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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092743/stable-isotope-composition-of-mercury-forms-in-flue-gases-from-a-typical-coal-fired-power-plant-inner-mongolia-northern-china
#1
Shunlin Tang, Chaohui Feng, Xinbin Feng, Jianming Zhu, Ruoyu Sun, Huipeng Fan, Lina Wang, Ruiyang Li, Tonghua Mao, Ting Zhou
Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092623/ultrasonography-a-method-used-for-pregnancy-imaging-of-the-fire-salamander-salamandra-salamandra
#2
A Najbar, Z Kiełbowicz, J Szymczak, M Ogielska
Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092009/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-determined-by-pine-needles-and-semipermeable-membrane-devices-along-an-altitude-profile-in-taurus-mountains-turkey
#3
Cafer Turgut, Mehmet Ali Mazmanci, Birgül Mazmanci, Melis Yalçın, PerihanBinnur Kurt Karakuş, Levent Atatanir, Menekşe Keski, Bernhard Henkelmann, Gerd Pfister, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at different altitudes of Taurus Mountains in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and in half-, one-and-a-half-, and two-and-a-half-year-old pine needles. SPMDs were deployed for three different exposure periods: March to September (Summer), September to March (Winter), and March to March (whole year) at eight sites where needle samples were collected. The values of PAHs in needles were between 4.4 to 6066 pg g/fw in half-year-old, 7.2 to 111,115 pg g/fw in 1...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091990/revaluation-of-stockpile-amount-of-pfos-containing-aqueous-film-forming-foam-in-japan-gaps-and-pitfalls-in-the-stockpile-survey
#4
Yasuyuki Zushi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Kiyotaka Tsunemi, Shigeki Masunaga
Stockpiles of perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) containing aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) have the potential to be emitted by leaching, spills, and during use in fire response and other processes. Several studies have discussed the high levels of stockpiled PFOS-containing AFFF and the risk they pose to the environment; however, there are large gaps in the amounts in Japan compared with other countries. For example, 300 tons are stockpiled in Canada, 2200-2600 tons in Switzerland, 1400 tons in Norway, and 19,000 tons in Japan from their reports for publication...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091875/the-effect-of-veneering-on-the-marginal-fit-of-cad-cam-generated-copy-milled-and-cast-metal-copings
#5
Sabit Melih Ates, Zeynep Yesil Duymus, Ipek Caglar, Bilal Hologlu
OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study investigated the marginal fit of metal and zirconia copings before and after veneering on dies with shoulder/chamfer (s/c) finish lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CAD/CAM, ten (n = 10) each s/c zirconia (NZ) copings and ten (n = 10) each s/c metal (MM) copings were generated. As controls, ten (n = 10) each s/c zirconia copings were copy-milled (ZZ) and ten (n = 10) each s/c metal copings were cast (CC). The vertical marginal discrepancy of the copings was measured at 20 predefined spots of the circular shoulder and chamfer finish lines in microns (μm) before and after a first and a second veneering firing using a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091722/hyperphosphorylated-tau-causes-reduced-hippocampal-ca1-excitability-by-relocating-the-axon-initial-segment
#6
Robert John Hatch, Yan Wei, Di Xia, Jürgen Götz
Hyperphosphorylated tau has a critical role in tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, impairing neuronal function and eventually leading to neurodegeneration. A critical role for tau is supported by studies in transgenic mouse models that express the P301L tau mutation found in cases of familial frontotemporal dementia, with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in the hippocampus causing reductions in hippocampal long-term potentiation and impairments in spatial learning and memory...
January 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091566/efficient-generation-of-hpsc-derived-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-fully-defined-scalable-3d-biomaterial-platform
#7
Maroof M Adil, Gonçalo M C Rodrigues, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Antara T Rao, Nicole E Chernavsky, Evan W Miller, David V Schaffer
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have major potential as an unlimited source of functional cells for many biomedical applications; however, the development of cell manufacturing systems to enable this promise faces many challenges. For example, there have been major recent advances in the generation of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from stem cells for Parkinson's Disease (PD) therapy; however, production of these cells typically involves undefined components and difficult to scale 2D culture formats. Here, we used a fully defined, 3D, thermoresponsive biomaterial platform to rapidly generate large numbers of action-potential firing mDA neurons after 25 days of differentiation (~40% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive, maturing into 25% cells exhibiting mDA neuron-like spiking behavior)...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090035/effect-of-ice-quenching-on-the-change-in-hardness-of-a-pd-au-zn-alloy-during-porcelain-firing-simulation
#8
Hye-Jeong Shin, Min-Jung Kim, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Hoon Kwon, Hyo-Joung Seol
This study examined the effect of ice-quenching after degassing on the change in hardness of a Pd-Au-Zn alloy during porcelain firing simulations. By ice-quenching after degassing, the specimens were softened due to homogenization without the need for an additional softening heat treatment. The lowered hardness by ice-quenching after degassing was recovered greatly from the first stage of porcelain firing process by controlling the cooling rate. The increase in hardness during cooling after porcelain firing was attributed to the precipitation of the f...
January 13, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089663/phase-dependent-activity-of-neurons-in-the-rostral-part-of-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-with-saccharin-intake-in-a-cue-guided-lever-manipulation-task
#9
Ryuhei Aoki, Risako Kato, Satoshi Fujita, Jun Shimada, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089301/time-since-discharge-of-9mm-cartridges-by-headspace-analysis-part-2-ageing-study-and-estimation-of-the-time-since-discharge-using-multivariate-regression
#10
M Gallidabino, F S Romolo, C Weyermann
Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088724/the-effect-of-urban-growth-on-landscape-scale-restoration-for-a-fire-dependent%C3%A2-songbird
#11
Bradley A Pickens, Jeffrey F Marcus, John P Carpenter, Scott Anderson, Paul J Taillie, Jaime A Collazo
A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010-2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088710/short-range-shooting-distance-estimation-using-variable-pressure-sem-images-of-the-surroundings-of-bullet-holes-in-textiles
#12
Ruth Hinrichs, Paulo Ricardo Ost Frank, M A Z Vasconcellos
Modifications of cotton and polyester textiles due to shots fired at short range were analyzed with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (VP-SEM). Different mechanisms of fiber rupture as a function of fiber type and shooting distance were detected, namely fusing, melting, scorching, and mechanical breakage. To estimate the firing distance, the approximately exponential decay of GSR coverage as a function of radial distance from the entrance hole was determined from image analysis, instead of relying on chemical analysis with EDX, which is problematic in the VP-SEM...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088709/characterization-of-smokeless-powders-using-multiplexed-collision-induced-dissociation-mass-spectrometry-and-chemometric-procedures
#13
Kristen L Reese, A Daniel Jones, Ruth Waddell Smith
This work demonstrates a non-targeted mass spectrometry approach for identification of organic compounds in smokeless powders. Unburned powders were removed from various commercial ammunitions of different brand, primer composition, caliber, and age. The unburned powders and corresponding fired residues were analyzed by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-TOFMS). Multiplexed collision-induced dissociation was performed at increasing collision potentials resulting in successive fragmentation that provided structural information for compound identification in a non-targeted manner...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#15
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#16
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080978/the-role-of-fire-in-uk-upland-management-the-need-for-informed-challenge-to-conventional-wisdoms-a-comment-on-davies-et-al-2016
#17
David J T Douglas, Graeme M Buchanan, Patrick Thompson, Jeremy D Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080047/burden-of-disease-from-rising-coal-fired-power-plant-emissions-in-southeast-asia
#18
Shannon N Koplitz, Daniel J Jacob, Melissa P Sulprizio, Lauri Myllyvirta, Colleen Reid
Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080046/application-of-2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic-acid-as-a-forensic-marker-of-cyanide-exposure
#19
Monika Rużycka, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marcin Fudalej, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Wroczyński
Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in biological matrix...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079941/changes-to-cretaceous-surface-fire-behaviour-influenced-the-spread-of-the-early-angiosperms
#20
Claire M Belcher, Victoria A Hudspith
Angiosperms evolved and diversified during the Cretaceous period. Early angiosperms were short-stature weedy plants thought to have increased fire frequency and mortality in gymnosperm forest, aiding their own expansion. However, no explorations have considered whether the range of novel fuel types that diversified throughout the Cretaceous also altered fire behaviour, which should link more strongly to mortality than fire frequency alone. We measured ignitability and heat of combustion in analogue Cretaceous understorey fuels (conifer litter, ferns, weedy and shrubby angiosperms) and used these data to model palaeofire behaviour...
February 2017: New Phytologist
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