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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151140/effects-of-oxygen-availability-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#1
Alessia Giannetto, Maria Maisano, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Antonino Natalotto, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo
In aquatic environments, hypoxia and oxygen-deficient areas are increasing worldwide. Transitions in oxygen levels can influence the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), eventually leading to oxidative stress. The transcriptional response of oxidative stress biomarkers was evaluated by qPCR in gill tissue from Mytilus galloprovincialis experimentally subjected to 48-h air exposure followed by 48-h re-oxygenation, as compared to normoxic control mussels. Superoxide dismutases (CuZnsod and Mnsod), catalase (cat), and glutathione S-transferase (gst) were over-expressed early after 8-h air exposure and returned to normoxic levels during re-oxygenation...
November 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150332/organic-arsenicals-target-thioredoxin-reductase-followed-by-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-resulting-in-apoptosis
#2
Xiao-Yang Fan, Yu-Jiao Liu, Kai Chen, Feng-Lei Jiang, Yan-Jun Hu, Dan Liu, Yi Liu, Yu-Shu Ge
Considering the vital role of cellular redox state, more and more researches focus on the design of drugs targeting thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), an important enzyme in maintaining the balance of cellular redox. Here two organic arsenicals, 2-(((4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl) imino) methyl) phenol (PIM-PAO-PDT) and N-(4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl) phenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide (PAM-PAO-PDT), bearing the S-As-S chemical scaffold and different linking groups have been synthesized, and both of them show the better inhibitory activity and selectivity towards HL-60 cells...
May 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150315/surgical-options-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-complicated-with-spinal-deformity-and-neurologic-deficit
#3
Kalliopi Alpantaki, Michael Dohm, Panagiotis Korovessis, Alexander G Hadjipavlou
INTRODUCTION: This paper describes surgical options for Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) with acute flexible or chronic rigid kyphosis, and pseudarthrosis complicated with pain and neurologic deficit. METHODS: This study has two components. a) A prospective clinical study of surgical treatment of 31 patients (age: 69±11 years) with either acute flexible or progressive pseudarthrotic kyphosis manifested with severe pain or neurological deficit between 2010 and 2014...
November 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149869/characterisation-of-sucking-dynamics-of-breastfeeding-preterm-infants-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Donna T Geddes, Kok Chooi, Kathryn Nancarrow, Anna R Hepworth, Hazel Gardner, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Full breastfeeding is the ultimate aim for preterm infants to ensure they receive the full benefits of human milk however, preterm infants face a number of challenges associated with their immaturity and associated morbidities. In order to facilitate oral feeding, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the sucking dynamics of the breastfed infant. The aim of this study was to measure and describe the sucking dynamics of the preterm breastfeeding infant. METHODS: A prospective cross sectional observational study was carried out at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149176/a-simple-way-for-targeted-delivery-of-an-antibiotic-in-vitro-evaluation-of-a-nanoclay-based-composite
#5
Leslie Valdés, Irela Pérez, Louis Charles de Ménorval, Ernesto Altshuler, Jon Otto Fossum, Aramis Rivera
The sodium-modified form of fluorohectorite nanoclay (NaFh) is introduced as a potential drug carrier, demonstrating its ability for the controlled release of the broad-spectrum antibiotic Ciprofloxacin through in vitro tests. The new clay-drug composite is designed to target the local infections in the large intestine, where it delivers most of the incorporated drug thanks to its pH-sensitive behavior. The composite has been conceived to avoid the use of coating technology and to decrease the side-effects commonly associated to the burst-release of the ciprofloxacin at the stomach level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147662/effectiveness-of-a-lytic-phage-srg1-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-compost-and-soil
#6
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146776/light-signaling-dependent-regulation-of-photoinhibition-and-photoprotection-in-tomato
#7
Feng Wang, Nan Wu, Luyue Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xiaoxiao Chen, Xun Xiang, Jie Zhou, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Jingquan Yu, Christine H Foyer, Yanhong Zhou
Photoreceptor-mediated light signaling plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress responses but its contribution to the spatial regulation of photoinhibition and photoprotection within the canopy remains unclear. Here, we show that low red/far-red (L-R/FR) ratio light conditions significantly alleviate PSII and PSI photoinhibition in the shade leaves of tomato plants. This protection is accompanied by a phytochrome A (phyA)-dependent induction of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). HY5 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), triggering RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 (RBOH1)-dependent H2O2 production in the apoplast...
November 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146538/rational-design-of-polysorbate-80-stabilized-human-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-tailored-for-high-drug-loading-and-entrapment-of-irinotecan
#8
Neetika Taneja, Kamalinder K Singh
Human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles are considered to be versatile carrier of anticancer agents in efficiently delivering the drug to the tumor site without causing any toxicity. The aim of the study was to develop stable HSA nanoparticles (NPs) of drug irinotecan (Iro) having slightly water solubility and moderate HSA binding. A novel strategy of employing a hydrophilic non-ionic surfactant polysorbate 80 which forms protein-polysorbate 80 complex with increased affinity and improvement in Iro-HSA binding has been used to maximize the loading and entrapment efficiency of Iro in HSA-NPs...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145593/root-respiratory-burst-oxidase-homologue-dependent-h2o2-production-confers-salt-tolerance-on-a-grafted-cucumber-by-controlling-na-exclusion-and-stomatal-closure
#9
Mengliang Niu, Yuan Huang, Shitao Sun, Jingyu Sun, Haishun Cao, Sergey Shabala, Zhilong Bie
Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145287/transforaminal-endoscopy-in-lumbar-burst-fracture-a-case-report
#10
Yuanyi Wang, Cong Ning, Liyu Yao, Xiuying Huang, Chengliang Zhao, Bin Chen, Nan Zhang
RATIONALE: Lumbar burst fractures are frequent injury resulting from high-energy trauma, and the patients suffer from pain and the neurologic dysfunction. Although minimally invasive techniques have advanced rapidly, it was the first time to apply transforaminal endoscopic combined with percutaneous pedicle screw fixation to treatment of lumbar burst fractures. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 33-year-old man underwent Magerl type A3.1 burst fracture at L2 and compression fractures at L3 due to falling from a height with severe lower back pain, sensory loss, and atony of the right leg...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144974/double-nanodomain-coupling-of-calcium-channels-ryanodine-receptors-and-bk-channels-controls-the-generation-of-burst-firing
#11
Tomohiko Irie, Laurence O Trussell
Action potentials clustered into high-frequency bursts play distinct roles in neural computations. However, little is known about ionic currents that control the duration and probability of these bursts. We found that, in cartwheel inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the likelihood of bursts and the interval between their spikelets were controlled by Ca(2+) acting across two nanodomains, one between plasma membrane P/Q Ca(2+) channels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors and another between ryanodine receptors and large-conductance, voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142310/sodium-channel-nav1-3-is-important-for-enterochromaffin-cell-excitability-and-serotonin-release
#12
Peter R Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J Eggers, Joyce H Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142220/imaging-spectroscopy-of-solar-radio-burst-fine-structures
#13
E P Kontar, S Yu, A A Kuznetsov, A G Emslie, B Alcock, N L S Jeffrey, V N Melnik, N H Bian, P Subramanian
Solar radio observations provide a unique diagnostic of the outer solar atmosphere. However, the inhomogeneous turbulent corona strongly affects the propagation of the emitted radio waves, so decoupling the intrinsic properties of the emitting source from the effects of radio wave propagation has long been a major challenge in solar physics. Here we report quantitative spatial and frequency characterization of solar radio burst fine structures observed with the Low Frequency Array, an instrument with high-time resolution that also permits imaging at scales much shorter than those corresponding to radio wave propagation in the corona...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#14
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#15
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142017/modelling-the-effects-of-phylogeny-and-body-size-on-within-host-pathogen-replication-and-immune-response
#16
Soumya Banerjee, Alan S Perelson, Melanie Moses
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141405/injectable-thermo-sensitive-polypeptide-based-cddp-complexed-hydrogel-for-improving-localized-antitumor-efficacy
#17
Shuangjiang Yu, Dianliang Zhang, Chaoliang He, Wujin Sun, Rangjuan Cao, Shusen Cui, Mingxiao Deng, Zhen Gu, Xuesi Chen
In this study, a type of novel thermo-sensitive polypeptide-based hydrogel with tunable gelation behavior through changing the content of carboxyl groups was developed for the purpose of improving the cisplatin (CDDP) release behavior and enhancing the localized antitumor efficiency. The introduction of carboxyl groups in methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate-co-L-glutamic acid) (mPEG-b-P(ELG-co-LG)) not only led to adjustable mechanical properties of the hydrogel, but also significantly reduced the burst release of the drug through the complexation between the carboxyl groups of polypeptide and CDDP...
November 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141114/ph-ultrasound-dual-responsive-gas-generator-for-ultrasound-imaging-guided-therapeutic-inertial-cavitation-and-sonodynamic-therapy
#18
Qianhua Feng, Wanxia Zhang, Xuemei Yang, Yuzhen Li, Yongwei Hao, Hongling Zhang, Lin Hou, Zhenzhong Zhang
Herein, a pH/ultrasound dual-responsive gas generator is reported, which is based on mesoporous calcium carbonate (MCC) nanoparticles by loading sonosensitizer (hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)) and modifying surface hyaluronic acid (HA). After pinpointing tumor regions with prominent targeting efficiency, HMME/MCC-HA decomposes instantaneously under the cotriggering of tumoral inherent acidic condition and ultrasound (US) irradiation, concurrently accompanying with CO2 generation and HMME release with spatial/temporal resolution...
November 15, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140615/operator-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulfide-from-dairy-manure-storages-containing-gypsum-bedding
#19
Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Michael L Hile, Dennis J Murphy, Davis E Hill, Robert Meinen, Robin C Brandt, Hershel A Elliott, Daniel Hofstetter
Dairy manure storages containing gypsum-based bedding have been linked anecdotally with injury and death due to presumed dangerous levels of gases released. Recycled gypsum products are used as a cost-effective bedding alternative to improve animal welfare and provide agronomic benefits to manure recycled back to the land. Sulfur contained in gypsum (calcium sulfate) can contribute to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas formation under the anaerobic storage conditions typical of dairy manure slurry. Disturbance of stored manure during agitation releases a burst of volatile gases...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140542/perioperative-von-willebrand-factor-dynamics-are-associated-with-liver-regeneration-and-predict-outcome-after-liver-resection
#20
Patrick Starlinger, David Pereyra, Stefanie Haegele, Paul Braeuer, Lukas Oehlberger, Florian Primavesi, Andreas Kohler, Florian Offensperger, Thomas Reiberger, Arnulf Ferlitsch, Barbara Messner, Guido Beldi, Stefan Staettner, Christine Brostjan, Thomas Gruenberger
Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) was found to mediate platelet influx during the early phase of liver regeneration in mice. Further, increased vWF-antigen (vWF-Ag) levels were shown to be predictive for outcome of patients with chronic liver disease. Accordingly, we aimed to assess the relevance of perioperative vWF-Ag dynamics in terms of liver regeneration and clinical outcome in patients undergoing liver resection (LR). Accordingly, we observed that vWF-Ag and its activity - estimated via ristocetin cofactor measurement - increased immediately after induction of liver regeneration and was associated with platelet accumulation within the liver...
November 15, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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