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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786837/high-intensity-ultrasound-for-salmonella-enteritidis-inactivation-in-culture-and-liquid-whole-eggs
#1
Chayapa Techathuvanan, Doris Helen D'Souza
High intensity ultrasound (HIU) continues to be researched as a nonthermal inactivation technology of appeal to food manufacturers. The advantages of HIU include maintenance of product quality, freshness, product homogenization, along with simultaneous inactivation of pathogens. Besides, it is simple, relatively inexpensive, and easily adaptable to most processing environments. This study investigated the effect of HIU for Salmonella Enteritidis inactivation in culture and liquid whole eggs (LWEs) to decrease egg-associated outbreaks...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786498/hcov-229e-spike-protein-fusion-activation-by-trypsin-like-serine-proteases-is-mediated-by-proteolytic-processing-in-the-s2-region
#2
Ariane Bonnin, Adeline Danneels, Jean Dubuisson, Anne Goffard, Sandrine Belouzard
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is responsible for common colds. Like other coronaviruses, HCoV-229E exploits cellular proteases to activate fusion mediated by the spike protein. We analysed the proteolytic processing of the HCoV-229E spike protein by trypsin-like serine proteases leading to activation of the fusion process. Unlike in other coronaviruses, HCoV-229E fusion activation appears to be a one-step process. Indeed, cleavage of the S1/S2 interface does not seem to be a prerequisite, and the fusion activation is highly reliant on the S2' region, with arginine residue 683 acting as the recognition site...
May 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786083/attention-improves-memory-by-suppressing-spiking-neuron-activity-in-the-human-anterior-temporal-lobe
#3
John H Wittig, Anthony I Jang, John B Cocjin, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
We identify a memory-specific attention mechanism in the human anterior temporal lobe, an area implicated in semantic processing and episodic memory formation. Spiking neuron activity is suppressed and becomes more reliable in preparation for verbal memory formation. Intracranial electroencephalography signals implicate this region as a source of executive control for attentional selection. Consistent with this interpretation, its surgical removal causes significant memory impairment for attended words relative to unattended words...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785728/ultrafast-capillary-electrophoresis-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-ammonium-and-diphenhydramine-in-pharmaceutical-samples
#4
Brenda M C Costa, Mariana C Marra, Thiago C Oliveira, Rodrigo A A Munoz, Alex D Batista, Claudimir L do Lago, Eduardo M Richter
Ammonium and diphenhydramine are active ingredients commonly found in the same pharmaceutical preparations. We report for the first time a sub-minute method for the simultaneous determination of ammonium and diphenhydramine. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. Both analytes can be quantified in a single run (∼80 injections h-1 ) using 30 mmol L-1 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 15 mmol L-1 lithium hydroxide (pH = 6.0) as a background electrolyte...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785502/comparative-persistence-of-human-sewage-specific-enterococcal-bacteriophages-in-freshwater-and-seawater
#5
Namfon Booncharoen, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Kwanrawee Sirikanchana
Enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been recently reported for their ability to host bacteriophages that are specifically from human sewage, suggesting their application to track human fecal contamination in water resources. However, little is known about the survivability of sewage-specific enterococcal bacteriophages in various water matrices under ambient and storage conditions. In this study, bacteriophages that were derived from the Thailand-isolated E. faecalis strains AIM06 and SR14 exhibited morphologies consistent with the Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae families...
May 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784645/harnessing-post-translational-modifications-for-next-generation-hiv-immunogens
#6
REVIEW
Joel D Allen, Rogier W Sanders, Katie J Doores, Max Crispin
The extensive post-translational modifications of the envelope spikes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) present considerable challenges and opportunities for HIV vaccine design. These oligomeric glycoproteins typically have over 30 disulfide bonds and around a 100 N-linked glycosylation sites, and are functionally dependent on protease cleavage within the secretory system. The resulting mature structure adopts a compact fold with the vast majority of its surface obscured by a protective shield of glycans which can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs)...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#7
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784410/part-3-solid-phase-extraction-of-russian-vx-and-its-chemical-attribution-signatures-in-food-matrices-and-their-detection-by-gc-ms-and-lc-ms
#8
Audrey M Williams, Alexander K Vu, Brian P Mayer, Saphon Hok, Carlos A Valdez, Armando Alcaraz
Chemical attribution signatures indicative of O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Russian VX) synthetic routes were investigated in spiked food samples. Attribution signatures were identified using a multifaceted approach: Russian VX was synthesized using six synthetic routes and the chemical attribution signatures identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. Three synthetic routes were then down selected and spiked into complex matrices: bottled water, baby food, milk, liquid eggs, and hot dogs. Sampling and extraction methodologies were developed for these materials and used to isolate the attribution signatures and Russian VX from each matrix...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784408/part-2-forensic-attribution-profiling-of-russian-vx-in-food-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#9
Daniel Jansson, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Rikard Norlin, Saphon Hok, Carlos A Valdez, Audrey M Williams, Armando Alcaraz, Calle Nilsson, Crister Åstot
This work is part two of a three-part series in this issue of a Sweden-United States collaborative effort towards the understanding of the chemical attribution signatures of Russian VX (VR) in synthesized samples and complex food matrices. In this study, we describe the sourcing of VR present in food based on chemical analysis of attribution signatures by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. Analytical data was acquired from seven different foods spiked with VR batches that were synthesized via six different routes in two separate laboratories...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784371/phosphate-imprinted-magnetic-nanoparticles-using-phenylphosphonic-acid-as-a-template-for-excellent-recognition-of-tyrosine-phosphopeptides
#10
Qisi Liu, Kaina Zhang, Yuhao Jin, Xiangfeng Wang, Yuan Liu, Hailing Liu, Mengxia Xie
The tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and peptides plays a vital role in cell signal transduction pathways, and it is very important to assay them for understanding their action mechanism. Due to the low levels of the tyrosine phosphopeptides (pTyr) in cells, it is a challenge to enrich them with traditional sorbents, therefore, development of specific and selective sorbents is urgent and necessary. In this work, the phosphate-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs) to enrich the pTyr with high efficiency and selectivity have been fabricated using the phenylphosphonic acid as a template for the "epitope" of pTyr...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784365/rapid-detection-of-four-mycotoxins-in-corn-using-a-microfluidics-and-microarray-based-immunoassay-system
#11
Yiqi Chen, Xiangrui Meng, Yunzeng Zhu, Minjie Shen, Ying Lu, Jing Cheng, Youchun Xu
Mycotoxins threaten human health seriously because they usually exist in food, fodder and commodities. In this study, a rapid and sensitive immunoassay system for commonly encountered mycotoxins was established based on microfluidics and protein microarrays. Four mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) can be automatically detected in a custom-made microdevice within 30 min under the assistance of a prototype of the instrument with a fluid control system and an imaging system. Once the microdevices are fabricated, they are small-sized and user-friendly...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784363/a-colorimetric-immunoassay-based-on-glucose-oxidase-induced-aunp-aggregation-for-the-detection-of-fumonisin-b-1
#12
Xirui Chen, Yi Liang, Wenjing Zhang, Yuankui Leng, Yonghua Xiong
Naked-eye readout colorimetric signal-based assays are promising for high-throughput screening detection and point-of-care diagnostics in resource-constrained regions. Here, a novel direct competitive plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-pELISA) based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP) aggregation with highly sensitive and robust naked-eye readout signal was developed and used to detect fumonisin B1 (FB1 ). AuNP aggregation was induced by a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )/tyramine (TYR) system, resulting in a dramatic color change from red to blue...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784360/determination-of-cadmium-in-sediments-by-diluted-hci-extraction-and-isotope-dilution-icp-ms
#13
Javier Terán-Baamonde, Rosa-María Soto-Ferreiro, Alatzne Carlosena, José-Manuel Andrade, Darío Prada
Isotope dilution ICP-MS is proposed to measure the mass fraction of Cd extracted by diluted HCl in marine sediments, using a fast and simple extraction procedure based on ultrasonic probe agitation. The 111 Cd isotope was added before the extraction to achieve isotope equilibration with native Cd solubilized from the sample. The parameters affecting trueness and precision of isotope ratio measurements were evaluated carefully and subsequently corrected in order to minimize errors; they were: detector dead time, spectral interferences, mass discrimination factor and optimum sample/spike ratio...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784346/speciation-of-organic-inorganic-mercury-and-total-mercury-in-blood-samples-using-vortex-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-based-on-the-freezing-of-deep-eutectic-solvent-followed-by-gfaas
#14
Reza Akramipour, Mohammad Reza Golpayegani, Simin Gheini, Nazir Fattahi
In this research, a new vortex assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the freezing of deep eutectic solvent (VADLLME-FDES) has been developed for the determination of organic mercury (R-Hg) and inorganic mercury (Hg2+ ) in blood samples prior to their analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In this method, a green solvent consisting of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-undecanol was used as an extraction solvent, yielding the advantages of material stability, low density, and a suitable freezing point near room temperature...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784336/a-sensitive-colorimetric-immunosensor-based-on-cu-mofs-and-hrp-for-detection-of-dibutyl-phthalate-in-environmental-and-food-samples
#15
Nuanfei Zhu, Yanmin Zou, Menglu Huang, Shuaibing Dong, Xiangyang Wu, Guoxi Liang, Zhixiang Han, Zhen Zhang
A sensitive and artful colorimetric immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was designed by labelling metal-organic frameworks (Cu-MOFs) on the second antibody (Cu-MOFs@Ab2 ) as signal amplification for the detection of trace dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In this system, when Cu-MOFs@Ab2 was captured by antigen- primary antibody (Ab1 ) complex, tremendous Cu(II) will be released from Cu-MOFs in the presence of nitric acid (HNO3 ), and Cu(II) will be further reduced to Cu(I) after the addition of sodium ascorbate (SA), consequently, inhibiting the HRP to catalyse the colorless 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into blue oxidized TMB (ox TMB)...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784018/adding-colchicine-to-immunosuppressive-treatments-a-potential-option-for-biologics-refractory-adult-onset-still-s-disease
#16
Tomoyuki Asano, Makiko Yashiro Furuya, Shuzo Sato, Hiroko Kobayashi, Hiroshi Watanabe, Eiji Suzuki, Kiyoshi Migita
BACKGROUND: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by the classical triad of daily spiking fever, arthritis, and typical salmon-colored rash. Resistance to first-line corticosteroids and second-line disease modified anti-rheumatic-drugs defines refractory AOSD, which mostly includes the polycyclic or chronic courses of the disease. Anti-cytokine therapies are recommended in AOSD patients who are refractory to traditional treatments. This is the first report on the efficacy of colchicine in a patient with AOSD which was refractory to immunosuppressive treatments including biologics...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783625/a-simple-alternative-method-for-preservation-of-2-methylisoborneol-in-water-samples
#17
Chun-Cheng Fan, Yi-Ting Chiu, Tsair-Fuh Lin
2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is one of the most commonly observed taste and odor (T&O) compounds present in drinking water sources. As it is biodegradable, a preservation agent, typically mercury chloride, is needed if the water is not analyzed right after sampling. Since mercury is a toxic metal, an alternative chemical that is cheaper and less toxic is desirable. In this study, two chemicals commonly used in water treatment processes, chlorine (as sodium hypochlorite) and KMnO₄ (potassium permanganate), are studied to determine their feasibility as preservation agents for 2-MIB in water...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783148/comparative-study-of-six-sequential-spectrophotometric-methods-for-quantification-and-separation-of-ribavirin-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-an-application-on-laboratory-prepared-mixture-pharmaceutical-preparations-spiked-human-urine-spiked-human-plasma-and-dissolution
#18
Wafaa S Hassan, Manal S Elmasry, Heba M Elsayed, Dalia W Zidan
In accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines, six novel, simple and precise sequential spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of Ribavirin (RIB), Sofosbuvir (SOF), and Daclatasvir (DAC) in their mixture without prior separation steps. These drugs are described as co-administered for treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is the cause of hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and lymphomas in humans...
May 18, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782519/increased-circulating-microrna-122-is-a-biomarker-for-discrimination-and-risk-stratification-in-patients-defined-by-sepsis-3-criteria
#19
Tim Rahmel, Simon T Schäfer, Ulrich H Frey, Michael Adamzik, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is now operationally defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an infection, identified by an acute change in SOFA-Score of at least two points, including clinical chemistry such as creatinine or bilirubin concentrations. However, little knowledge exists about organ-specific microRNAs as potentially new biomarkers. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that micro-RNA-122, the foremost liver-related micro-RNA (miR), 1) discriminates between sepsis and infection, 2) is an early predictor for mortality, and 3) improves the prognostic value of the SOFA-score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782491/community-based-benchmarking-improves-spike-rate-inference-from-two-photon-calcium-imaging-data
#20
Philipp Berens, Jeremy Freeman, Thomas Deneux, Nicolay Chenkov, Thomas McColgan, Artur Speiser, Jakob H Macke, Srinivas C Turaga, Patrick Mineault, Peter Rupprecht, Stephan Gerhard, Rainer W Friedrich, Johannes Friedrich, Liam Paninski, Marius Pachitariu, Kenneth D Harris, Ben Bolte, Timothy A Machado, Dario Ringach, Jasmine Stone, Luke E Rogerson, Nicolas J Sofroniew, Jacob Reimer, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Thomas Euler, Miroslav Román Rosón, Lucas Theis, Andreas S Tolias, Matthias Bethge
In recent years, two-photon calcium imaging has become a standard tool to probe the function of neural circuits and to study computations in neuronal populations. However, the acquired signal is only an indirect measurement of neural activity due to the comparatively slow dynamics of fluorescent calcium indicators. Different algorithms for estimating spike rates from noisy calcium measurements have been proposed in the past, but it is an open question how far performance can be improved. Here, we report the results of the spikefinder challenge, launched to catalyze the development of new spike rate inference algorithms through crowd-sourcing...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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