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"Realist evaluation"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489608/simulation-study-comparing-the-helmet-chin-pet-with-a-cylindrical-pet-of-the-same-number-of-detectors
#1
Abdella M Ahmed, Hideaki Tashima, Eiji Yoshida, Fumihiko Nishikido, Taiga Yamaya
There is a growing interest in developing brain PET scanners with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. Sensitivity of the PET scanner can be improved by increasing the solid angle. However, conventional PET scanners are designed based on a cylindrical geometry, which may not be the most efficient design for brain imaging in terms of the balance between sensitivity and cost. We proposed a dedicated brain PET scanner based on a hemispheric shape detector and a chin detector (referred to as the helmet-chin PET), which is designed to maximize the solid angle by increasing the number of lines-of-response in the hemisphere...
May 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486991/exploring-the-utility-and-scalability-of-a-telehomecare-intervention-for-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-undergoing-peritoneal-dialysis-a-study-protocol
#2
Lianne Jeffs, Arsh Kumar Jain, Rachel HiuTung Man, Nike Onabajo, Laura Desveaux, James Shaw, Jennifer Hensel, Payal Agarwal, Marianne Saragosa, Trevor Jamieson, Ivy Wong, Maria Maione, R Sacha Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a pressing global health concern that is placing increased strain on health care resources. CKD patients regularly receive peritoneal dialysis as a common CKD treatment. An emerging technological solution is telehomecare as way to support patients receiving PD in their homes. This study protocol outlines a mixed methods evaluation exploring a telehomecare developed to enhance CKD patients' outcomes and experiences. The study aims to assess the usability, acceptability and scalability of this virtual care application...
May 10, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473524/a-realist-evaluation-of-patients-decisions-to-deprescribe-in-the-empower-trial
#3
Philippe Martin, Cara Tannenbaum
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Successful mechanisms for engaging patients in the deprescribing process remain unknown but may include: (1) triggering motivation to deprescribe by increasing patients' knowledge and concern about medications; (2) building capacity to taper by augmenting self-efficacy and (3) creating opportunities to discuss and receive support for deprescribing from a healthcare provider. We tested these mechanisms during theEliminating Medications through Patient Ownership of End Results (EMPOWER) () trial and investigated the contexts that led to positive and negative deprescribing outcomes...
May 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472938/exploring-generative-mechanisms-of-the-antiretroviral-adherence-club-intervention-using-the-realist-approach-a-scoping-review-of-research-based-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-theories
#4
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Sara Van Belle, Bruno Marchal, Brian van Wyk
BACKGROUND: Poor retention in care and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) continue to undermine the success of HIV treatment and care programmes across the world. There is a growing recognition that multifaceted interventions - application of two or more adherence-enhancing strategies - may be useful to improve ART adherence and retention in care among people living with HIV/AIDS. Empirical evidence shows that multifaceted interventions produce better results than interventions based on a singular perspective...
May 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462767/public-private-partnerships-to-improve-primary-healthcare-surgeries-clarifying-assumptions-about-the-role-of-private-provider-activities
#5
Oliver Mudyarabikwa, Patrick Tobi, Krishna Regmi
Aim To examine assumptions about public-private partnership (PPP) activities and their role in improving public procurement of primary healthcare surgeries. BACKGROUND: PPPs were developed to improve the quality of care and patient satisfaction. However, evidence of their effectiveness in delivering health benefits is limited. METHODS: A qualitative study design was employed. A total of 25 interviews with public sector staff (n=23) and private sector managers (n=2) were conducted to understand their interpretations of assumptions in the activities of private investors and service contractors participating in Local Improvement Finance Trust (LIFT) partnerships...
May 2, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417517/evaluating-clinical-ethics-support-a-participatory-approach
#6
Suzanne Metselaar, Guy Widdershoven, Rouven Porz, Bert Molewijk
The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services (CESS) in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what 'good CESS' should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be it as receivers or providers...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411668/-realist-evaluation-for-implementation-research
#7
Cécile Marie Dupin
The realist approach to evaluation can be useful faced with the complexity of health interventions in populations. Implementation is the process by which these interventions are put into practice. Scientific realism can provide an important contribution to the development of programme theories through implementation research, and help to reveal the distal and proximal mechanisms of programmes aimed at combatting social inequalities in healthcare.
April 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394187/using-critical-realistic-evaluation-to-support-translation-of-research-into-clinical-practice
#8
Michelle C Swift, Marilyn Langevin, Alexander M Clark
A challenge that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) face is the translation of research into clinical practice. While randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often touted as the "gold standard" of efficacy research, much valuable information is lost through the process; RCTs by nature are designed to wash out individual client factors and contexts that might influence the outcome in order to present the "true" impact of the intervention. However, in the area of behavioural interventions, the interaction of client factors and contexts with the treatment agent can substantially influence the outcome...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386432/calibration-with-confidence-a-principled-method-for-panel-assessment
#9
R S MacKay, R Kenna, R J Low, S Parker
Frequently, a set of objects has to be evaluated by a panel of assessors, but not every object is assessed by every assessor. A problem facing such panels is how to take into account different standards among panel members and varying levels of confidence in their scores. Here, a mathematically based algorithm is developed to calibrate the scores of such assessors, addressing both of these issues. The algorithm is based on the connectivity of the graph of assessors and objects evaluated, incorporating declared confidences as weights on its edges...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379088/realist-evaluation-of-faculty-development-for-medical-educators-what-works-for-whom-and-why-in-the-long-term
#10
Olanrewaju O Sorinola, Jill Thistlethwaite, David Davies, Ed Peile
PURPOSE: Realism is a perspective in which entities exist independently of being perceived or independently of our theories about them. The realist framework with its principle of explanatory causation was used for an in-depth exploration of faculty development (FD) since, despite the widespread investment in FD, the evidence that it enhances the effectiveness of teaching in the long-term is still limited. The study aimed to develop realist theories that explain the connections between contexts (C), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) to find out what works for whom and why in FD...
April 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360249/understanding-the-acceptability-and-adherence-to-paediatric-antiretroviral-treatment-in-the-new-formulation-of-pellets-lpv-r-the-protocol-of-a-realist-evaluation
#11
Ariadna Nebot Giralt, Christiana Nöstlinger, Janice Lee, Olawale Salami, Marc Lallemant, Onyango Ouma, Isaac Nyamongo, Bruno Marchal
BACKGROUND: Improving access to paediatric HIV treatment requires both large-scale treatment programmes and medication that is adapted to infants and children's needs. The WHO recommends lopinavir/ritonavir as first-line antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-infected children younger than 3 years. There is currently little evidence on the acceptability of, and adherence to, a formulation of this combination treatment if given in the form of pellets. This protocol presents how we will carry a realist evaluation to assess the factors that contribute to the acceptability and adherence to the new pellets formulation in 3 hospitals in Kenya...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351355/a-process-evaluation-plan-for-assessing-a-complex-community-based-maternal-health-intervention-in-ogun-state-nigeria
#12
Sumedha Sharma, Olalekan O Adetoro, Marianne Vidler, Sharla Drebit, Beth A Payne, David O Akeju, Akinmade Adepoju, Ebunoluwa Jaiyesimi, John Sotunsa, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Olukayode Dada
BACKGROUND: Despite increased investment in community-level maternal health interventions, process evaluations of such interventions are uncommon, and can be instrumental in understanding mediating factors leading to outcomes. In Nigeria, where an unacceptably number of maternal deaths occur (maternal mortality ratio of 814/100,000 livebirths), the Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study (NCT01911494) aimed to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity with a complex intervention of five interrelated components...
March 28, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288634/understanding-the-implementation-and-adoption-of-a-technological-intervention-to-improve-medication-safety-in-primary-care-a-realist-evaluation
#13
Mark Jeffries, Denham L Phipps, Rachel L Howard, Anthony J Avery, Sarah Rodgers, Darren M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: Monitoring for potentially hazardous prescribing is increasingly important to improve medication safety. Healthcare information technology can be used to achieve this aim, for example by providing access to prescribing data through surveillance of patients' electronic health records. The aim of our study was to examine the implementation and adoption of an electronic medicines optimisation system that was intended to facilitate clinical audit in primary care by identifying patients at risk of an adverse drug event...
March 14, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280872/interventions-to-mitigate-the-effects-of-poverty-and-inequality-on-mental-health
#14
REVIEW
Kristian Wahlbeck, Johanna Cresswell-Smith, Peija Haaramo, Johannes Parkkonen
PURPOSE: To review psychosocial and policy interventions which mitigate the effects of poverty and inequality on mental health. METHODS: Systematic reviews, controlled trials and realist evaluations of the last 10 years are reviewed, without age or geographical restrictions. RESULTS: Effective psychosocial interventions on individual and family level, such as parenting support programmes, exist. The evidence for mental health impact of broader community-based interventions, e...
March 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270194/factors-associated-with-alcohol-reduction-in-harmful-and-hazardous-drinkers-following-alcohol-brief-intervention-in-scotland-a-qualitative-enquiry
#15
Jean M McQueen, Claire Ballinger, Tracey E Howe
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI's use within various health care settings, although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol's place within participants' lives and their personal perspectives on reducing consumption...
March 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260412/the-work-is-never-ending-uncovering-teamwork-sustainability-using-realistic-evaluation
#16
Mandus Frykman, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Åsa Muntlin Athlin, Henna Hasson, Pamela Mazzocato
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242168/monte-carlo-simulation-of-air-sampling-methods-for-the-measurement-of-radon-decay-products
#17
Octavian Sima, Aurelian Luca, Maria Sahagia
A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the (222)Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the (222)Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated.
February 21, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237962/realist-evaluation-of-intersectoral-oral-health-promotion-interventions-for-schoolchildren-living-in-rural-andean-communities-a-research-protocol
#18
Dave A Bergeron, Lise R Talbot, Isabelle Gaboury
BACKGROUND: Intersectoral collaboration, known to promote more sustainable change within communities, will be examined in an oral health promotion program (OHPP). In Peru, an OHPP was implemented by the Ministry of Health, to reduce the incidence of caries in schoolchildren. In rural Andean communities, however, these initiatives achieved limited success. The objectives of this project are: (1) to understand the context and the underlying mechanisms associated with Peruvian OHPP's current effects among school children living in rural Andean communities and (2) to validate a theory explaining how and under which circumstances OHP intersectoral interventions on schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities produce their effects...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191618/ecotoxicological-bioassays-of-sediment-leachates-in-a-river-bed-flanked-by-decommissioned-pesticide-plants-in-nantong-city-east-china
#19
Yan Zhou, Fenghe Wang, Jinzhong Wan, Jian He, Qun Li, Qiang Chen, Jay Gao, Yusuo Lin, Shengtian Zhang
Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations...
February 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188349/on-line-dynamic-extraction-system-hyphenated-to-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectrometry-for-automatic-determination-of-oral-bioaccessible-trace-metal-fractions-in-airborne-particulate-matter
#20
Victoria Mohr, Manuel Miró, Andreas Limbeck
For a realistic evaluation of the potential hazard emanating from airborne particulate matter (APM), the determination of the total inhaled metal amounts associated with APM is insufficient in risk assessment. Additional information about metal fractions that can be mobilized by the human body is necessary, because only those soluble (also called bioaccessible) fractions can be absorbed by the human body, and thus potentially cause adverse health effects. In the present study, a dynamic flow-through approach as a front end to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) exploiting advanced flow analysis is employed for on-line handling of multiple APM samples and determination of bioaccessible trace metals under worst case extraction scenarios...
February 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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