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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641352/-do-general-surgeons-feel-adequately-prepared-for-the-complex-questions-associated-with-the-handling-of-multi-resistant-pathogens-results-of-the-mr2-survey
#1
Matthias May, Philipp J Spachmann, Steffen Lebentrau, Harald Schumacher, Christian Gilfrich, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Malte Vetterlein, Sabine Brookman-May, Martin Schostak, Florian M Wagenlehner, Maximilian Burger, Alexander Novotny, Robert Obermaier
Background At the present time, there is no evidence available as to the knowledge of general surgeons regarding multi-resistant pathogens (MRP) and the rational use of antibiotic medication (antibiotic stewardship/ABS) compared with physicians from other disciplines. Methods As part of the MR2 survey (Multiinstitutional Reconnaissance of practice with MultiResistant bacteria - a survey focussing on German hospitals), a questionnaire comprising 4 + 35 items was distributed to urologists, internists, gynaecologists and general surgeons in 18 hospitals...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#2
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#3
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#4
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637081/molecular-characterization-of-gluten-hydrolyzing-bacillus-spp-and-their-efficacy-and-biotherapeutic-potential-as-probiotics-using-caco-2-cell-line
#5
B S Rashmi, Gayathri Devaraja
AIM: To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolyzing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Indigenous gluten hydrolyzing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus spp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0.3% bile and also exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636975/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-pig-farms-in-switzerland
#6
Julia G Kraemer, João Pires, Marianne Kueffer, Eulalia Semaani, Andrea Endimiani, Markus Hilty, Anne Oppliger
The presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig farms has been widely reported, and the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has been documented in several countries. However, data for Switzerland are very scarce. This study aimed to compare changes in the prevalence of MRSA in Swiss pig farms between 2008 and 2015 and make the first ever estimates of the presence of ESBL-E and carbapenemase producers in pigs and pig farm workers. Results showed that ESBL-E was present in both pigs and farm workers and that the proportion of farms with MRSA had increased fourfold in seven years (from 7% to 31%)...
June 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636689/antibiotic-resistance-in-acne-treatment
#7
Brandon L Adler, Heather Kornmehl, April W Armstrong
Clinical Question: What is the evidence for antibiotic resistance in acne, and how does resistance affect treatment? Bottom Line: Use of topical and systemic antibiotics for acne is associated with formation of resistance in Propionibacterium acnes and other bacteria, with clinical consequences. Guidelines recommend resistance reduction strategies including avoidance of antibiotic monotherapy, combination treatment with topical modalities, and limiting the duration of oral antibiotic use...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636368/probing-the-mechanism-of-lal-32-a-gold-nanoparticle-based-antibiotic-discovered-through-small-molecule-variable-ligand-display
#8
Rose Byrne-Nash, Danielle Lucero, Niki Osbaugh, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander, Daniel L Feldheim
The unrelenting rise of antimicrobial resistant bacteria has necessitated the search for novel antibiotic solutions. Herein we describe further mechanistic studies on a 2.0 nm diameter gold nanoparticle-based antibiotic (designated LAL-32). This antibiotic exhibits bactericidal activity against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli at 1.0 μΜ, a concentration significantly lower than several clinically available antibiotics (such as ampicillin and gentamicin), and acute treatment with LAL-32 does not give rise to spontaneous resistant mutants...
June 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636355/semisynthetic-flavone-derived-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#9
Shuimu Lin, Jun-Jie Koh, Thet Tun Aung, Wan Ling Wendy Sin, Fanghui Lim, Lin Wang, Rajamani Lakshminarayanan, Lei Zhou, Donald T H Tan, Derong Cao, Roger W Beuerman, Li Ren, Shouping Liu
A new series of semisynthetic flavone-based small molecules mimicking antimicrobial peptides has been designed from natural icaritin to combat drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Compound 6 containing two arginine residues exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, and very low toxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a high selectivity of more than 511, comparable to that of several membrane-active antibiotics in clinical trials. Our data show for the first time that icaritin derivatives effectively kill bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636321/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-lysogenic-bacteriophage-and-metal-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#10
Jianhua Guo, Shu-Hong Gao, Ji Lu, Philip L Bond, Willy Verstraete, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of metal-based nanoparticles results in their continuous release into the environment, leading to potential risks for human health and microbial ecosystems. Although previous studies have indicated that nanoparticles may be toxic to microorganisms, there is a scarcity of data available to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms of inhibitory and biocidal effects of nanoparticles on microorganisms. This study used physiological experiments, microscopy, Live/Dead staining and the genome-wide RNA sequencing to investigate the multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the exposure of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#11
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#12
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634850/novel-vitamin-b12-producing-enterococcus-spp-and-preliminary-in-vitro-evaluation-of-probiotic-potentials
#13
Ping Li, Qing Gu, Yuejiao Wang, Yue Yu, Lanlan Yang, Jieyan V Chen
Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been attracting increased attentions currently because of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Most of recent studies focused on Lactobacillus, and little is known about B12-producing Enterococcus. In the present study, five Enterococcus strains isolated from infant feces were identified as vitamin B12 producers. Among them, Enterococcus faecium LZ86 had the highest B12 production (499...
June 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634713/characterization-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-saponin-conjugated-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-that-cause-burn-wound-infection
#14
Anbarasan Muniyan, Kalaiselvi Ravi, Udayamathi Mohan, Rajasekar Panchamoorthy
Saponins are glycosides, which destabilize the membrane by altering the membrane permeability. Thus, the present study was aimed to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fenugreek derived saponin (SN) against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study has optimized the concentration of SN (240 mg/mL) for the synthesis of an effective AgNPs against the test organism Escherichia coli. The SN reduced AgNPs produced a reddish-brown colour and displayed UV absorption at 416 nm. The bio-reducing efficiency of SN (62...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634572/a-helicobacter-pylori-homolog-of-eukaryotic-flotillin-is-involved-in-cholesterol-accumulation-epithelial-cell-responses-and-host-colonization
#15
Melanie L Hutton, Kimberley D'Costa, Amanda E Rossiter, Lin Wang, Lorinda Turner, David L Steer, Seth L Masters, Ben A Croker, Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos, Richard L Ferrero
The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori acquires cholesterol from membrane raft domains in eukaryotic cells, commonly known as "lipid rafts." Incorporation of this cholesterol into the H. pylori cell membrane allows the bacterium to avoid clearance by the host immune system and to resist the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The presence of cholesterol in H. pylori bacteria suggested that this pathogen may have cholesterol-enriched domains within its membrane. Consistent with this suggestion, we identified a hypothetical H...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634388/mito-xenophagic-killing-of-bacteria-is-coordinated-by-a-metabolic-switch-in-dendritic-cells
#17
Nadine Radomski, Danny Kägebein, Elisabeth Liebler-Tenorio, Axel Karger, Elke Rufer, Birke Andrea Tews, Stefanie Nagel, Rebekka Einenkel, Anne Müller, Annica Rebbig, Michael R Knittler
Chlamydiae are bacterial pathogens that grow in vacuolar inclusions. Dendritic cells (DCs) disintegrate these compartments, thereby eliminating the microbes, through auto/xenophagy, which also promotes chlamydial antigen presentation via MHC I. Here, we show that TNF-α controls this pathway by driving cytosolic phospholipase (cPLA)2-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) production. AA then impairs mitochondrial function, which disturbs the development and integrity of these energy-dependent parasitic inclusions, while a simultaneous metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis promotes DC survival...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634236/alternative-evolutionary-pathways-for-drug-resistant-small-colony-variant-mutants-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Sha Cao, Douglas L Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Diarmaid Hughes
Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633592/recent-advances-in-therapeutic-delivery-systems-of-bacteriophage-and-bacteriophage-encoded-endolysins
#19
Hollie Hathaway, Scarlet Milo, J Mark Sutton, Toby A Jenkins
Antibiotics have been the cornerstone of clinical management of bacterial infection since their discovery in the early 20th century. However, their widespread and often indiscriminate use has now led to reports of multidrug resistance becoming globally commonplace. Bacteriophage therapy has undergone a recent revival in battle against pathogenic bacteria, as the self-replicating and co-evolutionary features of these predatory virions offer several advantages over conventional therapeutic agents. In particular, the use of targeted bacteriophage therapy from specialized delivery platforms has shown particular promise owing to the control of delivery location, administration conditions and dosage of the therapeutic cargo...
July 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633052/disinfection-efficiencies-of-sage-and-spearmint-essential-oils-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-staphylococcus-aureus-cells-in-comparison-with-sodium-hypochlorite
#20
Dimitrios Vetas, Eleni Dimitropoulou, Gregoria Mitropoulou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Efstathios Giaouris
Staphylococcus aureus causes human infections and foodborne intoxications. This study explored the potential antibacterial actions of sage and spearmint essential oils (EOs) against both its planktonic and biofilm cells, in comparison with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), a commonly applied chemical sanitizer. Initially, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each plant mixture were determined against planktonic cultures, following growth at 30°C for 24h. Stationary phase planktonic bacteria were then individually exposed for 6min to either each EO (applied at 1-2×MBC; 2...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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