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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352492/variability-of-pulsed-energy-outputs-from-three-dermatology-lasers-during-multiple-simulated-treatments
#1
J Britton
BACKGROUND: Dermatology laser treatments are undertaken at regional departments using lasers of different powers and wavelengths. In order to achieve good outcomes there need to be good consistency of laser output across different weeks as it is custom and practice to break down the treatments into individual fractions. Departments will also collect information from test patches to help decide on the most appropriate treatment parameters for individual patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of these experiments is to assess the variability of the energy outputs from a small number of lasers across multiple weeks at realistic parameters...
January 20, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352412/management-regime-is-the-most-important-factor-influencing-ectomycorrhizal-species-community-in-norway-spruce-forests-after-windthrow
#2
Martina Vašutová, Magda Edwards-Jonášová, Petra Veselá, Lenka Effenberková, Peter Fleischer, Pavel Cudlín
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, as symbionts of many tree species in temperate forests, are thought to play an important role in forest regeneration processes after large disturbances. Their reaction to different disturbance and management regimes was studied in spruce forests (Lariceto-Piceetum) 10 years after a severe windthrow in the Tatra National Park (Slovak Republic). ECM community structure was compared between different "management types″-cleared area (EXT), area affected by wildfire (FIRE), uncleared area left for natural development (NEX), and mature forest as a control (REF)...
January 19, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351585/core-differences-in-synaptic-signaling-between-primary-visual-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Sheng-Tao Yang, Min Wang, Constantinos D Paspalas, Johanna L Crimins, Marcus T Altman, James A Mazer, Amy F T Arnsten
Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are more resilient than those in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in aging, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The current study compared glutamate and neuromodulatory actions in macaque V1 to those in dlPFC, and found striking regional differences. V1 neuronal firing to visual stimuli depended on AMPA receptors, with subtle NMDA receptor contributions, while dlPFC depends primarily on NMDA receptors. Neuromodulatory actions also differed between regions. In V1, cAMP signaling increased neuronal firing, and the phosphodiesterase PDE4A was positioned to regulate cAMP effects on glutamate release from axons...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351450/cardiac-vanilloid-receptor-1-afferent-depletion-enhances-stellate-ganglion-neuronal-activity-and-efferent-sympathetic-response-to-cardiac-stress
#4
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351332/impedance-spectroscopy-of-single-bacterial-nanofilament-reveals-water-mediated-charge-transfer
#5
Artem Grebenko, Vyacheslav Dremov, Petr Barzilovich, Anton Bubis, Konstantin Sidoruk, Tatiyana Voeikova, Zarina Gagkaeva, Timur Chernov, Evgeny Korostylev, Boris Gorshunov, Konstantin Motovilov
For decades respiratory chain and photosystems were the main firing field of the studies devoted to mechanisms of electron transfer in proteins. The concept of conjugated lateral electron and transverse proton transport during cellular respiration and photosynthesis, which was formulated in the beginning of 1960-s, has been confirmed by thousands of experiments. However, charge transfer in recently discovered bacterial nanofilaments produced by various electrogenic bacteria is regarded currently outside of electron and proton conjugation concept...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351323/fire-forbids-fifty-fifty-forest
#6
Egbert H van Nes, Arie Staal, Stijn Hantson, Milena Holmgren, Salvador Pueyo, Rafael E Bernardi, Bernardo M Flores, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer
Recent studies have interpreted patterns of remotely sensed tree cover as evidence that forest with intermediate tree cover might be unstable in the tropics, as it will tip into either a closed forest or a more open savanna state. Here we show that across all continents the frequency of wildfires rises sharply as tree cover falls below ~40%. Using a simple empirical model, we hypothesize that the steepness of this pattern causes intermediate tree cover (30‒60%) to be unstable for a broad range of assumptions on tree growth and fire-driven mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351009/life-history-traits-evolved-jointly-with-climatic-niche-and-disturbance-regime-in-the-genus-leucadendron-proteaceae
#7
Jeanne Tonnabel, Frank M Schurr, Florian Boucher, Wilfried Thuiller, Julien Renaud, Emmanuel J P Douzery, Ophélie Ronce
Organisms have evolved a diversity of life-history strategies to cope with variation in their environment. Persistence as adults and/or seeds across recruitment events allows species to dampen the effects of environmental fluctuations. The evolution of life cycles with overlapping generations should thus permit the colonization of environments with uncertain recruitment. We tested this hypothesis in Leucadendron (Proteaceae), a genus with high functional diversity native to fire-prone habitats in the South African fynbos...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349781/mirror-neurons-and-intention-understanding-dissociating-the-contribution-of-object-type-and-intention-to-mirror-responses-using-electromyography
#8
Maura Ruggiero, Caroline Catmur
Since their discovery in the monkey and human brain, mirror neurons have been claimed to play a key role in understanding others' intentions. For example, "action-constrained" mirror neurons in inferior parietal lobule fire when the monkey observes a grasping movement that is followed by an eating action, but not when it is followed by a placing action. It is claimed these responses enable the monkey to predict the intentions of the actor. These findings have been replicated in human observers by recording electromyography responses of the mouth-opening mylohyoid muscle during action observation...
January 18, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349574/pacific-ciguatoxin-induces-excitotoxicity-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-motor-cortex-via-caspase-3-activation-implication-for-irreversible-motor-deficit
#9
Pallavi Asthana, Ni Zhang, Gajendra Kumar, Virendra Bhagawan Chine, Kunal Kumar Singh, Yim Ling Mak, Leo Lai Chan, Paul Kwan Sing Lam, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349103/wildfire-spread-hazard-and-exposure-metric-raster-grids-for-central-catalonia
#10
Fermín J Alcasena, Alan A Ager, Michele Salis, Michelle A Day, Cristina Vega-Garcia
We provide 40 m resolution wildfire spread, hazard and exposure metric raster grids for the 0.13 million ha fire-prone Bages County in central Catalonia (northeastern Spain) corresponding to node influence grid (NIG), crown fraction burned (CFB) and fire transmission to residential houses (TR). Fire spread and behavior data (NIG, CFB and fire perimeters) were generated with fire simulation modeling considering wildfire season extreme fire weather conditions (97th percentile). Moreover, CFB was also generated for prescribed fire (Rx) mild weather conditions...
April 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348594/myelination-of-purkinje-axons-is-critical-for-resilient-synaptic-transmission-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nucleus
#11
Tara Barron, Julia Saifetiarova, Manzoor A Bhat, Jun Hee Kim
The roles of myelin in maintaining axonal integrity and action potential (AP) propagation are well established, but its role in synapse maintenance and neurotransmission remains largely understudied. Here, we investigated how Purkinje axon myelination regulates synaptic transmission in the Purkinje to deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) synapses using the Long Evans Shaker (LES) rat, which lacks compact myelin and thus displays severe locomotion deficits. DCN neurons fired spontaneous action potentials (APs), whose frequencies were dependent on the extent of myelin...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347806/synchrony-induced-modes-of-oscillation-of-a-neural-field-model
#12
Jose M Esnaola-Acebes, Alex Roxin, Daniele Avitabile, Ernest Montbrió
We investigate the modes of oscillation of heterogeneous ring networks of quadratic integrate-and-fire (QIF) neurons with nonlocal, space-dependent coupling. Perturbations of the equilibrium state with a particular wave number produce transient standing waves with a specific temporal frequency, analogously to those in a tense string. In the neuronal network, the equilibrium corresponds to a spatially homogeneous, asynchronous state. Perturbations of this state excite the network's oscillatory modes, which reflect the interplay of episodes of synchronous spiking with the excitatory-inhibitory spatial interactions...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347805/spectral-signatures-of-activity-dependent-neural-feedback-in-the-corticothalamic-system
#13
N Roy, P Sanz-Leon, P A Robinson
The modulation of neural quantities by presynaptic and postsynaptic activities via local feedback processes is investigated by incorporating nonlinear phenomena such as relative refractory period, synaptic enhancement, synaptic depression, and habituation. This is done by introducing susceptibilities, which quantify the response in either firing threshold or synaptic strength to unit change in either presynaptic or postsynaptic activity. Effects on the power spectra are then analyzed for a realistic corticothalamic model to determine the spectral signatures of various nonlinear processes and to what extent these are distinct...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347732/population-equations-for-degree-heterogenous-neural-networks
#14
M Kähne, I M Sokolov, S Rüdiger
We develop a statistical framework for studying recurrent networks with broad distributions of the number of synaptic links per neuron. We treat each group of neurons with equal input degree as one population and derive a system of equations determining the population-averaged firing rates. The derivation rests on an assumption of a large number of neurons and, additionally, an assumption of a large number of synapses per neuron. For the case of binary neurons, analytical solutions can be constructed, which correspond to steps in the activity versus degree space...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347727/nonlinear-dynamics-of-a-buoyancy-induced-turbulent-fire
#15
Kazushi Takagi, Hiroshi Gotoda, Isao T Tokuda, Takaya Miyano
We conduct a numerical study on the dynamic behavior of a buoyancy-induced turbulent fire from the viewpoints of symbolic dynamics, complex networks, and statistical complexity. Here, we consider two classes of entropies: the permutation entropy and network entropy in ε-recurrence networks, both of which evaluate the degree of randomness in the underlying dynamics. These entropies enable us to capture the significant changes in the dynamic behavior of flow velocity fluctuations. The possible presence of two important dynamics, low-dimensional deterministic chaos in the near field dominated by the motion of large-scale vortices and high-dimensional chaos in the far field forming a well-developed turbulent plume, is clearly identified by the multiscale complexity-entropy causality plane...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347715/cusps-enable-line-attractors-for-neural-computation
#16
Zhuocheng Xiao, Jiwei Zhang, Andrew T Sornborger, Louis Tao
Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347661/activity-driven-changes-in-the-mechanical-properties-of-fire-ant-aggregations
#17
Michael Tennenbaum, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves
Fire ant aggregations are active materials composed of individual constituents that are able to transform internal energy into work. We find using rheology and direct visualization that the aggregation undergoes activity cycles that affect the mechanical properties of the system. When the activity is high, the aggregation approximately equally stores and dissipates energy, it is more homogeneous, and exerts a high outward force. When the activity is low, the aggregation is predominantly elastic, it is more heterogeneous, and it exerts a small outward force...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347512/symmetry-breaking-in-two-interacting-populations-of-quadratic-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#18
Irmantas Ratas, Kestutis Pyragas
We analyze the dynamics of two coupled identical populations of quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons, which represent the canonical model for class I neurons near the spiking threshold. The populations are heterogeneous; they include both inherently spiking and excitable neurons. The coupling within and between the populations is global via synapses that take into account the finite width of synaptic pulses. Using a recently developed reduction method based on the Lorentzian ansatz, we derive a closed system of equations for the neuron's firing rates and the mean membrane potentials in both populations...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347051/enhanced-capital-asset-pricing-model-for-the-reconstruction-of-bipartite-financial-networks
#19
Tiziano Squartini, Assaf Almog, Guido Caldarelli, Iman van Lelyveld, Diego Garlaschelli, Giulio Cimini
Reconstructing patterns of interconnections from partial information is one of the most important issues in the statistical physics of complex networks. A paramount example is provided by financial networks. In fact, the spreading and amplification of financial distress in capital markets are strongly affected by the interconnections among financial institutions. Yet, while the aggregate balance sheets of institutions are publicly disclosed, information on single positions is mostly confidential and, as such, unavailable...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346970/evoking-prescribed-spike-times-in-stochastic-neurons
#20
Jens Doose, Benjamin Lindner
Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
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