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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812956/toxicity-identification-and-evaluation-for-the-effluent-from-a-nonmetallic-mineral-mining-facility-in-korea-using-d-magna
#2
Sungjong Lee, Hongjoo Ha, JinKyung Hong, Guyoung Kang, Chunsang Hong
Industrial wastewater has attracted increasing attention in recent years because of its impact on ecosystems and human health. Whole-effluent tests are generally used to monitor toxicities of unknown chemicals and conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study described identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to determine the acute toxicity of a nonmetallic mineral mining facility effluent that was toxic to Daphnia magna. In the characterization step (TIE phase I), toxic effects of heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids, and ammonia were screened...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811754/comparative-genome-analysis-of-rathayibacter-tritici-ncppb-1953-with-rathayibacter-toxicus-strains-can-facilitate-studies-on-mechanisms-of-nematode-association-and-host-infection
#3
Jungwook Park, Pyeong An Lee, Hyun-Hee Lee, Kihyuck Choi, Seon-Woo Lee, Young-Su Seo
Rathayibacter tritici, which is a Gram positive, plant pathogenic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterium, causes spike blight in wheat and barley. For successful pathogenesis, R. tritici is associated with Anguina tritici, a nematode, which produces seed galls (ear cockles) in certain plant varieties and facilitates spread of infection. Despite significant efforts, little research is available on the mechanism of disease or bacteria-nematode association of this bacterium due to lack of genomic information. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of R...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#4
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811481/leaky-integrate-and-fire-neuron-by-charge-discharge-dynamics-in-floating-body-mosfet
#5
Sangya Dutta, Vinay Kumar, Aditya Shukla, Nihar R Mohapatra, Udayan Ganguly
Neuro-biology inspired Spiking Neural Network (SNN) enables efficient learning and recognition tasks. To achieve a large scale network akin to biology, a power and area efficient electronic neuron is essential. Earlier, we had demonstrated an LIF neuron by a novel 4-terminal impact ionization based n+/p/n+ with an extended gate (gated-INPN) device by physics simulation. Excellent improvement in area and power compared to conventional analog circuit implementations was observed. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact conventional 3-terminal partially depleted (PD) SOI- MOSFET (100 nm gate length) to replace the 4-terminal gated-INPN device...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811246/microbial-metagenomics-mock-scenario-based-sample-simulation-m3s3
#6
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Shotgun sequencing in increasingly applied in clinical microbiology for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. While software solutions for metagenomics proliferate, integration of metagenomics in clinical care, requires method standardisation and validation. Virtual metagenomics samples could underpin validation by substituting real samples and thus we sought to develop a novel solution for simulation of metagenomics samples based on user-defined clinical scenarios. METHODS: We designed the Microbial Metagenomics Mock Scenario-based Sample Simulation (M3S3) workflow, which allows users to generate virtual samples from raw reads or assemblies...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811221/is-the-hype-around-the-reproductive-health-claims-of-maca-lepidium-meyenii-walp-justified
#7
REVIEW
Shruti Beharry, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811021/quantitative-analysis-of-major-and-trace-elements-in-nh4hf2-modified-silicate-rock-powders-by-laser-ablation-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#8
Wen Zhang, Zhaochu Hu, Yongsheng Liu, Wenwu Yang, Haihong Chen, Shenghong Hu, Hongyan Xiao
In this paper, we described a NH4HF2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH4HF2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d80 < 8.5 μm, and various silicate rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811016/activated-biochar-preparation-characterization-and-electroanalytical-application-in-an-alternative-strategy-of-nickel-determination
#9
Cristiane Kalinke, Paulo Roberto Oliveira, Geovane Arruda Oliveira, Antonio Sálvio Mangrich, Luiz H Marcolino-Junior, Márcio F Bergamini
This work reports for the first time the use of chemically activated biochar as electrode modifier for nickel determination. The biochar activation was performed by refluxing with HNO3, which promoted a higher nickel preconcentration compared to unmodified and modified biochar precursor electrodes. Morphological and structural characterization revealed the increase of surface acid groups, surface area and porosity of biochar after activation. Nickel determination was investigated adopting an alternative voltammetric methodology based on monitoring the Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810229/photodegradation-of-sulfathiazole-under-simulated-sunlight-kinetics-photo-induced-structural-rearrangement-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-photoproducts
#10
Xi-Zhi Niu, Julie Glady-Croué, Jean-Philippe Croué
Photolysis is a core natural process impacting the fate of some sulfonamide antibiotics in sunlit waters. In this study, sunlight-induced phototransformation of sulfathiazole was investigated. A photolytic quantum yield of 0.079 was obtained in buffered water (pH = 8.0). Different natural organic matter isolates inhibited the photolysis of sulfathiazole by light screening effect. A kinetic model was developed to predict the photodegradation rate of sulfathiazole using the light screening correction factor of the water matrix in the wavelength range of 300-350 nm...
August 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810179/utility-of-ultrasound-assisted-cloud-point-extraction-and-spectophotometry-as-a-preconcentration-and-determination-tool-for-the-sensitive-quantification-of-mercury-species-in-fish-samples
#11
Nail Altunay
The current study reports, for the first time, the development of a new analytical method employing ultrasound assisted-cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) for the extraction of CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) species from fish samples. Detection and quantification of mercury species were performed at 550nm by spectrophotometry. The analytical variables affecting complex formation and extraction efficiency were extensively evaluated and optimized by univariate method. Due to behave 14-fold more sensitive and selective of thiophene 2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H2TDC) to Hg(2+) ions than CH3Hg(+) in presence of mixed surfactant, Tween 20 and SDS at pH5...
August 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810070/the-appearance-taste-and-concentrations-of-zolpidem-dissolved-in-still-water-and-carbonated-beverages
#12
Gunhild Heide, Knut Hjelmeland, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Ritva Karinen, Gudrun Høiseth
Zolpidem is a sedative that could be used to drug victims, but its suitability to dissolve in drinks is unknown. In this small study, we added either crushed or whole tablets of zolpidem hemitartrate to carbonated beverages or still water to observe how this affected the taste and appearance. Also, concentrations were measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry at different time intervals. Two crushed tablets (20 mg) in cider (250 mL) lead to a maximum concentration of 84 mg/L zolpidem base after 30 min, while the corresponding concentration after adding fifteen tablets (150 mg) was 467 mg/L...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809987/label-free-ferrohydrodynamic-cell-separation-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#13
Wujun Zhao, Rui Cheng, Brittany D Jenkins, Taotao Zhu, Nneoma E Okonkwo, Courtney E Jones, Melissa B Davis, Sravan K Kavuri, Zhonglin Hao, Carsten Schroeder, Leidong Mao
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have significant implications in both basic cancer research and clinical applications. To address the limited availability of viable CTCs for fundamental and clinical investigations, effective separation of extremely rare CTCs from blood is critical. Ferrohydrodynamic cell separation (FCS), a label-free method that conducted cell sorting based on cell size difference in biocompatible ferrofluids, has thus far not been able to enrich low-concentration CTCs from cancer patients' blood because of technical challenges associated with processing clinical samples...
August 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809708/on-multiple-aer-handshaking-channels-over-high-speed-bit-serial-bidirectional-lvds-links-with-flow-control-and-clock-correction-on-commercial-fpgas-for-scalable-neuromorphic-systems
#14
Amirreza Yousefzadeh, Miroslaw Jablonski, Taras Iakymchuk, Alejandro Linares-Barranco, Alfredo Rosado, Luis A Plana, Steve Temple, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Steve B Furber, Bernabe Linares-Barranco
Address event representation (AER) is a widely employed asynchronous technique for interchanging "neural spikes" between different hardware elements in neuromorphic systems. Each neuron or cell in a chip or a system is assigned an address (or ID), which is typically communicated through a high-speed digital bus, thus time-multiplexing a high number of neural connections. Conventional AER links use parallel physical wires together with a pair of handshaking signals (request and acknowledge). In this paper, we present a fully serial implementation using bidirectional SATA connectors with a pair of low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) wires for each direction...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809707/a-streaming-pca-vlsi-chip-for-neural-data-compression
#15
Tong Wu, Wenfeng Zhao, Hongsun Guo, Hubert H Lim, Zhi Yang
Neural recording system miniaturization and integration with low-power wireless technologies require compressing neural data before transmission. Feature extraction is a procedure to represent data in a low-dimensional space; its integration into a recording chip can be an efficient approach to compress neural data. In this paper, we propose a streaming principal component analysis algorithm and its microchip implementation to compress multichannel local field potential (LFP) and spike data. The circuits have been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology and occupy a silicon area of 0...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809551/direct-speciation-analysis-of-arsenic-in-whole-blood-and-blood-plasma-at-low-exposure-levels-by-hydride-generation-cryotrapping-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#16
Tomáš Matoušek, Zhifeng Wang, Christelle Douillet, Stanislav Musil, Miroslav Stýblo
A method for analysis of toxicologically important arsenic species in blood plasma and whole blood by selective hydride generation with cryotrapping (HG-CT) coupled either to atomic absorption (AAS) with a quartz multiatomizer or to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been validated. Sample preparation which involved only 5 times dilution with addition of Triton X-100, Antifoam B and L-cysteine suppressed excessive foaming in a hydride generator. Calibration slopes for whole blood and blood plasma spiked with arsenate, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate at 0...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808347/taini-maximizing-research-output-whilst-improving-animals-welfare-in-neurophysiology-experiments
#17
Zhou Jiang, John R Huxter, Stuart A Bowyer, Anthony J Blockeel, James Butler, Syed A Imtiaz, Keith A Wafford, Keith G Phillips, Mark D Tricklebank, Hugh M Marston, Esther Rodriguez-Villegas
Understanding brain function at the cell and circuit level requires representation of neuronal activity through multiple recording sites and at high sampling rates. Traditional tethered recording systems restrict movement and limit the environments suitable for testing, while existing wireless technology is still too heavy for extended recording in mice. Here we tested TaiNi, a novel ultra-lightweight (<2 g) low power wireless system allowing 72-hours of recording from 16 channels sampled at ~19.5 KHz (9...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808332/magnetic-microsphere-based-portable-solid-phase-extraction-device-for-on-site-pre-concentration-of-organics-from-large-volume-water-samples
#18
Zhijian Yao, Qingqing Zhao, Yan Ma, Wei Wang, Qing Zhou, Aimin Li
In this research a new magnetic material called M88 was fully synthetized and characterized for the extraction of pharmaceutical and personal care products in water samples. In addition, a portable prototype of magnetic solidphase extraction (MSPE) device was developed for the onsite preconcentration. The MSPE coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-Diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 11 PPCPs (mefenamic acid, chloroamphenicol, ketoprofen, clofibric acid, indometacin, acetylsalicylic acid, bisphenol A, phenylphenol, gemfibrozil, triclosan, and ibuprofen) in environmental water samples...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808100/hacking-the-thylakoid-proton-motive-force-for-improved-photosynthesis-modulating-ion-flux-rates-that-control-proton-motive-force-partitioning-into-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-and-%C3%AE-ph
#19
REVIEW
Geoffry A Davis, A William Rutherford, David M Kramer
There is considerable interest in improving plant productivity by altering the dynamic responses of photosynthesis in tune with natural conditions. This is exemplified by the 'energy-dependent' form of non-photochemical quenching (qE), the formation and decay of which can be considerably slower than natural light fluctuations, limiting photochemical yield. In addition, we recently reported that rapidly fluctuating light can produce field recombination-induced photodamage (FRIP), where large spikes in electric field across the thylakoid membrane (Δψ) induce photosystem II recombination reactions that produce damaging singlet oxygen ((1)O2)...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807998/immunogenicity-and-structures-of-a-rationally-designed-prefusion-mers-cov-spike-antigen
#20
Jesper Pallesen, Nianshuang Wang, Kizzmekia S Corbett, Daniel Wrapp, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Hannah L Turner, Christopher A Cottrell, Michelle M Becker, Lingshu Wang, Wei Shi, Wing-Pui Kong, Erica L Andres, Arminja N Kettenbach, Mark R Denison, James D Chappell, Barney S Graham, Andrew B Ward, Jason S McLellan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a lineage C betacoronavirus that since its emergence in 2012 has caused outbreaks in human populations with case-fatality rates of ∼36%. As in other coronaviruses, the spike (S) glycoprotein of MERS-CoV mediates receptor recognition and membrane fusion and is the primary target of the humoral immune response during infection. Here we use structure-based design to develop a generalizable strategy for retaining coronavirus S proteins in the antigenically optimal prefusion conformation and demonstrate that our engineered immunogen is able to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers against MERS-CoV...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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