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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165604/carbapenemase-producing-organisms-a-global-scourge
#1
Robert A Bonomo, Eileen M Burd, John Conly, Brandi M Limbago, Laurent Poirel, Julie A Segre, Lars F Westblade
The dramatic increase in the prevalence and clinical impact of infections caused by bacteria producing carbapenemases is a global health concern. Carbapenemase production is especially problematic when encountered in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Due to their ability to readily spread and colonize patients in health care environments, preventing the transmission of these organisms is a major public health initiative and coordinated international effort is needed to contain the risk of infection...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165505/-evolutionary-interactions-as-a-possible-mechanism-of-drug-interactions-an-approach-to-the-control-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#2
Héctor Holguín, Pedro Amariles, William Ospina
In the 21st century, the world is facing a post-antibiotic era, in which the appearance of infections with a minor or no therapeutic alternative is common. In this context, it is essential to implement measures that optimize the available therapeutic tool, thus generating new strategies that strengthen the fight against growing bacterial resistance. The evolutionary interactions suggest that the development of sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial will have an inverse effect (collateral sensitivity) or similar (cross resistance) in a second antimicrobial that is involved in this system...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165349/combating-fusarium-infection-using-bacillus-based-antimicrobials
#3
REVIEW
Noor Khan, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch
Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants...
November 22, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165063/high-throughput-screening-strategies-for-the-development-of-anti-virulence-inhibitors-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#4
Xiaodan Cai, Weihao Zheng, Zigang Li
The increasing threats of antibiotic resistance urge the need for developing new approaches to combat bacterial infections. Unlike conventional antibiotics that aim to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, targeting bacterial virulence may be a promising alternative approach, which imposes weaker selective pressure for the generation of resistance. Here, we review the pathways related to staphylococcal virulence, summarize the high-throughput screening strategies used to identify novel anti-virulence inhibitors, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164118/infections-caused-by-antimicrobial-drug-resistant-saprophytic-gram-negative-bacteria-in-the-environment
#5
Eva Raphael, Lee W Riley
Background: Drug-resistance genes found in human bacterial pathogens are increasingly recognized in saprophytic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from environmental sources. The clinical implication of such environmental GNBs is unknown. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review to determine how often such saprophytic GNBs cause human infections. Methods: We queried PubMed for articles published in English, Spanish, and French between January 2006 and July 2014 for 20 common environmental saprophytic GNB species, using search terms "infections," "human infections," "hospital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164074/systemic-responses-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-following-exposure-to-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-bf-imply-multiple-intracellular-targets
#6
Cunbao Liu, Bin Shan, Jialong Qi, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163628/a-conserved-basal-transcription-factor-is-required-for-the-function-of-diverse-tal-effectors-in-multiple-plant-hosts
#7
Renyan Huang, Shugang Hui, Meng Zhang, Pei Li, Jinghua Xiao, Xianghua Li, Meng Yuan, Shiping Wang
Many Xanthomonas bacteria use transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins to activate plant disease susceptibility (S) genes, and this activation contributes to disease. We recently reported that rice basal transcription factor IIA gamma subunit, OsTFIIAγ5, is hijacked by TALE-carrying Xanthomonas oryzae infecting the plants. However, whether TFIIAγs are also involved in TALE-carrying Xanthomonas-caused diseases in other plants is unknown. Here, molecular and genetic approaches were used to investigate the role of TFIIAγs in other plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163440/nutrient-composition-promotes-switching-between-pellicle-and-bottom-biofilm-in-salmonella
#8
Sonia Paytubi, Cintia Cansado, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
Salmonella is one of the most frequently reported causes of foodborne illness worldwide. Non-typhoidal serovars cause gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella can grow on surfaces forming biofilms, contributing to its persistence since biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to the high resistance to antimicrobials and disinfectants. It has been described that there are two crucial biofilm promoting factors in Salmonella: curli and cellulose. The expression of both factors is coordinately regulated by the transcriptional regulator CsgD...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163430/pdtas-deficiency-affects-resistance-of-mycobacteria-to-ribosome-targeting-antibiotics
#9
Karolina Dadura, Renata Płocińska, Anna Rumijowska-Galewicz, Przemysław Płociński, Anna Żaczek, Bożena Dziadek, Andrzej Zaborowski, Jarosław Dziadek
Two-component regulatory systems (TCSSs) are key regulatory elements responsible for the adaptation of bacteria to environmental stresses. A classical TCSS is typically comprised of a sensory histidine kinase and a corresponding response regulator. Here, we used homologous recombination to construct a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant defective in the synthesis of cytosolic histidine kinase PdtaS (Msmeg_1918). The resulting ΔpdtaS mutant strain was tested in the Phenotype Microarray screening system, which allowed us to identify aminoglycoside antibiotic sensitivity, tetracyclines antibiotic resistance as well as membrane transport and respiration, as the main processes affected by removal of pdtaS...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163416/diagnostic-evasion-of-highly-resistant-microorganisms-a-critical-factor-in-nosocomial-outbreaks
#10
Xuewei Zhou, Alexander W Friedrich, Erik Bathoorn
Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163413/lipoprotein-glycosylation-by-protein-o-mannosyltransferase-mab_1122c-contributes-to-low-cell-envelope-permeability-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-abscessus
#11
Katja Becker, Klara Haldimann, Petra Selchow, Lukas M Reinau, Michael Dal Molin, Peter Sander
Lipoproteins are important components of the mycobacterial cell envelope due to their function in cell wall homeostasis and bacterial virulence. They are post-translationally modified with lipid- and glycosyl-residues in various species and interference with acylation or glycosylation leads to reduced growth and attenuated virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lipoproteins are also expressed in the emerging and highly drug resistant pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus which frequently affects the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163399/minion-nanopore-sequencing-enables-correlation-between-resistome-phenotype-and-genotype-of-coliform-bacteria-in-municipal-sewage
#12
Yu Xia, An-Dong Li, Yu Deng, Xiao-Tao Jiang, Li-Guan Li, Tong Zhang
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) functioned as the intersection between the human society and nature environment, are receiving increasingly more attention on risk assessment of the acquisition of environmental antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) by pathogenetic populations during treatment. However, because of the general lack of robust resistome profiling methods, genotype, and resistance phenotype is still poorly correlated in human pathogens of sewage samples. Here we applied MinION sequencing to quantify the resistance genes of multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) coliform bacteria, a common indicator for human enteric pathogens in sewage samples...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163397/functionality-of-root-associated-bacteria-along-a-salt-marsh-primary-succession
#13
Miao Wang, Erqin Li, Chen Liu, Alexandre Jousset, Joana F Salles
Plant-associated bacteria are known for their high functional trait diversity, from which many are likely to play a role in primary and secondary succession, facilitating plant establishment in suboptimal soils conditions. Here we used an undisturbed salt marsh chronosequence that represents over 100 years of soil development to assess how the functional traits of plant associated bacteria respond to soil type, plant species and plant compartment. We isolated and characterized 808 bacterial colonies from the rhizosphere soil and root endosphere of two salt marsh plants, Limonium vulgare and Artemisia maritima, along the chronosequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163387/a-multiplex-sybr-green-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-three-colistin-resistance-genes-from-cultured-bacteria-feces-and-environment-samples
#14
Jiyun Li, Xiaomin Shi, Wenjuan Yin, Yang Wang, Zhangqi Shen, Shuangyang Ding, Shaolin Wang
The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex assay for rapid detection of mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-3, a group of genes of conferring resistance to colistin mediated by plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae. A SYBR Green based real-time PCR assay has been designed to detect the mcr genes, and applied to cultured bacteria, feces and soil samples. All three mcr genes could be detected with a lower limit of 10(2) cultured bacteria. This test was highly specific and sensitive, and generated no false-positive results. The assay was also conclusive when applied to feces and soil samples containing mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli, which could facilitate the screening of mcr genes not only in the bacteria, but also directly from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163375/isolation-and-characterization-of-pseudomonas-spp-strains-that-efficiently-decompose-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate
#15
Ewa M Furmanczyk, Michal A Kaminski, Grzegorz Spolnik, Maciej Sojka, Witold Danikiewicz, Andrzej Dziembowski, Leszek Lipinski, Adam Sobczak
Due to their particular properties, detergents are widely used in household cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in agriculture as adjuvants tailoring the features of pesticides or other crop protection agents. The continuously growing use of these various products means that water soluble detergents have become one of the most problematic groups of pollutants for the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Thus it is important to identify bacteria having the ability to survive in the presence of large quantities of detergent and efficiently decompose it to non-surface active compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162798/persistence-and-reversal-of-plasmid-mediated-antibiotic-resistance
#16
Allison J Lopatkin, Hannah R Meredith, Jaydeep K Srimani, Connor Pfeiffer, Rick Durrett, Lingchong You
In the absence of antibiotic-mediated selection, sensitive bacteria are expected to displace their resistant counterparts if resistance genes are costly. However, many resistance genes persist for long periods in the absence of antibiotics. Horizontal gene transfer (primarily conjugation) could explain this persistence, but it has been suggested that very high conjugation rates would be required. Here, we show that common conjugal plasmids, even when costly, are indeed transferred at sufficiently high rates to be maintained in the absence of antibiotics in Escherichia coli...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162709/ehrlichia-chaffeensis-and-its-invasin-etpe-block-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-by-macrophages-in-a-dnase-x-dependent-manner
#17
Omid Teymournejad, Mingqun Lin, Yasuko Rikihisa
The obligatory intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis lacks most genes that confer resistance to oxidative stress but can block reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by host monocytes-macrophages. Bacterial and host molecules responsible for this inhibition have not been identified. To infect host cells, Ehrlichia uses the C terminus of its surface invasin, entry-triggering protein of Ehrlichia (EtpE; EtpE-C), which directly binds the mammalian cell surface receptor glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein DNase X...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162546/evaluation-of-probiotic-bacillus-aerius-b81e-isolated-from-healthy-hybrid-catfish-on-growth-disease-resistance-and-innate-immunity-of-pla-mong-pangasius-bocourti
#18
Ratchanu Meidong, Kulwadee Khotchanalekha, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn, Takahiro Nagasawa, Miki Nakao, Kenji Sakai, Saowanit Tongpim
Infectious diseases have been found to be a major cause of mortality in fish hatcheries. Probiotics have been introduced to replace antibiotics commonly used for treatment of bacterial infection in aquaculture. This study was conducted to isolate, screen, and evaluate the probiotic Bacillus spp. for potential use as a feed supplement to enhance fish growth, disease resistance and innate immunity of Pla-mong Pangasius bocourti. Bacillus aerius strain B81e was selectively isolated from the intestine of healthy catfish and chosen based on its probiotic properties both in vitro and in vivo...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161992/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-causing-blood-stream-infection-in-neonates-and-infants-a-cause-for-concern
#19
Rinku Sah, Shraddha Siwakoti, Ratna Baral, Rupa S Rajbhandari, Basuda Khanal
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ( S. maltophilia) is an important Gram-negative, non-fermentative, multidrug resistant (MDR) nosocomial organism. We evaluated the isolation of S. maltophilia from the seven blood culture specimens received from the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) over the duration of two weeks. The suspicion of a possible outbreak was raised and the hospital infection control team investigated the source and found the hand of one healthcare provider harbouring a similar organism...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161850/preface
#20
Daozhou Gao, Shigui Ruan, Jifa Jiang
In the new century, with rapid population growth, large-scale urbanization, global warming and many other factors, we are facing unprecedented ecological, health, social, and other challenges and issues. These include biological invasion, environmental degradation, sharp increase in cancer morbidity, high frequency of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a grave threat to biological diversity, public health, economic development and so on. Based on the solid research in population dynamics and disease dynamics, mathematical modeling, analysis and simulation have been widely used over the past decades to study various problems in life sciences and medicine, from the expression of gene sequence to the pathogenesis of cancer, from the control of molecular organisms to the resistance of bacteria and viruses, from immune response to diseases to the design and evaluation of treatments, and so on...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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