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"Collective impact"

Danielle Fastring, Susan Mayfield-Johnson, Tanya Funchess, Julie Egressy, Greg Wilson
BACKGROUND: Invest Health, a collaboration between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and The Reinvestment Fund, selected 50 midsized cities to participate in a health initiative that encourages cross-sector alliances to think creatively about mechanisms that address barriers to reducing health disparities among low-income populations. Gulfport, Mississippi, was 1 of 50 teams chosen to participate. OBJECTIVE: To develop an academic-community partnership among the University of Southern Mississippi, Coastal Family Health Center (CFHC), Mercy Housing and Human Development (MHHD), the Mississippi State Department of Health Office of Health Disparity Elimination, and Gulfport residents to create the Healthy Gulfport Initiative, and, ultimately, the Gulf Coast Healthy Communities Collaborative (GCHCC)...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Cliff Zinyemba, Emma Archer, Hanna-Andrea Rother
Pesticides represent a potential public health hazard of note in farming communities. Accumulating evidence indicates that some pesticides used in agriculture act as hormone disrupters, with the potential to result in chronic health effects. Despite such a growing evidence base, pesticides remain the preferred method of pest control in agriculture worldwide. In many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, usage is on the increase. This qualitative study assessed changes in the usage of pesticides by Zimbabwean smallholder cotton farmers in the past 30 years...
2018: PloS One
Sarah R B King, Kathryn A Schoenecker, Jennifer A Fike, Sara J Oyler-McCance
Fecal DNA collected noninvasively can provide valuable information about genetic and ecological characteristics. This approach has rarely been used for equids, despite the need for conservation of endangered species and management of abundant feral populations. We examined factors affecting the efficacy of using equid fecal samples for conservation genetics. First, we evaluated two fecal collection methods (paper bag vs. ethanol). Then, we investigated how time since deposition and month of collection impacted microsatellite amplification success and genotyping errors...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Michael M Engelgau, K M Venkat Narayan, Majid Ezzati, Luis A Salicrup, Deshiree Belis, Laudan Y Aron, Robert Beaglehole, Alain Beaudet, Peter A Briss, David A Chambers, Marion Devaux, Kevin Fiscella, Michael Gottlieb, Unto Hakkinen, Rain Henderson, Anselm J Hennis, Judith S Hochman, Stephen Jan, Walter J Koroshetz, Johan P Mackenbach, M G Marmot, Pekka Martikainen, Mark McClellan, David Meyers, Polly E Parsons, Clas Rehnberg, Darshak Sanghavi, Stephen Sidney, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Sharon Straus, Steven H Woolf, Stephanie Constant, Tony L Creazzo, Janet M de Jesus, Nara Gavini, Norma B Lerner, Helena O Mishoe, Cheryl Nelson, Emmanuel Peprah, Antonello Punturieri, Uchechukwu Sampson, Rachael L Tracy, George A Mensah
Four decades ago, U.S. life expectancy was within the same range as other high-income peer countries. However, during the past decades, the United States has fared worse in many key health domains resulting in shorter life expectancy and poorer health-a health disadvantage. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a panel of national and international health experts and stakeholders for a Think Tank meeting to explore the U.S. health disadvantage and to seek specific recommendations for implementation research opportunities for heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders...
April 28, 2018: Global Heart
Frideborg Bradley, Kenzie Birse, Klara Hasselrot, Laura Noël-Romas, Andrea Introini, Hugo Wefer, Maike Seifert, Lars Engstrand, Annelie Tjernlund, Kristina Broliden, Adam D Burgener
PROBLEM: Susceptibility to HIV is associated with the menstrual cycle and vaginal microbiome, but their collective impact on vaginal inflammation remains unclear. Here, we characterized the cervicovaginal proteome, inflammation, and microbiome community structure and function during the menstrual cycle. METHOD OF STUDY: Cervicovaginal secretions were collected from regularly cycling women (n = 16) at median day 10, 16, and 24 of each menstrual cycle and analyzed by mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and a multiplex bead array immunoassay...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Henry A Paz, Kristin E Hales, James E Wells, Larry A Kuehn, Harvey C Freetly, Elaine D Berry, Michael D Flythe, Matthew L Spangler, Samodha C Fernando
The importance of the rumen microbiota on nutrient cycling to the animal is well recognized; however, our understanding of the influence of the rumen microbiome composition on feed efficiency is limited. The rumen microbiomes of two large animal cohorts (125 heifers and 122 steers) were characterized to identify specific bacterial members (operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) associated with feed efficiency traits (ADFI, ADG, and G:F) in beef cattle. The heifer and steer cohorts were fed a forage-based diet and a concentrate-based diet, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ricardo Perez-Alvarez, Brian A Nault, Katja Poveda
Landscape composition not only affects a variety of arthropod-mediated ecosystem services, but also disservices, such as herbivory by insect pests that may have negative effects on crop yield. Yet, little is known about how different habitats influence the dynamics of multiple herbivore species, and ultimately their collective impact on crop production. Using cabbage as a model system, we examined how landscape composition influenced the incidence of three specialist cruciferous pests (aphids, flea beetles, and leaf-feeding Lepidoptera), lepidopteran parasitoids, and crop yield across a gradient of landscape composition in New York, USA...
April 4, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Masaki Koh, Yumiko Hayakawa, Takuya Akai, Tomohide Hayashi, Takahiro Tomita, Shoichi Nagai, Satoshi Kuroda
This study aimed to assess whether T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) can be a potent novel biomarker to predict the outcome in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). This study enrolled 20 patients who were histologically diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell type PCNSL between 2005 and 2015. Using surgical specimens, the expression of TOPK and phosphorylated TOPK (p-TOPK) was analyzed on immunohistochemistry. Clinical features such as age, sex, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), ocular involvement, deep brain structure involvement, the number of lesions, chemotherapy and radiation therapy were also collected...
March 25, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
Vasileios Theocharidis, Ioannis Katsaros, Emmanouil Sgouromallis, Nikolaos Serifis, Vasileios Boikou, Sotirios Tasigiorgos, George Kokosis, Konstantinos P Economopoulos
BACKGROUND: Smoking is considered to be a significant risk factor for the development of postoperative complications after various surgical procedures, mainly by limiting oxygen delivery to tissues. Evidence on the collective impact of smoking in aesthetic procedure outcomes is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current evidence on the association between smoking and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent common elective procedures in plastic surgery. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane bibliographical databases were searched from January 1950 to October 2016 for studies reporting on patients who underwent facelift, abdominoplasty, breast reduction and breast reconstruction and for studies with included data on smoking history of treated patients...
May 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Lynn Roblin, Rebecca Truscott, Meaghan R Boddy
A whole-system perspective is critical in efforts to create a healthy population and a productive, equitable, and sustainable food system. In 2009, the Ontario Collaborative Group on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity undertook a bold initiative to develop a comprehensive provincial strategy encompassing the entire food system. The Ontario Food and Nutrition Strategy was shaped through extensive consultation with diverse stakeholders. This strategy identified strategic directions and priority actions for productive, equitable, and sustainable food systems intended to promote the health and well-being of all Ontarians...
March 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christopher Carlsten, Tamara Schikowski, Katja Ickstadt, Holger Schwender
BACKGROUND: Weighted genetic risk scores (GRS), defined as weighted sums of risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are statistically powerful for detection gene-environment (GxE) interactions. To assign weights, the gold standard is to use external weights from an independent study. However, appropriate external weights are not always available. In such situations and in the presence of predominant marginal genetic effects, we have shown in a previous study that GRS with internal weights from marginal genetic effects ("GRS-marginal-internal") are a powerful and reliable alternative to single SNP approaches or the use of unweighted GRS...
December 16, 2017: BMC Genetics
Tiffany Blake-Lamb, Alexy Arauz Boudreau, Sarah Matathia, Etna Tiburcio, Meghan E Perkins, Brianna Roche, Milton Kotelchuck, Derri Shtasel, Sarah N Price, Elsie M Taveras
INTRODUCTION: Obesity interventions may be most effective if they begin in the earliest stages of life, support changes across family, clinical, and public health systems, and address socio-contextual factors. METHODS: The First 1000Days is a systematic program starting in early pregnancy lasting through the first 24months of infancy to prevent obesity among low-income mother-infant pairs in three community health centers in Massachusetts. The program uses a Collective Impact approach to create the infrastructure for sustained, system-wide changes for obesity prevention across early life clinical and public health services, including Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Adult Medicine, Behavioral Health, Nutrition, Community Health, the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program, and the Maternal, Infant and Childhood Home Visiting program...
February 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Brandon Nesbit, Marci Hertz, Sally Thigpen, Ted Castellanos, Michelle Brown, Jamila Porter, Amber Williams
CONTEXT: For most programs, whether funded through governmental agencies or nongovernmental organizations, demonstrating the impact of implemented activities is vital to ensuring continued funding and support. OBJECTIVE: Program evaluation is a critical tool that serves the dual purpose of describing impact and identifying areas for program improvement. From a funder's perspective, describing the individual and collective impact of state-based programs can be challenging due to variations in strategies being implemented and types of data being collected...
January 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Kimberly Bradley, Karuna S Chibber, Naima Cozier, Peggy Vander Meulen, Colleen Ayres-Griffin
Purpose While Healthy Start has emphasized the need for multi-sectorial community engagement and collaboration since its inception, in 2014 Healthy Start adopted Collective Impact (CI) as a framework for reducing infant mortality. This paper describes the development of a peer-focused capacity-building strategy that introduced key elements of CI and preliminary findings of Healthy Start grantees' progress with using CI as an approach to collaboration. Description The Collective Impact Peer Learning Networks (CI-PLNs) consisted of eight 90-min virtual monthly meetings and one face-to-face session that reviewed CI pre-conditions and conditions...
December 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Chelsey Leruth, Jacqueline Goodman, Brian Bragg, Dara Gray
Purpose Breastfeeding has been linked to a host of positive health effects for women and children. However, disparities in breastfeeding initiation and duration prevent many low-income and African-American women from realizing these benefits. Existing breastfeeding promotion efforts often do not reach women who need support the most. In response, the Westside Healthy Start program (WHS), located in Chicago, Illinois, developed an ongoing multilevel approach to breastfeeding promotion. Description Key elements of our WHS breastfeeding model include individual education and counseling from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum and partnership with a local safety-net hospital to implement the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and provide lactation support to delivering patients...
December 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Alexis L Pasulka, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Sebastian H Kopf, Yunbin Guan, Bonnie Poulos, Annie Moradian, Michael J Sweredoski, Sonja Hess, Mathew B Sullivan, Kay D Bidle, Victoria J Orphan
While the collective impact of marine viruses has become more apparent over the last decade, a deeper understanding of virus-host dynamics and the role of viruses in nutrient cycling would benefit from direct observations at the single-virus level. We describe two new complementary approaches - stable isotope probing coupled with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorescence-based biorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) - for studying the activity and biogeochemical influence of marine viruses...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Robert E Pogue, Denise P Cavalcanti, Shreya Shanker, Rosangela V Andrade, Lana R Aguiar, Juliana L de Carvalho, Fabrício F Costa
Rare genetic diseases collectively impact a significant portion of the world's population. For many diseases there is limited information available, and clinicians can find difficulty in differentiating between clinically similar conditions. This leads to problems in genetic counseling and patient treatment. The biomedical market is affected because pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries do not see advantages in addressing rare disease treatments, or because the cost of the treatments is too high. By contrast, technological advances including DNA sequencing and analysis, together with computer-aided tools and online resources, are allowing a more thorough understanding of rare disorders...
January 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Linda R Greene, Sara Cosgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Yannish Naik, Peter Baker, Ian Walker, Taavi Tillmann, Kristin Bash, Darryl Quantz, Frances Hillier-Brown, Clare Bambra
BACKGROUND: The economic determinants of health have been widely recognised as crucial factors affecting health; however, to date, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to summarise these factors and the ways in which they can influence health. We conceptualise the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, regulation from institutions, markets, finance, labour, the public-private balance as well as production and distributional effects, which collectively impact on health through the effect of moderators...
November 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Yaoping Cui, Xiangming Xiao, Yao Zhang, Jinwei Dong, Yuanwei Qin, Russell B Doughty, Geli Zhang, Jie Wang, Xiaocui Wu, Yaochen Qin, Shenghui Zhou, Joanna Joiner, Berrien Moore
The gross primary production (GPP) of vegetation in urban areas plays an important role in the study of urban ecology. It is difficult however, to accurately estimate GPP in urban areas, mostly due to the complexity of impervious land surfaces, buildings, vegetation, and management. Recently, we used the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), climate data, and satellite images to estimate the GPP of terrestrial ecosystems including urban areas. Here, we report VPM-based GPP (GPPvpm) estimates for the world's ten most populous megacities during 2000-2014...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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