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Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Xing Chen, Wang Kang, Daoqian Zhu, Xichao Zhang, Na Lei, Youguang Zhang, Yan Zhou, Weisheng Zhao
Neuromorphic computing, which relies on a combination of a large number of neurons massively interconnected by an even larger number of synapses, has been actively studied for its characteristics such as energy efficiency, intelligence, and adaptability. To date, while the development of artificial synapses has shown great progress with the introduction of emerging nanoelectronic devices, e.g., memristive devices, the implementation of artificial neurons, however, depends mostly on semiconductor-based circuits via integrating many transistors, sacrificing energy efficiency and integration density...
March 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Mohammad Yazdi, Orhan Korhan, Sahand Daneshvar
This study aimed at establishing fault tree analysis (FTA) using expert opinion to compute the probability of an event. Thus, in order to find the probability of the top event (TE), all probabilities of the basic events (BEs) should be available when FTA is drawn for an event. In this case, employing expert judgment can be used as an alternative to failure data in an awkward situation. The fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) as a standard technique is used to give a specific weight to each expert, and fuzzy set theory is engaged for aggregating expert opinion...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Silje B Jørgensen, Nina Handal, Kaja Linn Fjeldsæter, Lars Kåre Kleppe, Torni Myrbakk, Dorthea Hagen Oma, Yngvar Tveten, Mette Walberg, Grethe Ørnevik
BAKGRUNN: I norsk helsevesen gjennomføres omfattende tiltak for å hindre spredning av meticillinresistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Vi ønsket å undersøke hvor mange smitteoppsporinger som gjøres rundt nyoppdagede MRSA-tilfeller hos pasienter og ansatte i sykehus, og hvor ofte smitteoppsporingene fører til ytterligere funn hos helsepersonell. MATERIALE OG METODE: I denne retrospektive observasjonsstudien bidro smittevernenhetene ved åtte helseforetak i landets fire helseregioner med opplysninger om MRSA-funn hos helsepersonell etter gjennomførte MRSA-smitteoppsporinger...
March 19, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Jan Hammer, Didrik Heggdal, Arne Lillelien, Peggy Lilleby, Roar Fosse
BAKGRUNN: Vestre Viken tilbyr basal eksponeringsterapi til døgnpasienter med alvorlige sammensatte psykiske lidelser og lavt funksjonsnivå. I behandlingen kan de som ønsker det få hjelp til å bli medisinfrie. Det sentrale behandlingselementet er eksponering for uønskede indre opplevelser, betegnet som eksistensiell katastrofeangst. Vi undersøkte pasientenes psykososiale fungering etter minst to år etter avsluttet døgnbehandling. MATERIALE OG METODE: Det var tilgjengelige data for 33 av 36 utskrevne pasienter...
March 19, 2018: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Lamri Naidja, Hocine Ali-Khodja, Salah Khardi
In order to assess the significance of PM in ambient air, it is necessary to evaluate their physical and chemical characteristics as well as identify their major emission sources. On a global scale, particulate matter in the atmosphere arises mainly from the combustion process of motorized vehicles, but natural sources are still considered as the major contributors. In Africa, PM emissions differ from those in developed countries; human activities such as biomass burning in households, poor household waste management, and the high number of diesel-powered vehicles are the predominant anthropogenic sources...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie B Williams, Stephanie S Pistorius, Hyun J Park, Taylor J Woodward, Andrew J Payne, J Daniel Obray, Samuel I Shin, Jennifer K Mabey, Scott C Steffensen
The neural mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence are not well-understood. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a relevant target for ethanol. They are inhibited by ethanol at physiologically-relevant levels in vivo and display marked hyperexcitability during withdrawal. In the present study, we examined the effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol on VTA neurons ex vivo following withdrawal from acute and chronic ethanol exposure. We used standard cell-attached mode electrophysiology in the slice preparation to evaluate the effects of muscimol on VTA GABA neuron firing rate following exposure to acute and chronic ethanol in male CD-1 GAD-67 GFP mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dong Chen, Tatiana V Loboda, Tao He, Yi Zhang, Shunlin Liang
The Siberian larch forests, taking up about a fifth of the global boreal biome, are different from the North American boreal forests in that they generally do not undergo a secondary succession. While wildfires in the boreal forests in North America have been shown to exert a cooling effect on the climate system through a sharp increase in surface albedo associated with canopy removal and species composition change during succession, the magnitude of the surface forcing resulting from fire-induced albedo change and its longevity in Siberia have not been previously quantified...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Beverly E Law, Tara W Hudiburg, Logan T Berner, Jeffrey J Kent, Polly C Buotte, Mark E Harmon
Strategies to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions through forestry activities have been proposed, but ecosystem process-based integration of climate change, enhanced CO2 , disturbance from fire, and management actions at regional scales are extremely limited. Here, we examine the relative merits of afforestation, reforestation, management changes, and harvest residue bioenergy use in the Pacific Northwest. This region represents some of the highest carbon density forests in the world, which can store carbon in trees for 800 y or more...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marc Leone, Sophie Medam, Djamel Mokart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Nur Adilla Che Samsuddin, Md Firoz Khan, Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Ahmad Hazuwan Hamid, Fahia Tarannum Munna, Muhammad Aizat Ab Rahim, Mohd Talib Latif, Md Akhtaruzzaman
Southeast Asian haze is a semi-natural phenomenon that chokes the region each year during the dry monsoon season. Smoke-haze episodes caused by the vegetation and peat fires in Indonesia severely affected large parts of Malaysia during the 2015 El Niño phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that influenced the concentrations of aerosol and trace gases during the 2015 haze and non-haze period on a semi-urban site in the southern part of Malaysian peninsula that facing Sumatra (Muar, Site A), and on an urban site near to Kuala Lumpur, influenced by the city centre (Cheras, Site B)...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Haoyuan Hong, Paraskevas Tsangaratos, Ioanna Ilia, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Chong Xu
The main objective of the present study was to utilize Genetic Algorithms (GA) in order to obtain the optimal combination of forest fire related variables and apply data mining methods for constructing a forest fire susceptibility map. In the proposed approach, a Random Forest (RF) and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used to produce a forest fire susceptibility map for the Dayu County which is located in southwest of Jiangxi Province, China. For this purpose, historic forest fires and thirteen forest fire related variables were analyzed, namely: elevation, slope angle, aspect, curvature, land use, soil cover, heat load index, normalized difference vegetation index, mean annual temperature, mean annual wind speed, mean annual rainfall, distance to river network and distance to road network...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon D Griffiths, Philip Chappell, Jane A Entwistle, Frank J Kelly, Michael E Deary
Public exposure to significantly elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) as a result of major fires at industrial sites is a worldwide problem. Our paper describes how the United Kingdom developed its Air Quality in Major Incidents (AQinMI) service to provide fire emission plume concentration data for use by managers at the time of the incident and to allow an informed public health response. It is one of the first civilian services of its type anywhere in the world. Based on the involvement of several of the authors in the AQinMI service, we describe the service's function, detail the nature of fires covered by the service, and report for the first time on the concentration ranges of PM to which populations may be exposed in major incident fires...
March 16, 2018: Environment International
Yu-Ichi Noto, Neil G Simon, Alexis Selby, Nidhi Garg, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nortina Shahrizaila, William Huynh, José M Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Susanna B Park, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate differences in the distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations between peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to explore the generator site of fasciculations. METHODS: Ultrasound of 14 preselected muscles was performed in patients with peripheral hyperexcitability and ALS. The distribution and firing frequency of fasciculations were calculated. Cortical excitability assessment was also done by threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Floriana Fruscione, Pierluigi Valente, Bruno Sterlini, Alessandra Romei, Simona Baldassari, Manuela Fadda, Cosimo Prestigio, Giorgia Giansante, Jacopo Sartorelli, Pia Rossi, Alicia Rubio, Antonio Gambardella, Thierry Nieus, Vania Broccoli, Anna Fassio, Pietro Baldelli, Anna Corradi, Federico Zara, Fabio Benfenati
Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) is the causative gene for a heterogeneous group of familial paroxysmal neurological disorders that include seizures with onset in the first year of life (benign familial infantile seizures), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia or a combination of both. Most of the PRRT2 mutations are loss-of-function leading to haploinsufficiency and 80% of the patients carry the same frameshift mutation (c.649dupC; p.Arg217Profs*8), which leads to a premature stop codon. To model the disease and dissect the physiological role of PRRT2, we studied the phenotype of neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from previously described heterozygous and homozygous siblings carrying the c...
March 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Sparkle L Malone, Anna W Schoettle, Jonathan D Coop
Like many other high elevation alpine tree species, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm.) may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. To evaluate its potential vulnerability to shifts in climate, we defined the suitable climate space for each of four genetic lineages of bristlecone pine and for other subalpine tree species in close proximity to bristlecone pine forests. Measuring changes in the suitable climate space for lineage groups is an important step beyond models that assume species are genetically homogenous...
2018: PloS One
Hanne Heszlein-Lossius, Yahya Al-Borno, Samar Shaqoura, Nashwa Skaik, Lasse Melvær Giil, Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: During four separate Israeli military attacks on Gaza (2006, 2009, 2012, and 2014), about 4000 Palestinians were killed and more than 17 000 injured (412 killed and 1264 injured in 2006; 1383 killed and more than 5300 injured in 2009; 130 killed and 1399 injured in 2012; and 2251 killed and 11 231 injured in 2014). An unknown number of people had traumatic amputations of one or more extremities. Use of unmanned Israeli drones for surveillance and armed attacks on Gaza was evident, but exact figures on numbers of drone strikes on Gaza are not available...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Weiwei Cao, Xiaoyan Yang, Fengqi Lu, Wenfeng Zhu, Laijun Liu, Xiaojun Kuang, Mathieu Allix
Isovalent substitution of Zr4+ for smaller Ti4+ was performed in the 8-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite (referred to as 8H) tantalate Ba8 Ti3 Ta4 O24 , which stabilizes a 10-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite (referred to as 10H). The formation of the 10H phase occurs at low substitution concentration ( x = 0.1) in Ba8 Zrx Ti3- x Ta4 O24 at 1300 °C and reverts back to the 8H phase upon heating at elevated temperatures. Such a 10H-to-8H phase transformation is suppressed at higher Zr-substitution contents ( x > 0...
March 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Rodrigo F O Pena, Sebastian Vellmer, Davide Bernardi, Antonio C Roque, Benjamin Lindner
Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations) and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Oscar J Avella Gonzalez, John K Tsotsos
Attention modulates neural selectivity and optimizes the allocation of cortical resources during visual tasks. A large number of experimental studies in primates and humans provide ample evidence. As an underlying principle of visual attention, some theoretical models suggested the existence of a gain element that enhances contrast of the attended stimuli. In contrast, the Selective Tuning model of attention (ST) proposes an attentional mechanism based on suppression of irrelevant signals. In this paper, we present an updated characterization of the ST-neuron proposed by the Selective Tuning model, and suggest that the inclusion of adaptation currents (Ih) to ST-neurons may explain the temporal profiles of the firing rates recorded in single V4 cells during attentional tasks...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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