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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#1
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548491/deposition-of-a-sorbent-into-a-recession-on-a-solid-support-provides-a-new-mechanically-robust-solid-phase-micro-extraction-device
#2
Justen J Poole, Jonathan J Grandy, Miao Yu, Ezel Boyaci, German A Gomez Rios, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Barbara Bojko, Harmen Vander Heide, Janusz Pawliszyn
To date, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers used for in-vivo bio-analysis can be too fragile and flexible, which limits suitability for direct tissue sampling. As a result, these devices often require a sheathing needle to pre-puncture robust sample matrices and protect the extraction phase from mechanical damage. To address this limitation, a new SPME device is herein presented which incorporates an extraction phase recessed into the body of a solid needle. This device requires no additional support or shielding during puncture events through protective tissue...
May 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548084/perirhinal-firing-patterns-are-sustained-across-large-spatial-segments-of-the-task-environment
#3
Jeroen J Bos, Martin Vinck, Laura A van Mourik-Donga, Jadin C Jackson, Menno P Witter, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Spatial navigation and memory depend on the neural coding of an organism's location. Fine-grained coding of location is thought to depend on the hippocampus. Likewise, animals benefit from knowledge parsing their environment into larger spatial segments, which are relevant for task performance. Here we investigate how such knowledge may be coded, and whether this occurs in structures in the temporal lobe, supplying cortical inputs to the hippocampus. We found that neurons in the perirhinal cortex of rats generate sustained firing patterns that discriminate large segments of the task environment...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547758/ghrelin-receptors-mediate-ghrelin-induced-excitation-of-agrp-npy-but-not-pomc-neurons
#4
Shao-Rui Chen, Hong Chen, Jing-Jing Zhou, Geetali Pradhan, Yuxiang Sun, Hui-Lin Pan, De-Pei Li
Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic AgRP/NPY neurons and inhibiting anoexic POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547369/air-protection-programmes-in-poland-in-the-context-of-the-low-emission
#5
Janusz Adamczyk, Arkadiusz Piwowar, Maciej Dzikuć
The protection of the air against pollutants from individual boiler plants is a big challenge in Poland. It results mainly from the preference for coal, the national energy carrier, the use of old low-efficiency boilers and the location of Poland in a temperate climate where the heating period lasts at least 5 months. This article presents a wide range of activities aimed at the reduction of the environmental impact of the emissions of pollutants from individual heat sources-the so-called low emission. The article presents the extent of the national legislation resulting from the European Union regulations...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546770/reduced-gabaergic-neuronal-activity-in-zona-incerta-causes-neuropathic-pain-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-chronic-constriction-injury-model
#6
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Young Seok Park
PURPOSE: The zona incerta (ZI) is below the ventral tier of the thalamus and has a strong influence selectively in higher-order thalamic relays. Although neuropathic pain has been suggested to result from reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABAergic signaling in the ZI, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the role of GABA and GABAergic signaling was investigated in the ZI in neuropathic pain using sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-unit neuronal activity was recorded, and microdialysis was performed in the ZI of CCI rats and sham-treated rats in vivo...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546109/background-activity-and-visual-responsiveness-of-caudate-nucleus-neurons-in-halothane-anaesthetised-and-in-awake-behaving-cats
#7
Balázs Barkóczi, Tamás Nagypál, Diána Nyujtó, Xénia Katona, Gabriella Eördegh, Balázs Bodosi, György Benedek, Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Nagy
This study focuses on the important question whether brain activity recorded from anaesthetised, paralyzed animals is comparable to that recorded from awake, behaving ones. We compared neuronal activity recorded from the caudate nucleus (CN) of two halothane-anaesthetised, paralyzed and two awake, behaving cats. In both models, extracellular recordings were made from the CN during static and dynamic visual stimulation. The anaesthesia was maintained during the recordings by a gaseous mixture of air and halothane (1...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545600/hydrocarbon-assessment-and-prediction-due-to-the-gulf-war-oil-disaster-north-kuwait
#8
Yohannes Yihdego, Radwan A Al-Weshah
  Oil spill in the Gulf was the biggest disaster in history. The scale of damage was enormous, ranging from destruction caused by oil fires and oil spills, to economic decline for the Kuwaiti oil industry. The transport modelling of the freshwater aquifers in north Kuwait was undertaken to assess potential remediation scenarios using the MODFLOW-SURFACT numerical code. Three interlinked models were calibrated: flow, density (salinity), and transport. The model domain is a subregional area encompassing the Al-Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish Basins...
June 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545233/hydrothermal-synthesis-of-nanooctahedra-mnfe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-onto-the-wood-surface-with-soft-magnetism-fire-resistance-and-electromagnetic-wave-absorption
#9
Hanwei Wang, Qiufang Yao, Chao Wang, Zhongqing Ma, Qingfeng Sun, Bitao Fan, Chunde Jin, Yipeng Chen
In this study, nanooctahedra MnFe₂O₄ were successfully deposited on a wood surface via a low hydrothermal treatment by hydrogen bonding interactions. As-prepared MnFe₂O₄/wood composite (MW) had superior performance of soft magnetism, fire resistance and electromagnetic wave absorption. Among them, small hysteresis loops and low coercivity (<±5 Oe) were observed in the magnetization-field curve of MW with saturation magnetization of 28.24 emu/g, indicating its excellent soft magnetism. The MW also exhibited a good fire-resistant property due to its initial burning time at 20 s; while only 6 s for the untreated wood (UW) in combustion experiments...
May 23, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544891/emergence-of-ultrafast-sparsely-synchronized-rhythms-and-their-responses-to-external-stimuli-in-an-inhomogeneous-small-world-complex-neuronal-network
#10
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider an inhomogeneous small-world network (SWN) composed of inhibitory short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) interneurons, and investigate the effect of network architecture on emergence of synchronized brain rhythms by varying the fraction of LR interneurons plong. The betweenness centralities of the LR and SR interneurons (characterizing the potentiality in controlling communication between other interneurons) are distinctly different. Hence, in view of the betweenness, SWNs we consider are inhomogeneous, unlike the "canonical" Watts-Strogatz SWN with nearly the same betweenness centralities...
April 28, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544046/time-related-changes-in-firing-rates-are-influenced-by-recruitment-threshold-and-twitch-force-potentiation-in-the-first-dorsal-interosseous
#11
Jonathan D Miller, Trent J Herda, Michael A Trevino, Adam J Sterczala, Anthony B Ciccone
There are contradictory reports regarding changes in motor unit firing rates during steady force contractions. Inconsistencies are likely the result of previous studies disregarding motor unit recruitment thresholds and not examining firing rates on a subject-by-subject basis. It is hypothesized that firing rates are manipulated by twitch force potentiation during contractions. Therefore, this study examined time-related changes in firing rates at steady force in relation to motor unit recruitment threshold in the first dorsal interosseous and the influence of twitch force potentiation on such changes in young versus aged individuals...
May 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543419/flu-floods-and-fire-ethical-public-health-preparedness
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra L Phelan, Lawrence O Gostin
Even as public health ethics was developing as a field, major incidents such as 9/11 and the SARS epidemic propelled discourse around public health emergency preparedness and response. Policy and practice shifted to a multidisciplinary approach, recognizing the broad range of potential threats to public health, including biological, physical, radiological, and chemical threats. This propelled the development of surveillance systems to detect incidents, laboratory capacities to rapidly test for potential threats, and therapeutic and social countermeasures to prepare for and respond to a range of hazards...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542442/pedogenetic-processes-in-anthrosols-with-pretic-horizon-amazonian-dark-earth-in-central-amazon-brazil
#13
Rodrigo S Macedo, Wenceslau G Teixeira, Marcelo M Corrêa, Gilvan C Martins, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542219/late-neolithic-phytolith-and-charcoal-records-of-human-activities-and-vegetation-change-in-shijiahe-culture-tanjialing-site-china
#14
Xiao Hong Zhu, Bing Li, Chun Mei Ma, Cheng Zhu, Li Wu, Hui Liu
There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541889/distinct-responses-of-purkinje-neurons-and-roles-of-simple-spikes-during-associative-motor-learning-in-larval-zebrafish
#15
Thomas C Harmon, Uri Magaram, David L McLean, Indira M Raman
To study cerebellar activity during learning, we made whole-cell recordings from larval zebrafish Purkinje cells while monitoring fictive swimming during associative conditioning. Fish learned to swim in response to visual stimulation preceding tactile stimulation of the tail. Learning was abolished by cerebellar ablation. All Purkinje cells showed task-related activity. Based on how many complex spikes emerged during learned swimming, they were classified as multiple, single, or zero complex spike (MCS, SCS, ZCS) cells...
May 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541833/novel-hybrid-composite-discharge-electrode-for-electrostatic-precipitator
#16
M Ali, K Alam, Y T A Al-Majali, M Kennedy
Over the last few decades, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) have emerged as effective air pollution control devices for treating Coal-fired power plant exhausts. Among the components of the ESP, the discharge electrodes are extremely important in determining the collection efficiency of the ESP. Typically, in wet electrostatic precipitators, the discharge electrodes used must be made of corrosion resistant alloys, which makes them extremely expensive and heavy. Hybrid composite discharge electrodes have the potential to be lightweight and corrosion resistant substitute for traditional metal alloy electrodes used in wet electrostatic precipitators (WESP)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541214/investigating-synchronous-oscillation-and-deep-brain-stimulation-treatment-in-a-model-of-cortico-basal-ganglia-network
#17
Meili Lu, Xile Wei, Kenneth A Loparo
Altered firing properties and increased pathological oscillations in the basal ganglia have been proven to be hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synchronous oscillations and suppression in the cortex may also play a critical role in the pathogenic process and treatment of Parkinson's disease. In our study, a new closed-loop network including the cortex and basal ganglia using the Izhikevich models is proposed to investigate the synchrony and pathological oscillations in motor circuits and their modulation by deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540927/regional-differences-in-striatal-neuronal-ensemble-excitability-following-cocaine-and-extinction-memory-retrieval-in-fos-gfp-mice
#18
Joseph Ziminski, Meike C Sieburg, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Learned associations between drugs of abuse and the drug administration environment play an important role in addiction. In rodents, exposure to a drug-associated environment elicits conditioned psychomotor activation, which may be weakened following extinction learning. While widespread drug-induced changes in neuronal excitability have been observed, little is known about specific changes within neuronal ensembles activated during the recall of drug-environment associations. Using a cocaine conditioned locomotion procedure, the present study assessed the excitability of neuronal ensembles in the nucleus accumbens core and shell (NAc(core) and NAc(shell)), and dorsal striatum (DS) following cocaine conditioning and extinction in Fos-GFP mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in activated neurons (GFP+)...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539637/amygdalar-endothelin-1-regulates-pyramidal-neuron-excitability-and-affects-anxiety
#20
Ming Chen, Huan-Huan Yan, Shu Shu, Lei Pei, Long-Kai Zang, Yu Fu, Ze-Fen Wang, Qi Wan, Lin-Lin Bi
An abnormal neuronal activity in the amygdala is involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the mechanisms. High-anxiety mice and low-anxiety mice, representing the innate extremes of anxiety-related behaviors, were first grouped according to their anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test. We found that the mRNA for endothelin-1 (ET1) and ET1 B-type receptors (ETBRs) in the amygdala was down-regulated in high-anxiety mice compared with low-anxiety mice. Knocking down basolateral amygdala (BLA) ET1 expression enhanced anxiety-like behaviors, whereas over-expressing ETBRs, but not A-type receptors (ETARs), had an anxiolytic effect...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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