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Avian retrovirus

Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Chengyi Song, Bo Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are genomic elements that are present in a wide range of vertebrates and have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. However, the characteristic expression patterns of ERVs, particularly in virus-induced tumours, is not fully clear. DNA methylation was analysed by bisulfite pyrosequencing, and gene expression was analysed by RT-qPCR. In this study, we first found that the endogenous avian retrovirus ALVE1 was highly expressed in some chicken tissues (including the heart, bursa, thymus, and spleen) at 2 days of age, but its expression was markedly decreased at 35 days of age...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Virology
Lin Wang, Mei Mei, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao
We previously identified chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), using a DF1 cell line expressing the viral envelope (env) protein. To further probe whether other proteins participate in virus infection, we investigated several host proteins from co-immunoprecipitation with the DF1 cell line expressing viral env. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the chicken glucose-regulation protein 78 (chGRP78) of the DF1 membrane interacted with the ALV-J env protein...
September 6, 2016: Veterinary Research
Andrew S Mason, Janet E Fulton, Paul M Hocking, David W Burt
BACKGROUND: LTR retrotransposons contribute approximately 10 % of the mammalian genome, but it has been previously reported that there is a deficit of these elements in the chicken relative to both mammals and other birds. A novel LTR retrotransposon classification pipeline, LocaTR, was developed and subsequently utilised to re-examine the chicken LTR retrotransposon annotation, and determine if the proposed chicken deficit is biologically accurate or simply a technical artefact. RESULTS: Using LocaTR 3...
2016: BMC Genomics
Xiaofei Li, Liting Qin, Haibo Zhu, Yingjun Sun, Xuezhi Cui, Yadong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Yongqiang Wang, Honglei Gao, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3A9, that is specific for the P27 protein. A series of partially overlapping peptides were screened to define (181)PPSAR(185) as the minimal linear epitope recognized by mAb 3A9. The identified epitope could be recognized by chicken anti-ALV and mouse anti-ALV P27 sera...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
Xinjian Li, Wencheng Lin, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao, Xinheng Zhang, Yang Liu, Weiguo Chen, Baohong Li, Dingming Shu, Huanmin Zhang, Feng Chen, Qingmei Xie
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) causes high mortality associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, and results in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, a putative novel ALV subgroup virus named ALV-K was observed in Chinese local chickens. In this study, a novel ALV strain named GD14LZ was isolated from a Chinese local yellow broiler in 2014. The proviral genome was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The replication ability and pathogenicity of this virus were also evaluated...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
K Rutherford, C J Meehan, M G I Langille, S G Tyack, J C McKay, N L McLean, K Benkel, R G Beiko, B Benkel
Transposable elements (TEs), such as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), are common in the genomes of vertebrates. ERVs result from retroviral infections of germ-line cells, and once integrated into host DNA they become part of the host's heritable genetic material. ERVs have been ascribed positive effects on host physiology such as the generation of novel, adaptive genetic variation and resistance to infection, as well as negative effects as agents of tumorigenesis and disease. The avian leukosis virus subgroup E family (ALVE) of endogenous viruses of chickens has been used as a model system for studying the effects of ERVs on host physiology, and approximately 30 distinct ALVE proviruses have been described in the Gallus gallus genome...
October 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Di Liu, Qianqian Qiu, Xu Zhang, Manman Dai, Jianru Qin, Jianjong Hao, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus known to induce tumor formation and immunosuppression in infected chickens. One of the organs susceptible to ALV-J is the bone marrow, from which specialized antigen-presenting cells named dendritic cells (BM-DCs) are derived. Notably, these cells possess the unique ability to induce primary immune responses. In the present study, a method of cultivating and purifying DCs from chicken bone marrow in vitro was established to investigate the effects of ALV-J infection on BM-DC differentiation or generation...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Gregory M Shackleford, Xiang-He Shi, Kimberly S Swanson, Min Y Mahdi, Ignacio Gonzalez-Gomez, Shahab Asgharzadeh, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Anat Erdreich-Epstein, Rex A Moats
Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and have been divided into four major molecular subgroups. Animal models that mimic the principal molecular aberrations of these subgroups will be important tools for preclinical studies and allow greater understanding of medulloblastoma biology. We report a new transgenic model of medulloblastoma that possesses a unique combination of desirable characteristics including, among others, the ability to incorporate multiple and variable genes of choice and to produce bioluminescent tumors from a limited number of somatic cells within a normal cellular environment...
2016: PloS One
Yanwei Shen, Menglian He, Ji Zhang, Manda Zhao, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene envelope endows ALV-J with the potential for cross-species transmission. We wished to ascertain if the ALV-J can spread across species under selection pressure in susceptible and resistant hosts. First, we inoculated (in turn) two susceptible host birds (specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and turkeys). Then, we inoculated three resistant hosts (pheasants, quails and ducks) to detect the viral shedding, pathologic changes, and genetic evolution of different isolates...
January 2016: Bing du Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Virology
Weiguo Feng, Wei Meng, Liming Cai, Xiyao Cui, Zhifang Pan, Guihua Wang, Ziqiang Cheng
BACKGROUND: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus which causes immunosuppression and neoplasia in meat-type and egg-type chickens. ALV-J infects host cells via specific interaction between the viral Env and the cell surface receptor -chicken sodium hydrogen exchanger type 1 (chNHE1). NHE1 involved in altering the cellular pH and playing a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the other relationship between ALV-J and chNHE1. METHODS AND RESULTS: In ALV-J infected DF-1 cells, the mRNA level of chNHE1 was up-regulated with time-dependent manner tested by real time PCR, and accordingly, intracellular pH was increased tested by spectrofluorometer...
2016: Virology Journal
Denisse A Gutierrez, Luis Valdes, Che Serguera, Manuel Llano
PARP-1 silences retrotransposons in Drosophila, through heterochromatin maintenance, and integrated retroviruses in chicken. Here, we determined the role of viral DNA integration and cellular heterochromatin in PARP-1-mediated retroviral silencing using HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors and Rous-associated virus type 1 (RAV-1) as models. Analysis of the infection of PARP-1 knockout and control cells with HIV-1 harbouring WT integrase, in the presence or absence of an integrase inhibitor, or catalytic-dead mutant integrase indicated that silencing does not require viral DNA integration...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
Xuming Hu, Wenqi Zhu, Shihao Chen, Yangyang Liu, Zhen Sun, Tuoyu Geng, Xiaoyan Wang, Bo Gao, Chengyi Song, Aijian Qin, Hengmi Cui
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are important retroelements that reside in host genomes. However, ERV expression patterns and regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and MSB1 cells infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) exhibited significantly increased expression of env from the endogenous retrovirus ALVE. In contrast, env expression was significantly lower in CEF and MSB1 cells infected with exogenous avian leukosis virus J (ALVJ) at the early infection stage...
June 2016: Archives of Virology
D Elleder, J Hejnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ahmed M Abdellatif, Hisashi Oishi, Takahiro Itagaki, Yunshin Jung, Hossam H Shawki, Yukari Okita, Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Salah E El-Morsy, Mesbah A El-Sayed, Mahmoud B Shoaib, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi
The MAF family transcription factors are homologs of v-Maf, the oncogenic component of the avian retrovirus AS42. They are subdivided into 2 groups, small and large MAF proteins, according to their structure, function, and molecular size. MAFK is a member of the small MAF family and acts as a dominant negative form of large MAFs. In previous research we generated transgenic mice that overexpress MAFK in order to suppress the function of large MAF proteins in pancreatic β-cells. These mice developed hyperglycemia in adulthood due to impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
2016: PloS One
Darrell R Kapczynski, Terrence M Tumpey, Rachmat Hidajat, Aniko Zsak, Klaudia Chrzastek, Irina Tretyakova, Peter Pushko
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious...
March 18, 2016: Vaccine
Minbo Hou, Defang Zhou, Gen Li, Huijun Guo, Jianzhu Liu, Guihua Wang, Qiankun Zheng, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene...
March 8, 2016: Vaccine
Di Liu, Manman Dai, Xu Zhang, Weisheng Cao, Ming Liao
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes immunosuppression and enhances susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense in preventing bacterial and viral infections, and dendritic cells (DCs) play important roles in innate immunity. Because bone marrow is an organ that is susceptible to ALV-J, the virus may influence the generation of bone marrow-derived DCs. In this study, DCs cultured in vitro were used to investigate the effects of ALV infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nandor Nagy, Csilla Barad, Hannah K Graham, Ryo Hotta, Lily S Cheng, Nora Fejszak, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) develops from neural crest cells that migrate along the intestine, differentiate into neurons and glia, and pattern into two plexuses within the gut wall. Inductive interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme regulate gut development, but the influence of these interactions on ENS development is unknown. Epithelial-mesenchymal recombinations were constructed using avian hindgut mesenchyme and non-intestinal epithelium from the bursa of Fabricius. These recombinations led to abnormally large and ectopically positioned ganglia...
January 15, 2016: Development
F Zhu, H Jie, L Lian, L J Qu, Z C Hou, J X Zheng, S Y Chen, N Yang, Y P Liu
Endogenous retroviruses are regarded as ideal genetic markers for evolutionary analyses. Birds were some of the initial vertebrates found to contain endogenous retroviruses. However, few studies have investigated the presence and distribution of endogenous retroviruses in goose. In this study, we detected the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the genomic DNA of 8 Chinese native breeds using polymerase chain reaction method. The results indicated that a 1.2-kb avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag sequence was integrated into all 8 goose breeds...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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