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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532093/electrophoretic-deposition-of-organic-inorganic-composite-coatings-containing-zno-nanoparticles-exhibiting-antibacterial-properties
#1
Joanna Karbowniczek, Luis Cordero-Arias, Sannakaisa Virtanen, Superb K Misra, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Lorena Tuchscherr, Bogdan Rutkowski, Kamil Górecki, Piotr Bała, Aleksandra Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aldo R Boccaccini
To address one of the serious problems associated with permanent implants, namely bacterial infections, novel organic/inorganic coatings containing zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are proposed. Coatings were obtained by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on stainless steel 316L. Different deposition conditions namely: deposition times in the range 60-300s and applied voltage in the range 5-30V as well as developing a layered coating approach were studied. Antibacterial tests against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Salmonella enteric bacteria confirmed the activity of nZnO to prevent bacterial growth...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532074/highly-effective-cu-zn-carbon-micro-nanofiber-polymer-nanocomposite-based-wound-dressing-biomaterial-against-the-p-aeruginosa-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-strains
#2
Mohammad Ashfaq, Nishith Verma, Suphiya Khan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most prevalent bacteria in the infections caused by burn, surgery, and traumatic injuries. Emergence of the P. aeruginosa bacterial resistance against various clinical drugs for wound treatment is the major concern nowadays. The present study describes the synthesis of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) polymeric composite film (~0.2mm thickness) reinforced with the Cu/Zn bimetal-dispersed activated carbon micro/nanofiber (ACF/CNF), as a wound dressing material...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531351/pharmaceutical-intermediate-modified-gold-nanoparticles-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-wound-healing-application-via-electrospun-scaffold
#3
Xinglong Yang, Junchuan Yang, Le Wang, Bei Ran, Yuexiao Jia, Lingmin Zhang, Guang Yang, Huawu Shao, Xingyu Jiang
Remedying multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria wound infection is major challenge due to the inability of conventional antibiotics in treating such infections against MDR bacteria. Thus, developing wound dressings for wound care, particularly against MDR bacteria, is in huge demand. Here, we present a strategy in designing wound dressings: we use a small molecule (6-aminopenicillanic acid, APA)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to inhibit MDR bacteria. We dope the AuNPs into electrospun fibers of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin to yield materials that guard against wound infection by MDR bacteria...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530844/developing-a-new-generation-of-antimicrobial-and-bioactive-dental-resins
#4
L Cheng, K Zhang, N Zhang, M A S Melo, M D Weir, X D Zhou, Y X Bai, M A Reynolds, H H K Xu
Dental caries is prevalent, and secondary caries causes restoration failures. This article reviews recent studies on developing a new generation of bioactive resins with anticaries properties. Extensive effects were made to develop new antimicrobial composites, bonding agents, and other resins containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates to suppress plaque buildup and bacterial acid production. The effects of alkyl chain length and charge density and the antimicrobial mechanisms for chlorhexidine, nano-silver, quaternary ammonium methacrylates, and protein-repellent agents were discussed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530651/surface-attached-molecules-control-staphylococcus-aureus-quorum-sensing-and-biofilm-development
#5
Minyoung Kevin Kim, Aishan Zhao, Ashley Wang, Zachary Z Brown, Tom W Muir, Howard A Stone, Bonnie L Bassler
Bacteria use a process called quorum sensing to communicate and orchestrate collective behaviours, including virulence factor secretion and biofilm formation. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, accumulation and population-wide detection of signal molecules called autoinducers. Here, we develop concepts to coat surfaces with quorum-sensing-manipulation molecules as a method to control collective behaviours. We probe this strategy using Staphylococcus aureus. Pro- and anti-quorum-sensing molecules can be covalently attached to surfaces using click chemistry, where they retain their abilities to influence bacterial behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530279/bifunctional-antimicrobial-conjugates-and-hybrid-antimicrobials
#6
REVIEW
P Klahn, M Brönstrup
Covering: up to the end of 2016Novel antimicrobial drugs are continuously needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. An innovative molecular design strategy for novel antibiotic drugs is based on the hybridization of an antibiotic with a second functional entity. Such conjugates can be grouped into two major categories. In the first category (antimicrobial hybrids), both functional elements of the hybrid exert antimicrobial activity. Due to the dual targeting, resistance development can be significantly impaired, the pharmacokinetic properties can be superior compared to combination therapies with the single antibiotics, and the antibacterial potency is often enhanced in a synergistic manner...
May 22, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530195/facile-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-mediated-by-polyacrylamide-reduction-approach-to-antibacterial-application
#7
Hosam I Salaheldin, Meshal H K Almalki, Abd Elhameed M Hezma, Gamal E H Osman
The current time increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistant 'super-bugs' and the risks associated with food safety have become global issues. Therefore, further research is warranted to identify new and effective antimicrobial substances. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized by autoclaving technique using, different concentrations of Ag salt (AgNO3) solution (1, 5, 10, and 25 mM). Their presence was confirmed by a surface plasmon resonance band at ∼435 nm using UV-Vis absorption spectra...
June 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529864/allograft-bone-as-antibiotic-carrier
#8
REVIEW
Heinz Winkler, Peter Haiden
The treatment of chronic bone and joint infections is characterized by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long term disability to patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system. Difficulties derive from biofilm formed on dead bone and eventual implants, with resistance against immunological defences and antimicrobial substances. Biofilm embedded bacteria require up to 1000 times the antibiotic concentration of planktonic bacteria for elimination. Systemic antibiotic treatment alone cannot provide the concentrations required and surgical intervention is always prerequisite for potentially providing a cure...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529507/a-novel-and-efficient-method-for-bacteria-genome-editing-employing-both-crispr-cas9-and-an-antibiotic-resistance-cassette
#9
Hong Zhang, Qiu-Xiang Cheng, Ai-Min Liu, Guo-Ping Zhao, Jin Wang
As Cas9-mediated cleavage requires both protospacer and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences, it is impossible to employ the CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly edit genomic sites without available PAM sequences nearby. Here, we optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system and developed an innovative two-step strategy for efficient genome editing of any sites, which did not rely on the availability of PAM sequences. An antibiotic resistance cassette was employed as both a positive and a negative selection marker. By integrating the optimized two-plasmid CRISPR/Cas system and donor DNA, we achieved gene insertion and point mutation with high efficiency in Escherichia coli, and importantly, obtained clean mutants with no other unwanted mutations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529506/roles-of-regulatory-rnas-for-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-and-their-potential-value-as-novel-drug-targets
#10
REVIEW
Petra Dersch, Muna A Khan, Sabrina Mühlen, Boris Görke
The emergence of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacterial pathogens increases the demand for novel treatment strategies. Lately, the contribution of non-coding RNAs to antibiotic resistance and their potential value as drug targets became evident. RNA attenuator elements in mRNA leader regions couple expression of resistance genes to the presence of the cognate antibiotic. Trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs) modulate antibiotic tolerance by base-pairing with mRNAs encoding functions important for resistance such as metabolic enzymes, drug efflux pumps, or transport proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529326/persistent-bacterial-infections-and-persister-cells
#11
REVIEW
Robert A Fisher, Bridget Gollan, Sophie Helaine
Many bacteria can infect and persist inside their hosts for long periods of time. This can be due to immunosuppression of the host, immune evasion by the pathogen and/or ineffective killing by antibiotics. Bacteria can survive antibiotic treatment if they are resistant or tolerant to a drug. Persisters are a subpopulation of transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacterial cells that are often slow-growing or growth-arrested, and are able to resume growth after a lethal stress. The formation of persister cells establishes phenotypic heterogeneity within a bacterial population and has been hypothesized to be important for increasing the chances of successfully adapting to environmental change...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528650/the-role-of-intermetal-competition-and-mis-metalation-in-metal-toxicity
#13
Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J Waldron
The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528649/metal-resistance-and-its-association-with-antibiotic-resistance
#14
Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J Stekel, D G Joakim Larsson, Jon L Hobman
Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528648/copper-and-antibiotics-discovery-modes-of-action-and-opportunities-for-medicinal-applications
#15
Alex G Dalecki, Cameron L Crawford, Frank Wolschendorf
Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528098/the-cell-wall-compound-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-as-a-novel-wall-material-for-encapsulation-of-probiotics
#16
Samira Mokhtari, Seid Mahdi Jafari, Morteza Khomeiri, Yahya Maghsoudlou, Mohammad Ghorbani
Yeast cell wall is known as a food grade ingredient which is recently being used increasingly as a novel coating for encapsulation of different materials in the food industry. This application is limited to core materials smaller than yeast in size. In this study, we have tried to encapsulate larger particles by crushing yeast cells. Hence, probiotic bacteria of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum were encapsulated firstly by calcium alginate using the emulsion method and these microbeads were coated again by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall compound and another layer of calcium alginate...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528048/real-time-autofluorescence-imaging-to-diagnose-lvad-driveline-infections
#17
Jack B Keenan, Taufiek Konrad Rajab, David G Armstrong, Zain Khalpey
A 64-year-old man experienced a driveline infection that was treated with serial debridements and antibiotics. When the wound clinically appeared ready for closure, a handheld fluorescence imaging device still revealed a margin of red fluorescence around the wound edges consistent with a subclinical infection. Therefore, a wider margin was made and additional specimens for wound culture were taken, which demonstrated a vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection. The autofluorescence signals of common bacteria can be detected with a fluorescence camera in subclinical wound infections without clinical signs...
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#18
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527763/aluminium-resistant-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-induce-overexpression-of-aluminium-stress-related-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-increase-the-ginseng-tolerance-against-aluminium-stress
#19
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Johan Sukweenadhi, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527651/clinical-efficacy-of-cycling-empirical-antibiotic-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#20
Hideto Teranishi, Yuhki Koga, Hisanori Nishio, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Shunsuke Kanno, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. METHODS: Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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