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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340477/environmental-analysis-of-typical-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-args-in-farmland-soil-chronically-fertilized-with-chicken-manure
#1
Xiang Zhao, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Weili Ge, Jun Wang
Antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARGs) are generally considered emerging pollutants. To assess the impacts of tetracycline (TC) and sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics that are eliminated with fecaluria as drug prototypes, farmland soil used to research long-term fertilization with chicken manure was collected at four sites in Shandong Province. In this study, the rates of bacterial drug resistance to the same antibiotic decreased with an increase in the concentration of that antibiotic, and the resistance rates to TCs were lower than those to SAs...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#2
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335414/inhibition-of-listeria-monocytogenes-on-ready-to-eat-meats-using-bacteriocin-mixtures-based-on-mode-of-action
#3
Paul Priyesh Vijayakumar, Peter M Muriana
Bacteriocin-producing (Bac⁺) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising selected strains of Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium and thailandicus were examined for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes during hotdog challenge studies. The Bac⁺ strains, or their cell-free supernatants (CFS), were grouped according to mode-of-action (MOA) as determined from prior studies. Making a mixture of as many MOAs as possible is a practical way to obtain a potent natural antimicrobial mixture to address L...
March 14, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#4
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335365/antibacterial-properties-of-visible-light-responsive-carbon-containing-titanium-dioxide-photocatalytic-nanoparticles-against-anthrax
#5
Der-Shan Sun, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Yao-Hsuan Tseng, Wen-Shiang Wu, Hsin-Hou Chang
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO₂) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO₂ for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO₂ nanoparticles [TiO₂(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO₂(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive...
December 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335205/photosensitizer-embedded-polyacrylonitrile-nanofibers-as-antimicrobial-non-woven-textile
#6
Sarah L Stanley, Frank Scholle, Jiadeng Zhu, Yao Lu, Xiangwu Zhang, Xingci Situ, Reza A Ghiladi
Toward the objective of developing platform technologies for anti-infective materials based upon photodynamic inactivation, we employed electrospinning to prepare a non-woven textile comprised of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers embedded with a porphyrin-based cationic photosensitizer; termed PAN-Por((+)). Photosensitizer loading was determined to be 34.8 nmol/mg material; with thermostability to 300 °C. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against four bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE family of pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus; vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium; Acinetobacter baumannii; and Klebsiella pneumonia), as well as Escherichia coli...
April 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334924/throat-swabs-in-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-associations-with-clinical-presentation-and-potential-targets-for-point-of-care-testing
#7
Hannah V Thornton, Alastair D Hay, Niamh M Redmond, Sophie L Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Tim J Peters, John P Leeming, Andrew Lovering, Barry Vipond, Peter Muir, Peter S Blair
Background and objectives.: Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Methods.: Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to <16 years presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334702/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-7-substituted-6-fluoroquinolone-and-7-substituted-6-8-difluoroquinolone-derivatives
#8
Socorro Leyva-Ramos, Denisse de Loera, Jaime Cardoso-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed synthetic antimicrobial agents. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome; the irreversible DNA damage eventually causes the killing of bacteria. Thorough knowledge of the structure-activity relationship of quinolones is essential for the development of new drugs with improved activity against resistant strains. METHODS: The compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against 4 representing strains using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 24, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334251/isolation-of-vibrionaceae-from-wild-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-adults-and-their-impact-on-blue-mussel-larviculture
#9
Mieke Eggermont, Peter Bossier, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Vyshal Delahaut, Ali Md Rayhan, Nipa Gupta, Shikder Saiful Islam, Elsie Yumo, Nancy Nevejan, Patrick Sorgeloos, Bruno Gomez-Gil, Tom Defoirdt
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is known as a robust mollusk species, although its larviculture appears to be highly susceptible to diseases. In this study, we isolated 17 strains from induced mortality events in healthy wild-caught blue mussel adults and demonstrated that they caused between 17 and 98% mortality in blue mussel larvae in a newly developed, highly controlled immersion challenge test model. Eight of the isolates belong to the Splendidus clade of vibrios, while the other isolates belong to the genus Photobacterium...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334005/multi-scale-model-of-drug-induced-adaptive-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacteria-to-polymyxin-b
#10
Wojciech Krzyzanski, Gauri G Rao
The purpose of this report is to apply multi-scale modeling using the theory of physiologically structured populations (PSP) to develop a mathematical model for antimicrobial resistance based on a heterogeneous distribution of receptors and affinities among bacterial cells. The theory has been tested on data obtained from an in vitro static time-kill infection model analyzing the pharmacodynamics of polymyxin B against Gram-negative bacteria. The drug binding parameter KD (dissociation equilibrium constant) is assumed to vary between the bacterial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#11
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332827/subcellular-chemical-imaging-of-antibiotics-in-single-bacteria-using-c60-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#12
Hua Tian, David A Six, Thomas Krucker, Jennifer A Leeds, Nicholas Winograd
The inherent difficulty of discovering new and effective antibacterials and the rapid development of resistance particularly in Gram-negative bacteria, illustrates the urgent need for new methods that enable rational drug design. Here we report the development of 3D imaging cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a label-free approach to chemically map small molecules in aggregated and single Escherichia coli cells, with ~300 nm spatial resolution and high chemical sensitivity. The feasibility of quantitative analysis was explored, and a non-linear relationship between treatment dose and signal for tetracycline and ampicillin, two clinically-used antibacterials, was observed...
March 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332754/detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-organisms-with-a-carbapenem-based-fluorogenic-probe
#13
Wuyu Mao, Lingying Xia, Hexin Xie
Antibiotic resistance has become a major challenge to public health worldwide. This crisis is further aggravated by the increasing emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenems, typically considered as the antibiotics of last resort, which is mainly due to the production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing carbapenemases in bacteria. Herein, the carbapenem-based fluorogenic probe CB-1 with an unprecedented enamine-BODIPY switch is developed for the detection of carbapenemase activity. This reagent is remarkably specific towards carbapenemases over other prevalent β-lactamases...
March 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332593/injections-through-skin-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-introduce-contamination-despite-standard-antimicrobial-preparation-procedures
#14
Yi Wang, Valery Leng, Viraj Patel, K Scott Phillips
While surgical site preparation has been extensively studied, there is little information about resistance of skin microbiota in the biofilm form to antimicrobial decontamination, and there are no quantitative models to study how biofilm might be transferred into sterile tissue/implant materials during injections for joint spine and tendon, aspiration biopsies and dermal fillers (DF). In this work, we develop two in vitro models to simulate the process of skin preparation and DF injection using pig skin and SimSkin (silicone) materials, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332311/characterization-of-blue-light-irradiation-effects-on-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Courtney M Abana, John R Brannon, Rebecca A Ebbott, Taryn L Dunigan, Kirsten R Guckes, Hubaida Fuseini, Jennifer Powers, Bridget R Rogers, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Blue light irradiation (BLI) is an FDA-approved method for treating certain types of infections, like acne, and is becoming increasingly attractive as an antimicrobial strategy as the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant "superbugs" rises. However, no study has delineated the effectiveness of BLI throughout different bacterial growth phases, especially in more BLI-tolerant organisms such as Escherichia coli. While the vast majority of E. coli strains are nonpathogenic, several E. coli pathotypes exist that cause infection within and outside the gastrointestinal tract...
March 22, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331806/myroides-bacteremia-a-case-report-and-concise-review
#16
Rudra Beharrysingh
Myroides species are bacteria found commonly in environmental sources, such as water and soil. Despite this, they are historically uncommon pathogens, tending to affect primarily immunocompromised hosts. Based on a review of the current cases listed in the U.S. National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine (Table 1), there have been 48 reported cases of infection to date, one third of which have been reported in only the last seven years. This report outlines a case of bacteremia caused by Myroides species occurring in a diabetic male on chemotherapy for Merkel cell cancer...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331600/bacterial-cell-to-cell-signaling-promotes-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-parasitic-bacteriophages
#17
Pierre Moreau, Stephen P Diggle, Ville-Petri Friman
The evolution of host-parasite interactions could be affected by intraspecies variation between different host and parasite genotypes. Here we studied how bacterial host cell-to-cell signaling affects the interaction with parasites using two bacteria-specific viruses (bacteriophages) and the host bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa that communicates by secreting and responding to quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules. We found that a QS-signaling proficient strain was able to evolve higher levels of resistance to phages during a short-term selection experiment...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331426/environmental-distribution-and-drug-susceptibility-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-isolated-from-outdoor-and-indoor-environments
#18
Sachiko Nakamoto, Misaki Sakamoto, Kana Sugimura, Yuki Honmura, Yuki Yamamoto, Natsumi Goda, Hiroo Tamaki, Naoto Burioka
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an environmental bacterium with multi-drug resistance. We isolated Achromobacter xylosoxidans and investigated its susceptibility to 13 drugs. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from rivers and ponds, and 11 samples were swabbed from residential sinks and baths. Nine strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans were isolated from the 89 samples. Five strains, including 2 that were sampled from residential homes, showed high resistance to multiple aminoglycosides. This indicated that Achromobacter xylosoxidans is widely distributed in various outdoor and indoor environments...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330314/bioremediation-of-heavy-metals-using-an-endophytic-bacterium-paenibacillus-sp-rm-isolated-from-the-roots-of-tridax-procumbens
#19
M Govarthanan, R Mythili, T Selvankumar, S Kamala-Kannan, A Rajasekar, Young-Cheol Chang
The aim of the present study was to assess the bioremediation potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of Tridax procumbens plant. Five bacterial endophytes were isolated and subsequently tested for minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against different heavy metals. Amongst the five isolates, strain RM exhibited the highest resistance to copper (750 mg/l), followed by zinc (500 mg/l), lead (450 mg/l), and arsenic (400 mg/l). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence suggested that strain RM was a member of genus Paneibacillus...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#20
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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