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Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
H Sawahata, S Yamagiwa, A Moriya, T Dong, H Oi, Y Ando, R Numano, M Ishida, K Koida, T Kawano
Investigations into mechanisms in various cortical areas can be greatly improved and supported by stable recording of single neuronal activity. In this study, fine silicon wire electrodes (diameter 3 μm, length 160 μm) are fabricated by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with the aim of stabilizing recording and reducing the invasiveness on the measurement procedure. The electrode is fabricated on a modular 1 ×  1 mm(2) conductive silicon block that can be assembled into a number of different device packages, for example on rigid or flexible printed circuit boards (PCB)...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ian Churnin, Joel Michalek, Ali Seifi
BACKGROUND : The impact of the 2003 residency duty hour reform on patient care remains a debated issue. OBJECTIVE : Determine the association between duty hour limits and mortality in patients with nervous system pathology. METHODS : Via a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000-2010, the authors evaluated in-hospital mortality status in those with a primary discharge level diagnosis of disease or disorder of the nervous system...
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Luke Osborn, Rahul Kaliki, Alcimar Soares, Nitish Thakor
Upper limb amputees lack the valuable tactile sensing that helps provide context about the surrounding environment. Here we utilize tactile information to provide active touch feedback to a prosthetic hand. First, we developed fingertip tactile sensors for producing biomimetic spiking responses for monitoring contact, release, and slip of an object grasped by a prosthetic hand. We convert the sensor output into pulses, mimicking the rapid and slowly adapting spiking responses of receptor afferents found in the human body...
April 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
J C Chandler, A Pérez-Méndez, J Paar, M M Doolittle, B Bisha, L D Goodridge
Fecal contamination of water poses a significant risk to public health due to the potential presence of pathogens, including enteric viruses. Therefore, sensitive, reliable and easy to use methods for the concentration, detection and quantification of microorganisms associated with the safety and quality of water are needed. In this study, we performed a field evaluation of an anion exchange resin based method to concentrate male-specific (F+) RNA coliphages (FRNA), fecal indicator organisms, from diverse environmental waters that were suspected to be contaminated with feces...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Luigi di Bitonto, Angela Volpe, Michele Pagano, Giuseppe Bagnuolo, Giuseppe Mascolo, Valeria La Parola, Paola Di Leo, Carlo Pastore
Amorphous titanium hydroxide and boron-doped (B-doped) sodium titanates hydrates were synthetized and used as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) from water. The use of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) as precursors permits a very easy synthesis of B-doped adsorbents at 298K. The new adsorbent materials were first chemically characterized (XRD, XPS, SEM, DRIFT and elemental analysis) and then tested in Pb(2+) adsorption batch experiments, in order to define kinetics and equilibrium studies...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Estefanía Moreno-Gordaliza, Sven J van der Lee, Ayşe Demirkan, Cornelia M van Duijn, Johan Kuiper, Petrus W Lindenburg, Thomas Hankemeier
A new capillary isotachophoresis (cITP) method for lipoprotein profiling with superior lipoprotein coverage compared to previous methods has been developed, resolving twice as many lipoprotein species (18 peaks/fractions) in serum or plasma in less than 9.5 min. For this, a novel mixture of 24 spacers, including amino acids, dipeptides and sulfonic acids, was developed and fine-tuned, using predictive software (PeakMaster) and testing of spiked serum samples. Lipoprotein peaks were identified by serum-spiking with reference lipoproteins...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Paweł Kościelniak, Marcin Wieczorek
An original focus on univariate calibration as an experimental process of quantitative analysis is presented. A novel classification system is introduced against the background of the present situation concerning nomenclature of calibration methods. Namely, it has been revealed that four methods well-known in analytical chemistry: the conventional method, the internal standard method, the indirect method and the dilution method, can be split into those carried out in both the interpolative and the extrapolative mode...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Pan Deng, Li-Qiang Lu, Wei-Cheng Cao, Xi-Ke Tian
The phosphorescent l-cysteine modified manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dots (l-cys-MnZnS QDs) was developed for a highly sensitive detection of permanganate anions (MnO4(-)). l-cys-MnZnS QDs, which were easily synthesized in aqueous media using safe and low-cost materials, can emit intense phosphorescence even though the solution was not deoxygenated. However, the phosphorescence of l-cys-Mn-ZnS QDs was strongly quenched by MnO4(-) ascribed to the oxidation of l-cys and the increase of surface defects on l-cys-MnZnS QDs...
October 19, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Katsuhiko Warita, Nana Oshima, Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time...
October 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
Tong Shu, Jianxing Wang, Lei Su, Xueji Zhang
This study describes a novel ratiometric fluorescent sensor based on chemical etching of gold nanocluster (GNCs) for label-free, separation-free determination of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). TCEP was discovered to exhibit unusual chemical behavior toward fluorescent gold nanoclusters: it quenched the red fluorescent emission of the bovine serum album (BSA)-protected GNCs (GNCs@BSA) and simultaneously restored the blue fluorescent emission of the dityrosine (diTyr) residues of the BSA ligand. The TCEP-induced quenching of the fluorescent GNCs@BSA was investigated with the UV-vis adsorption spectrum, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MOLDI-TOF-MS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing the chemical etching of the gold(0) core of the GNCs@BSA by TCEP...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Giorgia La Barbera, Roberto Samperi, Salvatore Ventura, Aldo Laganà
Recently, magnetic solid-phase extraction has gained interest because it presents various operational advantages over classical solid-phase extraction. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles are easy to prepare, and various materials can be used in their synthesis. In the literature, there are only few studies on the determination of mycoestrogens in milk, although their carryover in milk has occurred. In this work, we wanted to develop the first (to the best of our knowledge) magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol for six mycoestrogens from milk, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
E Vieira Dos Santos, C Sáez, P Cañizares, C A Martínez-Huitle, M A Rodrigo
This study demonstrates the application of reversible electrokinetic adsorption barrier (REKAB) technology to soils spiked with low-solubility pollutants. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of granular activated carbon (GAC) was placed between the anode and cathode of an electrokinetic (EK) soil remediation bench-scale setup with the aim of enhancing the removal of two low-solubility herbicides (atrazine and oxyfluorfen) using a surfactant solution (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the flushing fluid. This innovative study focused on evaluating the interaction between the EK system and the GAC-PRB, attempting to obtain insights into the primary mechanisms involved...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Michelle M A C Ribeiro, Thiago C Oliveira, Alex D Batista, Rodrigo A A Muñoz, Eduardo M Richter
This paper reports for the first time, a method for simultaneous determination of naphazoline (NPZ) and zinc (Zn) using an analytical separation technique (capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection -CE-C(4)D). A single run is possible every 55s (sampling rate=65h(-1)). The separation by CE-C(4)D was achieved on a fused silica capillary (50cm length - 10cm effective, 50μm i.d.) with a background electrolyte (BGE) composed by 20mmolL(-1) of 2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethane-1-sulfonic acid (MES) and 20mmolL(-1) of histidine (HIS) (pH 6...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Shirin Babaee, Ali Daneshfar, Tahere Khezeli
Magnetically separable layered double hydroxide Ni/CuAl-LDH nanocomposites were synthesized and employed as ultrasonic-assisted dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (UA-D-μSPE) sorbent to extract several carboxylic acids (namely propionic, butyric, pentanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and decanoic) from non-alcoholic beer samples. Ni/CuAl-LDH sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Effective variables such as amount of sorbent (mg), pH and ionic strength of sample solution, volume of eluent solvent (μL), vortex, and ultrasonic times (min) were investigated via fractional factorial design (FFD)...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sonia Bahrani, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood Mansoorkhani, Arash Asfaram, Ali Akbar Bazrafshan, Mihir Kumar Purkait
The present research focus on designing an appropriate dispersive solid-phase microextraction (UA-DSPME) for preconcentration and determination of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) in aqueous solutions with aid of sonication using lead (II) dioxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (PbO-NPs-AC). This material was fully identified with XRD and SEM. Influence of pH, amounts of sorbent, type and volume of eluent, and sonication time on response properties were investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with surface response methodology using STATISTICA...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
E Vieira Dos Santos, C Sáez, P Cañizares, C A Martínez-Huitle, M A Rodrigo
This works is focused on the treatment by sono-electrolysis of the liquid effluents produced during the Surfactant-Aided Soil-Washing (SASW) of soils spiked with herbicide oxyfluorfen. Results show that this combined technology is very efficient and attains the complete mineralization of the waste, regardless of the surfactant/soil radio applied in the SASW process (which is the main parameter of the soil remediation process and leads to very different wastes). Both the surfactant and the herbicide are completely degraded, even when single electrolysis is used; and only two intermediates are detected by HPLC in very low concentrations...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
K R Sabitha, D Sanjay, B Savita, T R Raju, T R Laxmi
Neurons communicate with each other through intricate network to evolve higher brain functions. The electrical activity of the neurons plays a crucial role in shaping the connectivity. With motor neurons being vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases, understanding the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons is the need of the hour, in order to comprehend the impairment of connectivity in these diseases. NSC-34 cell line serves as an excellent model to study the properties of motor neurons as they express Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xiaoqian Liu, Jingjing Wang, Yi Chu, Xiaoying Zhou
Dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) is a lysosomal cysteine protease and derived from immune granule cells. It has been suggested playing an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, a coumarin based fluorescent probe (GF-AFC) was designed and synthesized to evaluate DPPI activity in serum or tissue homogenates of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats, an inflammatory arthropathy model. It was revealed that the fluorescent intensity was significantly increased in a very short time after specific substrate GF-AFC reacted with the DPPI...
October 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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