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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145670/sequential-firing-codes-for-time-in-rodent-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Zoran Tiganj, Min Whan Jung, Jieun Kim, Marc W Howard
A subset of hippocampal neurons, known as "time cells" fire sequentially for circumscribed periods of time within a delay interval. We investigated whether medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) also contains time cells and whether their qualitative properties differ from those in the hippocampus and striatum. We studied the firing correlates of neurons in the rodent mPFC during a temporal discrimination task. On each trial, the animals waited for a few seconds in the stem of a T-maze. A subpopulation of units fired in a sequence consistently across trials for a circumscribed period during the delay interval...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145432/evaluating-the-intensity-of-fire-at-the-acheulian-site-of-gesher-benot-ya-aqov-spatial-and-thermoluminescence-analyses
#2
Nira Alperson-Afil, Daniel Richter, Naama Goren-Inbar
This manuscript presents an attempt to evaluate the intensity of fire through spatial patterning and thermoluminescence methodology. Previous studies of Layer II-6 Level 2 at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov suggested that hominins differentiated their activities across space, including multiple activities around a hearth reconstructed on the basis of the distribution of burned flint artifacts. A transect of ~4 m was extended from the center of the reconstructed hearth of Level 2 to its periphery in order to examine the intensity of fire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144974/double-nanodomain-coupling-of-calcium-channels-ryanodine-receptors-and-bk-channels-controls-the-generation-of-burst-firing
#3
Tomohiko Irie, Laurence O Trussell
Action potentials clustered into high-frequency bursts play distinct roles in neural computations. However, little is known about ionic currents that control the duration and probability of these bursts. We found that, in cartwheel inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the likelihood of bursts and the interval between their spikelets were controlled by Ca(2+) acting across two nanodomains, one between plasma membrane P/Q Ca(2+) channels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ryanodine receptors and another between ryanodine receptors and large-conductance, voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144485/fires-degree-courses-for-fire-professionals
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144483/those-who-favour-fire
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144476/china-fires-up-next-generation-neutron-science-facility
#6
David Cyranoski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144471/fires-fund-research-for-citizen-safety
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143800/hungry-neurons-metabolic-insights-on-seizure-dynamics
#8
REVIEW
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Azin Ebrahim Amini, Iliya Weisspapir, Bojana Stefanovic, Peter L Carlen
Epilepsy afflicts up to 1.6% of the population and the mechanisms underlying the appearance of seizures are still not understood. In past years, many efforts have been spent trying to understand the mechanisms underlying the excessive and synchronous firing of neurons. Traditionally, attention was pointed towards synaptic (dys)function and extracellular ionic species (dys)regulation. Recently, novel clinical and preclinical studies explored the role of brain metabolism (i.e., glucose utilization) of seizures pathophysiology revealing (in most cases) reduced metabolism in the inter-ictal period and increased metabolism in the seconds preceding and during the appearance of seizures...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143397/marginal-fit-comparison-of-cad-cam-crowns-milled-from-two-different-materials
#9
Atousa Azarbal, Mohsen Azarbal, Robert L Engelmeier, Thomas C Kunkel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the marginal fit of CAD/CAM copings milled from hybrid ceramic (Vita Enamic) blocks and lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) blocks, and to evaluate the effect of crystallization firing on the marginal fit of lithium disilicate copings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standardized metal die with a 1-mm-wide shoulder finish line was imaged using the CEREC AC Bluecam. The coping was designed using CEREC 3 software. The design was used to fabricate 15 lithium disilicate and 15 hybrid ceramic copings...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#10
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142310/sodium-channel-nav1-3-is-important-for-enterochromaffin-cell-excitability-and-serotonin-release
#11
Peter R Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J Eggers, Joyce H Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing >90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142092/response-of-supra-oculomotor-area-neurons-during-combined-saccade-vergence-movements
#12
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Combined saccade-vergence movements allow humans and other primates to align their eyes with objects of interest in three-dimensions. In the absence of saccades, vergence movements are typically slow, symmetrical movements of the two eyes in opposite directions. However, combined saccade-vergence movements produce vergence velocities that exceed values observed during vergence alone. This phenomenon is often called "vergence enhancement", or "saccade-facilitated vergence," though it is important to consider that rapid vergence changes, known as "vergence transients," are also observed during conjugate saccades...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142091/physiological-and-pathophysiological-firing-properties-of-single-postganglionic-sympathetic-neurons-in-humans
#13
Vaughan G Macefield, B Gunnar Wallin
It has long been known from microneurographic recordings in human subjects that activity of postganglionic sympathetic axons occurs as spontaneous bursts, with muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) exhibiting strong cardiac rhythmicity via the baroreflex and skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) showing much weaker cardiac modulation. Here we review the firing properties of single sympathetic neurons, obtained using highly selective microelectrodes. Individual vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle or skin, or sudomotor neurones supplying sweat glands, always discharge with a low firing probability (~30%) and at very low frequencies (~0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#14
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140643/assessment-of-interventions-to-improve-air-quality-in-a-livestock-building
#15
T Renée Anthony, Anthony Y Yang, Thomas M Peters
This study examined the effectiveness of engineering controls to reduce contaminant concentrations in a swine farrowing room during winter in the U.S. Midwest. Over two winters, changes in air quality were evaluated following installation of a 1700 m3 h-1 (1000 cfm) recirculating ventilation system to provide 5.4 air exchanges per hour. This system incorporated one of two readily available dust control systems, one based on filtration and the other on cyclonic treatment. A second treatment evaluated reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) associated with replacement of standard, unvented gas-fired heaters with new vented heaters, installed between the two winter test periods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140634/combustibility-determination-for-cotton-gin-dust-and-almond-huller-dust
#16
Sidney E Hughs, Phillip J Wakelyn
It has been documented that some dusts generated while processing agricultural products, such as grain and sugar, can constitute combustible dust hazards. After a catastrophic dust explosion in a sugar refinery in 2008, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) initiated action to develop a mandatory standard to comprehensively address the fire and explosion hazards of combustible dusts. Cotton fiber and related materials from cotton ginning, in loose form, can support smoldering combustion if ignited by an outside source...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140108/cytomegalovirus-and-hiv-persistence-pouring-gas-on-the-fire
#17
Aaron Christensen-Quick, Christophe Vanpouille, Andrea Lisco, Sara Gianella
The inherent stability of a small population of T cells that are latently infected with HIV despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a stubborn obstacle to an HIV cure. By exploiting the memory compartment of our immune system, HIV maintains persistence in a small subset of quiescent cells with varying phenotypes, thus evading immune surveillance and clinical detection. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms that maintain the latent reservoir will be critical to the success of HIV eradication strategies...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139517/nanofibre-preparation-of-non-processable-polymers-by-solid-state-polymerization-of-molecularly-self-assembled-monomers
#18
Jian Zhu, Yichun Ding, Seema Agarwal, Andreas Greiner, Hean Zhang, Haoqing Hou
Polybisbenzimidazobenzophenanthroline-dione (BBB) is a high-performance polymer which is characterized by very high mechanical strength in combination with exceptional thermal stability, but it cannot be processed to electrospun fibres for any useful applications due to its insolubility and infusibility. We overcame all obstacles in the electrospinning of BBB by a new bottom-up, and facile approach for the solid-state polymerization of self-assembled monomer precursors. Key to this new strategy is the incorporation of a high molecular weight sacrificial polymer to aid in fibre formation...
November 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139050/modeling-mesoscopic-cortical-dynamics-using-a-mean-field-model-of-conductance-based-networks-of-adaptive-exponential-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#19
Yann Zerlaut, Sandrine Chemla, Frederic Chavane, Alain Destexhe
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) has revealed fundamental properties of neocortical processing at macroscopic scales. Since for each pixel VSDi signals report the average membrane potential over hundreds of neurons, it seems natural to use a mean-field formalism to model such signals. Here, we present a mean-field model of networks of Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate-and-fire neurons, with conductance-based synaptic interactions. We study a network of regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138759/identification-of-persistent-and-resurgent-sodium-currents-in-spiral-ganglion-neurons-cultured-from-the-mouse-cochlea
#20
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
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