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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792961/composite-films-of-regenerate-cellulose-with-chitosan-and-polyvinyl-alcohol-evaluation-of-water-adsorption-mechanical-and-optical-properties
#1
Patricia Cazón, Manuel Vázquez, Gonzalo Velazquez
The aim of this study was to develop composite films from cellulose, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol to obtain environmentally friendly materials. Toughness, burst strength, distance to burst and water adsorption properties were measured and analysed as a function of cellulose (3-5%), chitosan (0-1%) and polyvinyl alcohol (0-4%) contents. Polynomial models were obtained. Light-barrier properties, transparency, morphology, structural and thermal analyses were assessed. Results showed that chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol enhanced the mechanical properties of cellulose-based films...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790938/the-low-threshold-calcium-channel-cav3-2-mediates-burst-firing-of-mature-dentate-granule-cells
#2
Mael Dumenieu, Oleg Senkov, Andrey Mironov, Emmanuel Bourinet, Michael R Kreutz, Alexander Dityatev, Martin Heine, Arthur Bikbaev, Jeffrey Lopez-Rojas
Mature granule cells are poorly excitable neurons that were recently shown to fire action potentials, preferentially in bursts. It is believed that the particularly pronounced short-term facilitation of mossy fiber synapses makes granule cell bursting a very effective means of properly transferring information to CA3. However, the mechanism underlying the unique bursting behavior of mature granule cells is currently unknown. Here, we show that Cav3.2 T-type channels at the axon initial segment are responsible for burst firing of mature granule cells in rats and mice...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790924/typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-ecological-opportunity-and-the-evolution-of-a-new-pathovar
#3
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Connor R Tiffany, Denise N Bronner, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are severe systemic infections caused by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella serovars that are indistinguishable in their clinical presentation, but differ from human gastroenteritis caused by zoonotic non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars evolved from ancestral gastrointestinal pathogens through genetic changes that supported a change in pathogen ecology. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars share virulence properties that were acquired through convergent evolution and therefore this group is not defined by the presence of shared virulence genes that are absent from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790837/modulation-of-spinal-motor-networks-by-astrocyte-derived-adenosine-is-dependent-on-d1-like-dopamine-receptor-signalling
#4
David Acton, Matthew J Broadhead, Gareth Brian Miles
Astrocytes modulate many neuronal networks, including spinal networks responsible for the generation of locomotor behaviour. Astrocytic modulation of spinal motor circuits involves release of ATP from astrocytes, hydrolysation of ATP to adenosine, and subsequent activation of neuronal A1 adenosine receptors (A1Rs). The net effect of this pathway is a reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related activity. Recently, it was proposed that A1Rs modulate burst frequency by blocking the D1-like dopamine receptor (D1LR) signalling pathway; however, adenosine also modulates ventral horn circuits by dopamine-independent pathways...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790404/clinical-and-neurophysiological-changes-after-targeted-intrathecal-injections-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-in-a-c3-tetraplegic-subject
#5
Andrea Jimena Santamaria, Francisco D Benavides, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Marietsy V Pujol, W Dalton Dietrich, Antonio Marttos, Barth A Green, Joshua M Hare, James Guest
High-level quadriplegia is a devastating condition with limited treatment options. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) are reported to have immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects in spinal cord injury (SCI). We report a subject with complete C2 SCI who received 3 anatomically targeted intrathecal infusions of BMSCs under a single-patient expanded access IND. She underwent intensive physical therapy and was followed for over 2 years. At end-point, her AIS grade improved from A to B and she recovered focal pressure touch sensation over several body areas...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790391/neutrophil-exocytosis-induces-podocyte-cytoskeletal-reorganization-and-proteinuria-in-experimental-glomerulonephritis
#6
Dawn J Caster, Erik A Korte, Min Tan, Michelle T Barati, Shweta Tandon, T Michael Creed, David J Salant, Jessica L Hata, Paul N Epstein, Hui Huang, David W Powell, Kenneth R McLeish
Acute glomerulonephritis is characterized by rapid glomerular neutrophil recruitment, proteinuria, and glomerular hypercellularity. The current study tested the hypothesis that release of neutrophil granule contents plays a role in both loss of filtration barrier leading to proteinuria and the increase in glomerular cells. Inhibition of neutrophil exocytosis with a peptide inhibitor prevented proteinuria and attenuated podocyte and endothelial cell injury, but had no effect on glomerular hypercellularity in an experimental acute glomerulonephritis model in mice...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790257/functionalized-silk-fibers-from-transgenic-silkworms-for-wound-healing-applications-surface-presentation-of-bioactive-epidermal-growth-factor
#7
Michael Wöltje, Melanie Böbel, Michaela Bienert, Sabine Neuss, Dilibaier Aibibu, Chokri Cherif
Growth factors play a crucial role in wound healing in general and are promising tools for the treatment of chronic wounds as they can restore the physiological wound healing process. In growth factor-loaded wound dressings, human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is released in a burst and washed out quickly. The developed matrix consists of recombinant EGF produced in transgenic silkworms as a fusion protein with the fibroin light chain. The covalent linkage prevents EGF from draining into the surrounding tissue while presenting the growth factor on the surface...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790090/enhancement-of-broodstock-health-and-maternal-immunity-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-using-excelmos%C3%A2
#8
N M AbouShabana, R AbdelKader, S Abdel-Rahman, H S Abdel-Gawad, A M Abdel-Galil
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of ExcelMOS® in enhancing the immune system of Sparus aurata broodstock and their impact on offspring health through displaying the maternal transfer of immunity. Broodstock were divided into two groups: one was injected intraperitoneally with ExcelMOS® 1 month before spawning, while the other group was used as a control (without injection). Comprehensive increase in survival rate was observed for larvae hatched from ExcelMOS®-injected broodstock than those of the control (P ≤ 0...
May 22, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789662/spraying-dynamics-in-continuous-wave-laser-printing-of-conductive-inks
#9
Pol Sopeña, Sergio González-Torres, Juan Marcos Fernández-Pradas, Pere Serra
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), though usually associated with pulsed lasers, has been recently shown to be feasible for printing liquid inks with continuous wave (CW) lasers. This is remarkable not only because of the advantages that the new approach presents in terms of cost, but also because of the surprising transfer dynamics associated with it. In this work we carry out a study of CW-LIFT aimed at understanding the new transfer dynamics and its correlation with the printing outcomes. The CW-LIFT of lines of Ag ink at different laser powers and scan speeds revealed a range of conditions that allowed printing conductive lines with good electrical properties...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789376/optogenetic-activation-of-colon-epithelium-of-the-mouse-produces-high-frequency-bursting-in-extrinsic-colon-afferents-and-engages-visceromotor-responses
#10
Payal A Makadia, Sarah A Najjar, Jami L Saloman, Peter Adelman, Bin Feng, Joseph F Margiotta, Kathryn M Albers, Brian M Davis
Epithelial cells of the colon provide a vital interface between the internal environment (lumen of the colon) and colon parenchyma. To examine epithelial-neuronal signaling at this interface, we analyzed mice in which channelrhodopsin (ChR2) was targeted to either TRPV1-positive afferents or to villin expressing colon epithelial cells. Expression of a ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was directed to either primary sensory neurons or to colon epithelial cells by crossing Ai32 mice with TRPV1-Cre or villin-Cre mice, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789374/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-spontaneously-active-bursty-gabaergic-interneuron-in-the-mouse-striatum
#11
Maxime Assous, Thomas W Faust, Robert Assini, Fulva Shah, Yacouba Sidibe, James M Tepper
The recent availability of different transgenic mouse lines coupled with other modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large cellular diversity and synaptic specificity in striatal interneuronal circuitry. Prior research has described three spontaneously active interneuron types in mouse striatal slices; the cholinergic interneuron, the neuropeptide Y-low threshold spike interneuron, and the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons (THINs). Using transgenic Htr3a-Cre mice we now characterize a fourth population of spontaneously active striatal GABAergic interneurons termed spontaneously active bursty interneurons (SABI) because of their unique burst-firing pattern in cell-attached recordings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788921/signatures-of-host-specialization-and-a-recent-transposable-element-burst-in-the-dynamic-one-speed-genome-of-the-fungal-barley-powdery-mildew-pathogen
#12
Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Barbara Kracher, Stefan Kusch, Makoto Yoshikawa-Maekawa, Saskia Bauer, Carsten Pedersen, Pietro D Spanu, Takaki Maekawa, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Ralph Panstruga
BACKGROUND: Powdery mildews are biotrophic pathogenic fungi infecting a number of economically important plants. The grass powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis, has become a model organism to study host specialization of obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens. We resolved the large-scale genomic architecture of B. graminis forma specialis hordei (Bgh) to explore the potential influence of its genome organization on the co-evolutionary process with its host plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare). RESULTS: The near-chromosome level assemblies of the Bgh reference isolate DH14 and one of the most diversified isolates, RACE1, enabled a comparative analysis of these haploid genomes, which are highly enriched with transposable elements (TEs)...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788295/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-resembles-cortical-architecture-at-various-levels-of-isoflurane-anesthesia
#13
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
May 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788250/comparative-genomics-reveals-thousands-of-novel-chemosensory-genes-and-massive-changes-in-chemoreceptor-repertories-across-chelicerates
#14
Joel Vizueta, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia
Chemoreception is a widespread biological function that is essential for the survival, reproduction, and social communication of animals. Though the molecular mechanisms underlying chemoreception are relatively well known in insects, they are poorly studied in the other major arthropod lineages. Current availability of a number of chelicerate genomes constitutes a great opportunity to better characterize gene families involved in this important function in a lineage that emerged and colonized land independently of insects...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787879/management-of-pediatric-post-traumatic-thoracolumbar-vertebral-body-burst-fractures-using-single-stage-posterior-transpedicular-approach
#15
Mohit Agrawal, Mayank Garg, Amandeep Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Deepak Agrawal, P Sarat Chandra, Shashank Sharad Kale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787725/sensory-coding-neurons-that-wire-together-fire-longer
#16
Aarush Mohit Mittal, Swikriti Saran Singh, Nitin Gupta
Sensory neurons for smell and taste in insects reside in sensilla. Experiments in bumblebees reveal an unusual benefit of this arrangement: interaction between co-housed gustatory neurons promotes bursting in their responses and delays their adaptation.
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787346/-slipped-sandwich-model-for-chitin-and-chitosan-perception-in-arabidopsis
#17
Ekaterina Gubaeva, Airat Gubaev, Rebacca Melcher, Stefan Cord-Landwehr, Ratna Singh, Nour Eddine El Gueddari, Bruno Maria Moerschbacher
Chitin, a linear polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and chitosans, fully or partially deacetylated derivatives of chitin, are known to elicit defense reactions in higher plants. We compared the ability of chitin and chitosan oligomers and polymers (chitin oligomers with degree of polymerization 3 to 8; chitosan oligomers with degree of acetylation 0% to 35% and degree of polymerization 3 to 15; chitosan polymers with degree of acetylation 1% to 60% and degree of polymerization ~1300) to elicit an oxidative burst indicative of induced defense reactions in A...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786820/determination-of-trace-element-levels-in-patients-with-burst-fractures
#18
Shahab Ahmed Salih Gezh, Abdurrahman Aycan, Halit Demir, Cemal Bozlına
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine trace element levels (Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Cd, Co, and Pb) in patients with burst fractures in Van Province, Turkey. METHODS: The study included a total of 44 participants with no additional pathologies, including 22 patients with burst fractures aged over 18 years who were admitted to the neurosurgery departments at two hospitals between June 15, 2015 and January 20, 2016 and 22 healthy volunteers. Serum samples were obtained from all participants to measure the serum levels of trace and heavy elements, including Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe, Co and Zn, using atomic absorbance spectrophotometry...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786184/-protein-carbamylation-what-it-is-and-why-it-concerns-nephrologists
#19
Emanuele De Simone, Lucia Di Micco, Gaetano La Manna, Biagio Di Iorio
Spontaneous urea dissociation in water solution is a prominent source of protein carbamylation in our body. Protein carbamylation is a well-known phenomenon since early seventies. Some years ago, much interest in the diagnostic power of carbamylated protein arouse. Recently the target of the researches focused on its potential cardiovascular pathogenicity. Some authors claimed that this could be a reason for higher cardiovascular mortality in uremic patients. Nutritional therapy, amino acids supplementation and intensive dialysis regimen are some of the therapeutic tools tested to lower the carbamylation burst in this population...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785503/prolonged-forearm-ischemia-attenuates-endothelium-dependent-vasodilatation-and-plasma-nitric-oxide-metabolites-in-overweight-middle-aged-men
#20
Zainie Aboo Bakkar, Jonathan Fulford, Phillip E Gates, Sarah R Jackman, Andrew M Jones, Bert Bond, Joanna L Bowtell
PURPOSE: Repeated cycles of endothelial ischemia-reperfusion injury and the resulting respiratory burst contribute to the irreversible pathophysiology of vascular diseases, and yet, the effects of ischemia reperfusion on vascular function, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have not been assessed simultaneously. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effects of prolonged forearm occlusion and subsequent reperfusion on NO-dependent brachial artery endothelial function...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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