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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750005/from-grid-cells-to-place-cells-with-realistic-field-sizes
#1
Torsten Neher, Amir Hossein Azizi, Sen Cheng
While grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) of rodents have multiple, regularly arranged firing fields, place cells in the cornu ammonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus mostly have single spatial firing fields. Since there are extensive projections from MEC to the CA regions, many models have suggested that a feedforward network can transform grid cell firing into robust place cell firing. However, these models generate place fields that are consistently too small compared to those recorded in experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749937/recurrently-connected-and-localized-neuronal-communities-initiate-coordinated-spontaneous-activity-in-neuronal-networks
#2
Davide Lonardoni, Hayder Amin, Stefano Di Marco, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini, Thierry Nieus
Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear...
July 27, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749505/the-influence-of-surface-area-porous-structure-and-surface-state-on-the-supercapacitor-performance-of-titanium-oxynitride-implications-for-a-nanostructuring-strategy
#3
Eun Joo Lee, Lanlee Lee, Muhammad Awais Abbas, Jin Ho Bang
A recent surge of interest in metal (oxy)nitride materials for energy storage devices has given rise to the rapid development of various nanostructuring strategies for these materials. In supercapacitor applications, early transition metal (oxy)nitrides have been extensively explored, among which titanium oxynitride stands out due to its great potential for charge storage. Despite recent advances in supercapacitors based on titanium oxynitride, many underlying factors governing their capacitive performance remain elusive...
July 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749407/multi-robot-interfaces-and-operator-situational-awareness-study-of-the-impact-of-immersion-and-prediction
#4
Juan Jesús Roldán, Elena Peña-Tapia, Andrés Martín-Barrio, Miguel A Olivares-Méndez, Jaime Del Cerro, Antonio Barrientos
Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748303/a-mean-field-model-for-movement-induced-changes-in-the-beta-rhythm
#5
Áine Byrne, Matthew J Brookes, Stephen Coombes
In electrophysiological recordings of the brain, the transition from high amplitude to low amplitude signals are most likely caused by a change in the synchrony of underlying neuronal population firing patterns. Classic examples of such modulations are the strong stimulus-related oscillatory phenomena known as the movement related beta decrease (MRBD) and post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). A sharp decrease in neural oscillatory power is observed during movement (MRBD) followed by an increase above baseline on movement cessation (PMBR)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747738/small-fire-refugia-in-the-grassy-matrix-and-the-persistence-of-afrotemperate-forest-in-the-drakensberg-mountains
#6
Hylton Adie, D Johan Kotze, Michael J Lawes
Afrotemperate forests situated in the Drakensberg mountains of South Africa are characteristically small (1-10 s ha) and widely dispersed in a vast fire-prone grassland. Compared with lowland forests, they are typically species poor with low levels of endemism and species turnover, patterns that are to date unexplained. Here we show that the richness, composition and functional traits of tree species distributed on extremely small (10-100 s m(2)) rocky fire-refugia situated in grassland are indistinguishable from that in forest...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747469/alpha-motoneurons-maintain-biophysical-heterogeneity-in-obesity-and-diabetes-in-zucker-rats
#7
Christopher W MacDonell, Jeremy W Chopek, Kalan R Gardiner, Phillip F Gardiner
Small diameter sensory dysfunction resulting from diabetes has received much attention in the literature, while the impact of diabetes on alpha-motoneurons (MN) has not. In addition to this, the chance of developing insulin resistance and diabetes is increased in obesity. No study has examined the impact of obesity or diabetes on the biophysical properties of MN. Lean Zucker rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were separated into Lean, Obese (ZDF fed standard chow) and Diabetic (ZDF fed high fat diet that led to diabetes) groups...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746826/electrophysiological-properties-of-neurons-and-synapses-in-the-lateral-habenular-complex-lhb
#8
REVIEW
Franziska Wagner, Torsten Weiss, Rüdiger W Veh
Animal including human behavior is highly sophisticated. Besides reflective actions it is largely based on the desire for magnificent internal feelings, which are provided by the reward system. Its counterpart an "anti-reward" system is mainly composed of the lateral habenular complex (LHb) and its extensive interconnections with the monoaminergic cell groups in the mid- and hindbrain. The present review focuses on the neuronal composition and the internal signaling in the LHb. Morphologically six distinct types of neurons (spherical, fusiform-1, fusiform-2, polymorphic, vertical, neurogliaform) can be identified...
July 23, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746786/seed-origin-and-warming-constrain-lodgepole-pine-recruitment-slowing-the-pace-of-population-range-shifts
#9
Erin Conlisk, Cristina Castanha, Matthew J Germino, Thomas T Veblen, Jeremy M Smith, Andrew B Moyes, Lara M Kueppers
Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746734/spatial-evaluation-of-indonesia-s-2015-fire-affected-area-and-estimated-carbon-emissions-using-sentinel-1
#10
Sandra Lohberger, Matthias Stängel, Elizabeth C Atwood, Florian Siegert
Fires raged once again across Indonesia in the latter half of 2015, creating a state of emergency due to poisonous smoke and haze across Southeast Asia as well as incurring great financial costs to the government. A strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) led to drought in many parts of Indonesia, resulting in elevated fire occurrence comparable with the previous catastrophic event in 1997/98. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data promise to provide improved detection of land use and land cover changes in the tropics as compared to methodologies dependent upon cloud and haze free images...
July 26, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745894/phase-evolution-crystal-structure-and-microwave-dielectric-properties-of-water-insoluble-1-x-lanbo4-xlavo4-0-%C3%A2-x-%C3%A2-0-9-ceramics
#11
Dan Guo, Di Zhou, Wen-Bo Li, Li-Xia Pang, Yan-Zhu Dai, Ze-Ming Qi
In the present work, a series of low-temperature firing scheelite structured microwave dielectric in water-insoluble La2O3-Nb2O5-V2O5 system was prepared via the traditional solid-state reaction method. Backscattering electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive analysis, and Rietveld refinements were performed to study the phase evolution and crystal structure. In the full composition range of (1 - x)LaNbO4-xLaVO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) ceramics, at least four typical phase regions including monoclinic fergusonite, tetragonal sheelite, B-site ordered sheelite, and composite of monoclinic LaVO4 and tetragonal sheelite phases can be detected according to XRD analysis...
July 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#12
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
Several studies suggest that voltage-gated calcium currents are involved in generating high frequency burst firing in the subiculum, but the exact nature of these currents remains unknown. Here, we used selective pharmacology, molecular and genetic approaches to implicate Cav3.1-containing T-channels in subicular burst firing, in contrast to several previous reports discounting T-channels as major contributors to subicular neuron physiology. Furthermore, pharmacological antagonism of T-channels completely suppressed development of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1-subiculum, but not in the CA3-CA1 pathway...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744851/post-translational-regulation-of-antiviral-innate-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Yilong Zhou, Chenxi He, Wang Lin, Baoxue Ge
The innate immune system initiates immune responses by pattern-recognition receptors (PRR). Virus-derived nucleic acids are sensed by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family and the toll-like receptor (TLR) family as well as the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). These receptors activate IRF3/7 and NF-κB signaling pathways to induce the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines firing antiviral responses within the cell. However, to achieve a favorable outcome for the host, a balanced production of IFNs and activation of antiviral responses is required...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744677/light-absorption-by-water-soluble-organic-carbon-in-atmospheric-fine-particles-in-the-central-tibetan-plateau
#14
YanGe Zhang, JianZhong Xu, JinSen Shi, CongHui Xie, XinLei Ge, JunFeng Wang, ShiChang Kang, Qi Zhang
Brown carbon (BrC) has recently received much attention because of its light absorption features. The chemical compositions, optical properties, and sources of fine aerosol at a high-elevation mountain observatory (4730 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau were measured between 31 May and 1 July 2015. A low flow-rate sampler was used to collect 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) filter samples. Water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and light absorption by water-soluble BrC were determined for 26 filter samples...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744210/transition-dynamics-of-a-dentate-gyrus-ca3-neuronal-network-during-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Liyuan Zhang, Denggui Fan, Qingyun Wang
In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the variation of chemical receptor expression underlies the basis of neural network activity shifts, resulting in neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges. However, dynamical mechanisms involved in the transitions of TLE are not fully understood, because of the neuronal diversity and the indeterminacy of network connection. Hence, based on Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neurons and Pinsky-Rinzel (PR) type neurons coupling with glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic connections respectively, we propose a computational framework which contains dentate gyrus (DG) region and CA3 region...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744201/calcium-dynamics-in-basal-dendrites-of-layer-5a-and-5b-pyramidal-neurons-is-tuned-to-the-cell-type-specific-physiological-action-potential-discharge
#16
Patrik Krieger, Christiaan P J de Kock, Andreas Frick
Layer 5 (L5) is a major neocortical output layer containing L5A slender-tufted (L5A-st) and L5B thick-tufted (L5B-tt) pyramidal neurons. These neuron types differ in their in vivo firing patterns, connectivity and dendritic morphology amongst other features, reflecting their specific functional role within the neocortical circuits. Here, we asked whether the active properties of the basal dendrites that receive the great majority of synaptic inputs within L5 differ between these two pyramidal neuron classes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743007/environmental-footprints-of-brick-kiln-bottom-ashes-geostatistical-approach-for-assessment-of-metal-toxicity
#17
Ananya Mondal, Subhasish Das, Rajesh Kumar Sah, Pradip Bhattacharyya, Satya Sundar Bhattacharya
Coal fired brick kiln factories generate significant of brick kiln bottom ash (BKBA) that contaminate soil and water environments of areas near the dumping sites through leaching of toxic metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn, and Cu). However, characteristics and environmental effects of BKBAs are yet unknown. We collected BKBA samples from 32 strategic locations of two rapidly developing States (West Bengal and Assam) of India. Scanning electron microscope images indicated spherical and granular structures of BKBAs produced in West Bengal (WBKBA) and Assam (ABKBA) respectively; while energy dispersive spectroscopy and analytical assessments confirmed substantial occurrence of total organic C and nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) in both the BKBAs...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742985/gabab-receptors-suppress-burst-firing-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#18
Stuart M Cain, Esperanza Garcia, Zeina Waheed, Karen L Jones, Trevor J Bushell, Terrance P Snutch
Burst-firing in thalamic neurons is known to play a key role in mediating thalamocortical (TC) oscillations that are associated with non-REM sleep and some types of epileptic seizure. Within the TC system the primary output of GABAergic neurons in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) is thought to induce the de-inactivation of T-type calcium channels in thalamic relay (TR) neurons, promoting burst-firing drive to the cortex and the propagation of TC network activity. However, RTN neurons also project back onto other neurons within the RTN...
July 25, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742222/disruption-of-the-atp-adenosine-balance-in-cd39-mice-is-associated-with-handling-induced-seizures
#19
Amanda J Lanser, Rafael M Rezende, Stephen Rubino, Paul J Lorello, Dustin J Donnelly, Huixin Xu, Lauren A Lau, Chris G Dulla, Barbara J Caldarone, Simon C Robson, Howard L Weiner
Seizures are due to excessive, synchronous neuronal firing in the brain and are characteristic of epilepsy, the fourth most prevalent neurologic disease. Herein, we report handling-induced and spontaneous seizures in mice deficient of CD39, a cell-surface ATPase highly expressed on microglial cells. CD39(-/-) mice with handling-induced seizures had normal input-output curves and paired-pulse ratio measured from hippocampal slices and lacked microgliosis, astrogliosis or overt cell loss in the hippocampus and cortex...
July 25, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741150/eslicarbazepine-acetate-a-new-improvement-on-a-classic-drug-family-for-the-treatment-of-partial-onset-seizures
#20
REVIEW
Graciana L Galiana, Angela C Gauthier, Richard H Mattson
Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new anti-epileptic drug belonging to the dibenzazepine carboxamide family that is currently approved as adjunctive therapy and monotherapy for partial-onset (focal) seizures. The drug enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels and subsequently reduces the activity of rapidly firing neurons. Eslicarbazepine acetate has few, but some, drug-drug interactions. It is a weak enzyme inducer and it inhibits cytochrome P450 2C19, but it affects a smaller assortment of enzymes than carbamazepine...
July 24, 2017: Drugs in R&D
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