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"Realist evaluation"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237463/the-researchers-role-in-knowledge-translation-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-development-and-implementation-of-diagnostic-pathways-for-cancer-in-two-united-kingdom-localities
#1
Jon Banks, Lesley Wye, Nicola Hall, James Rooney, Fiona M Walter, Willie Hamilton, Ardiana Gjini, Greg Rubin
BACKGROUND: In examining an initiative to develop and implement new cancer diagnostic pathways in two English localities, this paper evaluates 'what works' and examines the role of researchers in facilitating knowledge translation amongst teams of local clinicians and policy-makers. METHODS: Using realist evaluation with a mixed methods case study approach, we conducted documentary analysis of meeting minutes and pathway iterations to map pathway development. We interviewed 14 participants to identify the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes (CMOs) that led to successful pathway development and implementation...
December 13, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236726/demographic-monitoring-of-wild-muriqui-populations-criteria-for-defining-priority-areas-and-monitoring-intensity
#2
Karen B Strier, Carla B Possamai, Fernanda P Tabacow, Alcides Pissinatti, Andre M Lanna, Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo, Leandro Moreira, Maurício Talebi, Paula Breves, Sérgio L Mendes, Leandro Jerusalinsky
Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles) using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs) and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225949/improving-postpartum-care-delivery-and-uptake-by-implementing-context-specific-interventions-in-four-countries-in-africa-a-realist-evaluation-of-the-missed-opportunities-in-maternal-and-infant-health-momi-project
#3
Nehla Djellouli, Sue Mann, Bejoy Nambiar, Paula Meireles, Diana Miranda, Henrique Barros, Fadima Y Bocoum, W Maurice E Yaméogo, Clarisse Yaméogo, Sylvie Belemkoabga, Halima Tougri, Abou Coulibaly, Seni Kouanda, Vernon Mochache, Omar K Mwakusema, Eunice Irungu, Peter Gichangi, Zione Dembo, Angela Kadzakumanja, Charles Vidonji Makwenda, Judite Timóteo, Misete G Cossa, Malica de Melo, Sally Griffin, Nafissa B Osman, Severiano Foia, Emilomo Ogbe, Els Duysburgh, Tim Colbourn
Postpartum care (PPC) has remained relatively neglected in many interventions designed to improve maternal and neonatal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The Missed Opportunities in Maternal and Infant Health project developed and implemented a context-specific package of health system strengthening and demand generation in four African countries, aiming to improve access and quality of PPC. A realist evaluation was conducted to enable nuanced understanding of the influence of different contextual factors on both the implementation and impacts of the interventions...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221475/a-critical-realist-evaluation-of-a-music-therapy-intervention-in-palliative-care
#4
Sam Porter, Tracey McConnell, Mike Clarke, Jenny Kirkwood, Naomi Hughes, Lisa Graham-Wisener, Joan Regan, Miriam McKeown, Kerry McGrillen, Joanne Reid
BACKGROUND: Music therapy is increasingly used as an adjunct therapy to support symptom management in palliative care. However, studies to date have paid little attention to the processes that lead to changes in patient outcomes. To fill this gap, we examined the processes and experiences involved in the introduction of music therapy as an adjunct complementary therapy to palliative care in a hospice setting in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Using a realistic evaluation approach, we conducted a qualitative study using a variety of approaches...
December 8, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215328/a-realist-evaluation-of-social-prescribing-an-exploration-into-the-context-and-mechanisms-underpinning-a-pathway-linking-primary-care-with-the-voluntary-sector
#5
Marcello Bertotti, Caroline Frostick, Patrick Hutt, Ratna Sohanpal, Dawn Carnes
This article adopts a realist approach to evaluate a social prescribing pilot in the areas of Hackney and City in London (United Kingdom). It unpacks the contextual factors and mechanisms that influenced the development of this pilot for the benefits of GPs, commissioners and practitioners, and reflects on the realist approach to evaluation as a tool for the evaluation of health interventions. Primary care faces considerable challenges including the increase in long-term conditions, GP consultation rates, and widening health inequalities...
December 7, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204378/circular-mitochondrial-dna-a-geant4-dna-user-application-for-evaluating-radiation-induced-damage-in-circular-mitochondrial-dna
#6
Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli, Habiballah Moradi, Hossein Khanahmad, Mohsen Hosseini
Background: The aim of this study was to develop a nucleotide geometrical model of the circular mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) structure using Geant4-DNA toolkit to predict the radiation-induced damages such as single-strand breaks (SSB), double-strand breaks (DSB), and some other physical parameters. Methods: Our model covers the organization of a circular human mt genetic system. The current model includes all 16,659 base pairs of human mt-DNA. This new mt-DNA model has been preliminarily tested in this work by determining SSB and DSB DNA damage yields and site-hit probabilities due to the impact of proton particles...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165864/an-australian-hospital-s-training-program-and-referral-pathway-within-a-multi-disciplinary-health-justice-partnership-addressing-family-violence
#7
Kirsty Forsdike, Cathy Humphreys, Kristin Diemer, Stuart Ross, Linda Gyorki, Helena Maher, Penelope Vye, Fleur Llewelyn, Kelsey Hegarty
OBJECTIVE: An innovative health-justice partnership was established to deliver legal assistance to women experiencing family violence who attended an Australian hospital. This paper reports on a multifaceted response to build capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of family violence and engage with referral pathways to on-site legal assistance. METHODS: A Realistic Evaluation analysed health professionals' knowledge and attitudes towards identification, response and referral for family violence before and after training; and use of referral pathways...
November 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144400/design-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-non-contact-heart-rate-variability-measuring-device
#8
Jure Kranjec, Samo Beguš, Gregor Geršak, Matjaž Šinkovec, Janko Drnovšek, Domen Hudoklin
The object of the proposed paper is to design and analyze the performance of a non-contact heart rate variability (HRV) measuring device based on ultrasound transducers. The rationale behind non-contact HRV measurement is the goal of obtaining a means of long term monitoring of a patient's heart performance. Due to its complexity as a non-contact measuring device, influential physical quantities, error source and other perturbations were thoroughly investigated. For medical purposes it is of utmost importance to define the target uncertainty of a measuring method from the side of physicians, while it is the role of scientists to realistically evaluate all uncertainty contributions...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092727/key-lessons-for-designing-health-literacy-professional-development-courses
#9
Lucio Naccarella, Bernice Murphy
Health literacy courses for health professionals have emerged in response to health professionals' perceived lack of understanding of health literacy issues, and their failure to routinely adopt health literacy practices. Since 2013 in Victoria, Australia, the Centre for Culture, Ethnicity and Health has delivered an annual health literacy demonstration training course that it developed. Course development and delivery partners included HealthWest Partnership and cohealth. The courses are designed to develop the health literacy knowledge, skills and organisational capacity of the health and community services sector in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne...
November 2, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062526/learning-to-work-together-lessons-from-a-reflective-analysis-of-a-research-project-on-public-involvement
#10
A Howe, E Mathie, D Munday, M Cowe, C Goodman, J Keenan, S Kendall, F Poland, S Staniszewska, P Wilson
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is very important, and funders and the NHS all expect this to happen. What this means in practice, and how to make it really successful, is therefore an important research question. This article analyses the experience of a research team using PPI, and makes recommendations on strengthening PPI in research. There were different PPI roles in our study - some people were part of the research team: some were on the advisory group; and there were patient groups who gave specific feedback on how to make research work better for their needs...
2017: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025699/adoption-acceptability-and-effectiveness-of-a-mobile-health-app-for-personalized-prostate-cancer-survivorship-care-protocol-for-a-realist-case-study-of-the-ned-app
#11
Quynh Pham, Joseph A Cafazzo, Andrew Feifer
BACKGROUND: By 2030, prostate cancer will be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in North America. To mitigate this impending challenge, comprehensive support mechanisms for disease- and treatment-specific changes in health and well-being must be proactively designed and thoughtfully implemented for streamlined survivorship care. mHealth apps have been lauded as a promising complement to current outpatient treatment and monitoring strategies, but have not yet been widely used to support prostate cancer survivorship needs...
October 12, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967730/goals-of-surgery-and-assessment-tools-for-elderly-patients-referred-for-cardiac-and-noncardiac-surgery
#12
Flaminia Coccia, Renzo Rozzini
Surgery in elderly patients is associated with the risk of death, complications, functional decline and disability. Prior to surgery, therefore, an assessment of the health-related priorities, a realistic evaluation of the surgical risks, and individualized optimization of the procedural pathway to follow are mandatory.
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962648/the-challenge-of-complexity-in-evaluating-health-policies-and-programs-the-case-of-women-s-participatory-groups-to-improve-antenatal-outcomes
#13
Sara Van Belle, Susan Rifkin, Bruno Marchal
BACKGROUND: During the last years, randomized designs have been promoted as the cornerstone of evidence-based policymaking. Also in the field of community participation, Random Control Trials (RCTs) have been the dominant design, used for instance to examine the contribution of community participation to health improvement. We aim at clarifying why RCTs and related (quasi-) experimental designs may not be the most appropriate approach to evaluate such complex programmes. RESULTS: We argue that the current methodological debate could be more fruitful if it would start from the position that the choice of designs should fit the nature of the program and research questions rather than be driven by methodological preferences...
September 29, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894997/a-novel-framework-for-evaluating-the-image-accuracy-of-dynamic-mri-and-the-application-on-accelerated-breast-dce-mri
#14
Yuan Le, Marcel Dominik Nickel, Stephan Kannengiesser, Berthold Kiefer, Bruce Spottiswoode, Brian Dale, Victor Soon, Chen Lin
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel framework for evaluating the accuracy of quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with a specific combination of imaging technique, scanning parameters, and scanner and software performance and to test this framework with breast DCE MRI with Time-resolved angiography WIth Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Realistic breast tumor phantoms were 3D printed as cavities and filled with solutions of MR contrast agent...
September 11, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873831/providing-sources-of-self-efficacy-through-technology-enhanced-post-stroke-rehabilitation-in-the-home
#15
Jack Parker, Susan Mawson
This research explores the impact of receiving feedback through a Personalised Self-Managed Rehabilitation System (PSMrS) for home-based post-stroke rehabilitation on the users' self-efficacy; more specifically, mastery experiences and the interpretation of biomechanical data. Embedded within a realistic evaluation methodological approach, exploring the promotion of self-efficacy from the utilisation of computer-based technology to facilitate post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home included; semi-structured interviews, quantitative user data (activity and usage), observations and field notes...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845065/predicting-what-will-happen-when-you-intervene
#16
Nancy Cartwright, Jeremy Hardie
This paper offers some rules of thumb that practicing social workers can use for case studies that aim to construct, albeit not fully and never entirely reliably, models designed to help predict what will happen if they intervene in specific ways to help this particular client, here and now. We call these 'ex ante case-specific causal models'. 'Ex ante' because they are for before-the-fact prediction of what the likely effects of proposed actions are. 'Case-specific' because we are not concerned with studies that provide evidence for some general conclusion but rather with using what general and local knowledge one can get to predict what will happen to a specific client in the real settings in which they live...
2017: Clinical Social Work Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841894/an-exploration-of-group-based-hiv-aids-treatment-and-care-models-in-sub-saharan-africa-using-a-realist-evaluation-intervention-context-actor-mechanism-outcome-heuristic-tool-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Sara Van Belle, Bruno Marchal, Brian van Wyk
INTRODUCTION: It is increasingly acknowledged that differentiated care models hold potential to manage large volumes of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Various group-based models of ART service delivery aimed at decongesting local health facilities, encouraging patient retention in care, and enhancing adherence to medication have been implemented across sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence from the literature suggests that these models of ART service delivery are more effective than corresponding facility-based care and superior to individual-based models...
August 25, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822248/tio2-nanoparticles-in-sediments-effect-on-the-bioavailability-of-heavy-metals-in-the-freshwater-bivalve-corbicula-fluminea
#18
Xiulei Fan, Chao Wang, Peifang Wang, Bin Hu, Xun Wang
Most studies investigating the influence of TiO2 NPs on heavy metal bioavailability have focused on the aqueous phase; however, few have examined the sediments containing more nanoparticles. Here, we investigated the effects of TiO2 NPs on heavy metal bioavailability in C. fluminea in sediments. The interactions between the TiO2 NPs and metals in sediments, the influence of TiO2 NPs on metals levels in aqueous phase and geochemical speciation were also explored. The results indicated the large adsorption capacity of TiO2 NPs and the strong adsorption affinity to metals caused the metals adsorbed on nanoparticles, which decreased the metals concentrations in water phase...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799475/can-staff-be-supported-to-deliver-compassionate-care-through-implementing-schwartz-rounds-in-community-and-mental-health-services
#19
Michelle Farr, Rhiannon Barker
Schwartz Rounds are evidence-based interdisciplinary discussions where health care staff can share experiences of the emotional and social aspects of care, to support improvements in patient care. Developed in acute services, they are now being implemented in various settings including U.K. community and mental health services where their implementation has not been researched. Realist evaluation was used to analyze three community and mental health case studies of Round implementation, involving Round observations ( n = 5), staff interviews ( n = 22), and post-Round evaluation sheets ( n = 206)...
September 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744891/qualitative-research-using-realist-evaluation-to-explain-preparedness-for-doctors-memorable-firsts
#20
Janet Lefroy, Sarah Yardley, Ruth Kinston, Simon Gay, Stuart McBain, Robert McKinley
CONTEXT: Doctors must be competent from their first day of practice if patients are to be safe. Medical students and new doctors are acutely aware of this, but describe being variably prepared. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify causal chains of the contextual factors and mechanisms that lead to a trainee being capable (or not) of completing tasks for the first time. METHODS: We studied three stages of transition: anticipation; lived experience, and post hoc reflection...
July 26, 2017: Medical Education
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