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Avian retrovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698047/identification-of-a-novel-linear-b-cell-epitope-in-the-p27-of-avian-leukosis-virus
#1
Wiaam O A Khairy, Lin Wang, Xue Tian, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce virus-associated neoplasia and causes great economic loss in poultry industry. It is known that the capsid antigen p27 is the group-specific antigen that is highly conserved among all ALV subgroups, and is the most abundant immunogenic viral protein. In the present study, five overlapping fragments (GST- p27-F1/2, GST- p27-F2-1/2/3) of ALV-p27 were subjected to Western blotting analysis using a monoclonal antibody (5D3) against ALV-p27 to identify the epitope...
July 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694798/dynamic-co-evolution-and-interaction-of-avian-leukosis-virus-genetic-variants-and-host-immune-responses
#2
Xuan Dong, Fanfeng Meng, Tao Hu, Sidi Ju, Yang Li, Peng Sun, Yixin Wang, Wenqing Chen, Fushou Zhang, Hongqin Su, Sifei Li, He Cui, Junxia Chen, Shuzhen Xu, Lichun Fang, Huaibiao Luan, Zhenjie Zhang, Shuang Chang, Jianliang Li, Lei Wang, Peng Zhao, Weifeng Shi, Zhizhong Cui
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), a typical retrovirus, is characterized of existence of a cloud of diverse variants and considerable genetic diversity. Previous studies describing the evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J genetic variants mainly focused on the early infection period or few randomly selected clones. Here, we inoculated 30 specific-pathogen-free chickens with the same founder ALV-J stock of known genetic background. Six (three antibody positive and three antibody negative) chickens were selected among 15 chickens with viremia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688086/sequencing-the-biology-of-entry-the-retroviral-env-gene
#3
Ronald Swanstrom, William D Graham, Shuntai Zhou
The surface envelope protein of any virus is major determinant of the host cell that is infected and as a result a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. Retroviruses have a single surface protein named Env. It is a trimer of heterodimers and is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor and mediating fusion between the viral and host membranes. In this review we will discuss the history of the discovery of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env proteins and their receptor specificity, comparing the many differences but having some similarities...
July 9, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673822/discovery-of-novel-long-non-coding-rnas-induced-by-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-infection-in-chicken
#4
Lingling Qiu, Zhiteng Li, Guobin Chang, Yulin Bi, Xiangping Liu, Lu Xu, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that has led to severe economic losses in the poultry industry in China in recent decades. Here, using high throughput transcriptome sequencing of HD11 and CEF cells infected with ALV-J, a set of 4804 novel long non-coding transcripts and numerous differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified. We also found that they share relatively shorter transcripts and fewer exon numbers compared to mRNA. Correlation analysis suggested that many lncRNAs may activate gene expression in an enhancer-like manner other than through transcriptional regulation...
June 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622858/a-novel-avian-retrovirus-associated-with-lymphocytoma-isolated-from-a-local-chinese-flock-induced-significantly-reduced-growth-and-immune-suppression-in-spf-chickens
#5
Xiaoping Wu, Jinrong Zhao, Yukun Zeng, Yijian Wu, Quanxi Wang, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs) are associated with neoplasias, immune suppression and reduced performance in chicken flocks. In the present study, a naturally occurring recombinant strain of ALV (FJ15HT0) was isolated from an infected flock of Chinese "Hetian" chickens, and was subsequently identified as an exogenous ALV by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), PCR and following entire proviral DNA nucleotide sequencing. This isolate is revealed as a novel recombinant virus, lacking viral oncogenes, with the gp85 (93...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415618/circular-rna-alterations-are-involved-in-resistance-to-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-induced-tumor-formation-in-chickens
#6
Xinheng Zhang, Yiming Yan, Xiaoya Lei, Aijun Li, Huanmin Zhang, Zhenkai Dai, Xinjian Li, Weiguo Chen, Wencheng Lin, Feng Chen, Jingyun Ma, Qingmei Xie
Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398634/ski-regulates-smads-and-taz-signaling-to-suppress-lung-cancer-progression
#7
Mian Xie, Xiaojun Wu, Jinjun Zhang, Jiexia Zhang, Xiangxiang Li
Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. The mechanisms underlying these conflicting observations have not been fully understood. Herein, we investigated the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski. To investigate the effect of Ski re-activation on TGF-β and Hippo/TAZ pathway, we measured its effect on the endogenous Smad target genes (PAI-1 and P15(INK4B) ) and TAZ target gene CTGF. The results revealed that Ski exerted its inhibitory activity in TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384097/domestic-chickens-activate-a-pirna-defense-against-avian-leukosis-virus
#8
Yu Huining Sun, Li Huitong Xie, Xiaoyu Zhuo, Qiang Chen, Dalia Ghoneim, Bin Zhang, Jarra Jagne, Chengbo Yang, Xin Zhiguo Li
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the germ line by targeting transposable elements (TEs) through the base-pair complementarity. We do not know how piRNAs co-evolve with TEs in chickens. Here we reported that all active TEs in the chicken germ line are targeted by piRNAs, and as TEs lose their activity, the corresponding piRNAs erode away. We observed de novo piRNA birth as host responds to a recent retroviral invasion. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) has endogenized prior to chicken domestication, remains infectious, and threatens poultry industry...
April 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341742/ph-regulation-in-early-endosomes-and-interferon-inducible-transmembrane-proteins-control-avian-retrovirus-fusion
#9
Tanay M Desai, Mariana Marin, Caleb Mason, Gregory B Melikyan
Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328350/risk-factors-for-and-spatial-distribution-of-lymphoproliferative-disease-virus-lpdv-in-wild-turkeys-meleagris-gallopavo-in-new-york-state-usa
#10
Katrina Alger, Elizabeth Bunting, Krysten Schuler, Christopher M Whipps
Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution...
July 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194372/mir-34b-5p-suppresses-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mda5-signaling-pathway-to-promote-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-alv-j-infected-cells-proliferaction-and-alv-j-replication
#11
Zhenhui Li, Qingbin Luo, Haiping Xu, Ming Zheng, Bahareldin Ali Abdalla, Min Feng, Bolin Cai, Xiaocui Zhang, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122976/the-fact-complex-promotes-avian-leukosis-virus-dna-integration
#12
Shelby Winans, Ross C Larue, Carly M Abraham, Nikolozi Shkriabai, Amelie Skopp, Duane Winkler, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia, Karen L Beemon
All retroviruses need to integrate a DNA copy of their genome into the host chromatin. Cellular proteins regulating and targeting lentiviral and gammaretroviral integration in infected cells have been discovered, but the factors that mediate alpharetroviral avian leukosis virus (ALV) integration are unknown. In this study, we have identified the FACT protein complex, which consists of SSRP1 and Spt16, as a principal cellular binding partner of ALV integrase (IN). Biochemical experiments with purified recombinant proteins show that SSRP1 and Spt16 are able to individually bind ALV IN, but only the FACT complex effectively stimulates ALV integration activity in vitro Likewise, in infected cells, the FACT complex promotes ALV integration activity, with proviral integration frequency varying directly with cellular expression levels of the FACT complex...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065818/growth-retardation-induced-by-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-associated-with-down-regulated-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#13
Weiguo Feng, Defang Zhou, Wei Meng, Gen Li, Pingping Zhuang, Zhifang Pan, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces growth retardation and neoplasia in chickens, leading to enormous economic losses in poultry industry. Increasing evidences showed several signal pathways involved in ALV-J infection. However, what signaling pathway involved in growth retardation is largely unknown. To explore the possible signaling pathway, we tested the cell proliferation and associated miRNAs in ALV-J infected CEF cells by CCK-8 and Hiseq, respectively. The results showed that cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by ALV-J and three associated miRNAs were identified to target Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032193/analysis-of-microrna-expression-profile-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-in-response-to-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-infection
#14
Zhiqiang Yu, Xueli Gao, Chaonan Liu, Xiaoping Lv, Shimin Zheng
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus that causes immunosuppression, growth retardation, and oncogenesis in a variety of birds. REV infection is epidemic in many countries. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with REV infection. A total of 88 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in samples collected on days 21 and 28 post-REV infection. Possible target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were analyzed. We observed that expression of proapoptotic, proto-oncogene, and carcinogenic cytokine mRNAs was highly upregulated, whereas expression of antiapoptotic cytokine mRNAs was significantly downregulated...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993149/a-deep-sequencing-reveals-significant-diversity-among-dominant-variants-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-avian-leukosis-viruses-in-two-infectious-ecosystems
#15
Fanfeng Meng, Xuan Dong, Tao Hu, Shuang Chang, Jianhua Fan, Peng Zhao, Zhizhong Cui
BACKGROUND: As a typical retrovirus, the evolution of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in different infectious ecosystems is not characterized, what we know is there are a cloud of diverse variants, namely quasispecies with considerable genetic diversity. This study is to explore the selection of infectious ecosystems on dominant variants and their evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J between DF1 cells and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. High-throughput sequencing platforms provide an approach for detecting quasispecies diversity more fully...
December 19, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881654/identification-of-new-world-quails-susceptible-to-infection-with-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j
#16
Jiří Plachý, Markéta Reinišová, Dana Kučerová, Filip Šenigl, Volodymyr Stepanets, Tomáš Hron, Kateřina Trejbalová, Daniel Elleder, Jiří Hejnar
The J subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chickens, jungle fowl, and turkeys. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. The resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J in a great majority of galliform species has been explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826543/endogenous-retrovirus-ev21-dose-not-recombine-with-alv-j-and-induces-the-expression-of-isgs-in-the-host
#17
Min Feng, Yan Tan, Manman Dai, Yuanfang Li, Tingting Xie, Hongmei Li, Meiqing Shi, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686071/expression-patterns-of-endogenous-avian-retrovirus-alve1-and-its-response-to-infection-with-exogenous-avian-tumour-viruses
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Chengyi Song, Bo Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age...
January 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599847/membrane-associated-grp78-helps-subgroup-j-avian-leucosis-virus-enter-cells
#19
Lin Wang, Mei Mei, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao
We previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the chicken glucose-regulation protein 78 (chGRP78) of the DF1 membrane interacted with the ALV-J env protein...
September 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577548/a-new-look-at-the-ltr-retrotransposon-content-of-the-chicken-genome
#20
Andrew S Mason, Janet E Fulton, Paul M Hocking, David W Burt
BACKGROUND: LTR retrotransposons contribute approximately 10 % of the mammalian genome, but it has been previously reported that there is a deficit of these elements in the chicken relative to both mammals and other birds. A novel LTR retrotransposon classification pipeline, LocaTR, was developed and subsequently utilised to re-examine the chicken LTR retrotransposon annotation, and determine if the proposed chicken deficit is biologically accurate or simply a technical artefact. RESULTS: Using LocaTR 3...
2016: BMC Genomics
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