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"Collective impact"

Salman Waheed, Simcha Pollack, Marguerite Roth, Nathaniel Reichek, Alan Guerci, Jie J Cao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The efficacy of statin therapy remains unknown in patients eligible for statin therapy with and without elevated coronary calcium score (CAC). The study sought to evaluate how cardiovascular risk factors, expressed in terms of statin eligibility for primary prevention, and CAC modify clinical outcomes with and without statin therapy. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the St. Francis Heart Study treatment trial, a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial of atorvastatin (20 mg), vitamin C (1 g), and vitamin E (1000 U) daily, versus placebos in 990 asymptomatic individuals with CAC ≥ 80th percentile for age and gender...
September 17, 2016: Atherosclerosis
P Zaratin, G Comi, T Coetzee, K Ramsey, K Smith, A Thompson, M Panzara
The Progressive MS Alliance Industry Forum describes a new approach to address barriers to developing treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). This innovative model promises to facilitate robust collaboration between industry, academia, and patient organizations and accelerate research towards the overarching goal of developing safe and effective treatments for progressive MS.
October 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Natalie Reznikov, Hila Chase, Yehonatan Ben Zvi, Victoria Tarle, Matthew Singer, Vlad Brumfeld, Ron Shahar, Steve Weiner
UNLABELLED: Trabecular bone is an intricate 3D network of struts and plates. Although the structure-function relations in trabecular bone have been studied since the time of Julius Wolff, controversy still exists regarding the architectural parameters responsible for its stability and resilience. We present a parameter that measures the angle between two connected trabeculae - the Inter-Trabecular Angle (ITA). We studied the ITA values derived from μCT scans of different regions of the proximal femora of 5 individuals of different age and sex...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Subhadra Evans, Laura A Payne, Laura Seidman, Kirsten Lung, Lonnie Zeltzer, Jennie C I Tsao
There has been limited empirical examination of how parent variables such as anxiety and solicitousness collectively impact child pain response. We sought to examine the relationships among maternal anxiety, solicitous parenting, and children's laboratory anxiety and pain intensity in children with chronic pain. Participants included 80 children and adolescents (ages 8-18) with chronic pain and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires and lab pain tasks measuring their parents' solicitous parenting, pressure, cold and heat pain anticipatory anxiety and pain intensity...
2016: Children
Katherine A Waugh, Sonia M Leach, Brandon L Moore, Tullia C Bruno, Jonathan D Buhrman, Jill E Slansky
Mechanisms of self-tolerance often result in CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with a hypofunctional phenotype incapable of tumor clearance. Using a transplantable colon carcinoma model, we found that CD8(+) T cells became tolerized in <24 h in an established tumor environment. To define the collective impact of pathways suppressing TIL function, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells from the tumor and periphery. Notably, gene expression induced during TIL hypofunction more closely resembled self-tolerance than viral exhaustion...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Dane W deQuilettes, Wei Zhang, Victor M Burlakov, Daniel J Graham, Tomas Leijtens, Anna Osherov, Vladimir Bulović, Henry J Snaith, David S Ginger, Samuel D Stranks
Organic-inorganic perovskites such as CH3NH3PbI3 are promising materials for a variety of optoelectronic applications, with certified power conversion efficiencies in solar cells already exceeding 21%. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art films still contain performance-limiting non-radiative recombination sites and exhibit a range of complex dynamic phenomena under illumination that remain poorly understood. Here we use a unique combination of confocal photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and chemical imaging to correlate the local changes in photophysics with composition in CH3NH3PbI3 films under illumination...
2016: Nature Communications
Victoria Shier, Nancy Nicosia, Ashlesha Datar
Research and policy initiatives are increasingly focused on the role of neighborhood food environment in children's diet and obesity. However, existing evidence relies on observational data that is limited by neighborhood selection bias. The Military Teenagers' Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study (M-TEENS) leverages the quasi-random variation in neighborhood environment generated by military personnel's assignment to installations to examine whether neighborhood food environments are associated with children's dietary behaviors and BMI...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
M M Sirdah, M S Al-Kahlout, N S Reading
Congenital genetic disorders affecting neonates or young children can have serious clinical consequences if undiagnosed and left untreated. Early detection and an accurate diagnosis are, therefore, of major importance for preventing negative patient outcomes. Even though the occurrence of each specific metabolic disorder may be rare, their collective impact of preventable complications may be of considerable importance to the public health. Our previous studies showed that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a problem of public health importance that has been shown to be a predominant cause of acute hemolytic anemia requiring hospitalization in Palestinian young children in Gaza Strip...
September 2016: Clinical Genetics
Meghan T Murray, Olivia Jackson, Bevin Cohen, Gordon Hutcheon, Lisa Saiman, Elaine Larson, Natalie Neu
We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.
July 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Aradhana Bela Sood, Steven J Berkowitz
The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle...
April 2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Beverly E Kingston, Sharon F Mihalic, Eric J Sigel
The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Sarah Timmins DeGregory, Nupur Chaudhury, Patrick Kennedy, Philip Noyes, Aletha Maybank
In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure...
April 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kylie Gwynne, Michelle J Irving, Debbie McCowen, Boe Rambaldini, John Skinner, Steve Naoum, Anthony Blinkhorn
A sustainable model of oral health care for disadvantaged Aboriginal people living in rural and remote communities in New South Wales was developed using collective impact methodology. Collective impact is a structured process which draws together organizations to develop a shared agenda and design solutions which are jointly resourced, measured and reported upon.
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Shazhan Amed, Patti-Jean Naylor, Susan Pinkney, Stephanie Shea, Louise C Mâsse, Stephen Berg, Jean-Paul Collet, Joan Wharf Higgins
OBJECTIVES: We describe the processes used in SCOPE, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative, to achieve multisectoral engagement and collective action to prevent childhood obesity. PARTICIPANTS: SCOPE engages representatives from various sectors (local government, health, schools, recreation, local media, early childhood, community services) who influence the environments in which children live, learn and play. SETTING: SCOPE has been implemented in three communities in British Columbia (BC)...
September 2015: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Adam J Beaupre, Reed Reichwald, Xiang Zhou, Elizabeth Raleigh, Richard M Lee
Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined patterns of commitment to ethnic and adoptive identities, revealing six conceptually unique identity clusters. Analyzing the association between these identity profiles and psychological adjustment, the study found that the identity profiles were undifferentiated with respect to behavioral development and risk behaviors...
December 2015: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Eileen Weber, Bryan Polkey
Many Americans need both health care and legal interventions to maximize their opportunities for health. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs), also known as health care legal partnerships (HLPs), bring the power of law to health care to reduce barriers and negative social determinants of health. The two terms--HLP and MLP--are used interchangeably in this article. Growing research shows that these partnerships can improve care, improve health, enhance interprofessional collaboration, and improve the financial status of patients and providers...
2015: Creative Nursing
Jocelyn R Wilder, Linda M Kaste, Arden Handler, Theresa Chapple-McGruder, Kristin M Rankin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and caries experience among Georgia third graders. METHODS: The 2010-2011 Georgia Third Grade Oral Health Study provided a school-based sample for analysis. Data were weighted to be representative of the state of Georgia's third graders. Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between SSB consumption and caries experience after adjusting for socio-demographic and maternal and child oral health characteristics...
2016: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Aeryun Kim, Stephanie L Servetas, Jieun Kang, Jinmoon Kim, Sungil Jang, Ho Jin Cha, Wan Jin Lee, June Kim, Judith Romero-Gallo, Richard M Peek, D Scott Merrell, Jeong-Heon Cha
Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H...
2015: PloS One
Silja M Dry, Robert Thomas Kane, Rosanna M Rooney
The relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomized controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program. Five hundred and forty-one children aged 8-12 completed a battery of self-reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism, and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study...
2015: Frontiers in Public Health
M Jabbi, Q Chen, N Turner, P Kohn, M White, J S Kippenhan, D Dickinson, B Kolachana, V Mattay, D R Weinberger, K F Berman
Characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the heritability of complex behavioral traits such as human anxiety remains a challenging endeavor for behavioral neuroscience. Copy-number variation (CNV) in the general transcription factor gene, GTF2I, located in the 7q11.23 chromosomal region that is hemideleted in Williams syndrome and duplicated in the 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7), is associated with gene-dose-dependent anxiety in mouse models and in both Williams syndrome and Dup7. Because of this recent preclinical and clinical identification of a genetic influence on anxiety, we examined whether sequence variation in GTF2I, specifically the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2527367, interacts with trait and state anxiety to collectively impact neural response to anxiety-laden social stimuli...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
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