alberio, Greta Forlani, Marta Lualdi, Giovanna Tosi, Roberto S Accolla, Mauro Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is a central player in the blood coagulation cascade and one of the most abundant plasma proteins. This glycoprotein also triggers important events (e.g., cell spreading, the respiratory burst and degranulation) in neutrophil cells via a αM β2 integrin-mediated binding to the cell surface. Yet, little is known about the interaction of fibrinogen with leukocytes other than neutrophils or stimulated monocytes, although high amounts of fibrinogen protein can also be found in lymphocytes, particularly in T-cells...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Roshan Kumar, Raniki Kumari, Sanjay Kumar, Deepak Kumar Jangir, Tushar Kanti Maiti
α-Synuclein, a major constituent of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy body, has been shown to be released and taken up by cells, which may facilitate its progressive pathological spreading and neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiological effect and signalling cascade initiated by extracellular α-synuclein in cellular milieu are not well understood. Herein we have investigated the perturbations induced by low molecular weight α-synuclein and different types of α-synuclein oligomers in the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Mohammed Issa, Christopher J Gilligan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Spine
Ian Kaye, Peter Passias
Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques offer promising improvements in the management of thoracolumbar trauma. Recent advances in MIS techniques and instrumentation for degenerative conditions have heralded a growing interest in employing these techniques for thoracolumbar trauma. Specifically, surgeons have applied these techniques to help manage flexion- and extension-distraction injuries, neurologically intact burst fractures, and cases of damage control. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer a means to decrease blood loss, shorten operative time, reduce infection risk, and shorten hospital stays...
March 2018: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Seth W Holwerda, Rachel E Luehrs, Allene L Gremaud, Nealy A Wooldridge, Amy K Stroud, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Francois M Abboud, Gary L Pierce
Relative burst amplitude of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is an indicator of augmented sympathetic outflow and contributes to greater vasoconstrictor responses. Evidence suggests anxiety-induced augmentation of relative MSNA burst amplitude in patients with panic disorder, thus we hypothesized that acute stress would result in augmented relative MSNA burst amplitude and vasoconstriction in individuals with chronic anxiety. Eighteen participants with chronic anxiety (ANX, 8 men/10 women, 32{plus minus}2 years) and 18 healthy controls with low/no anxiety (CON, 8 men/10 women, 39{plus minus}3 years) were studied...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Stylianos Kouvaros, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
Hippocampus is importantly involved in dopamine-dependent behaviors and dopamine is a significant modulator of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Moreover, the dopaminergic innervation appears to be disproportionally segregated along the hippocampal longitudinal (dorsoventral) axis with unknown consequences for synaptic plasticity. In this study we examined the actions of endogenously released dopamine and the effects of exogenous D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists on theta-burst stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory synaptic potential (fEPSP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from dorsal (DH) and ventral hippocampus (VH)...
March 14, 2018: Synapse
Muneeb U Rehman, Shahzada Mudasir Rashid, Saiema Rasool, Sheeba Shakeel, Bilal Ahmad, Sheikh Bilal Ahmad, Hassan Madkhali, Majid Ahmad Ganaie, Sabiya Majid, Showkat Ahmad Bhat
Development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is directly linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. In this context, inflammatory and oxidative markers have gained much attention as targets for therapeutic intervention. We studied the effect of zingerone in a streptozotocin/high fat diet (STZ/HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rat model. Zingerone also known as vanillyl acetone is a pharmacologically active compound present usually in dry ginger. STZ/HFD caused excessive increase in ROS and inflammation in experimental animals...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Wan Peng, Yan Sun, Gao-Fei Li, Liang-Ge He, Ruo-Zhu Li, Yao-Si Liang, Xu Ding, Xue Yu, Yong Zhang, Hao-Ran Lin, Dan-Qi Lu
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a Th1 cytokine that is critical for innate and adaptive immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways are critical in early host defense against invading pathogens. miR-146a has been reported to participate in the regulation of host immunity. The known mechanisms of integrations between the IFNγ and TLR signaling pathways are incompletely understood, especially in teleosts. In this study, orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides ) IFNγ1 and IFNγ2, their biological activities, especially their involvements in TLR pathway, were explored...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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