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Realist evaluation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432496/reproductive-effects-of-life-cycle-exposure-to-difenoconazole-on-female-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#1
Xiaocui Dong, Zhenghong Zuo, Jiaojiao Guo, Hongbin Li, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide which has been detected in some estuaries and embayments. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on ovarian development in female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After 180 days exposure of the embryo to DFZ (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/L), the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature oocytes produced were significantly reduced in the 1, 10 and 100 ng/L treatments but not the 1000 ng/L treatment compared to the control, thus exhibiting a U-shaped dose response curve...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431609/benefit-risk-perception-of-natalizumab-therapy-in-neurologists-and-a-large-cohort-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#2
Christoph Heesen, Ingo Kleiter, Sven G Meuth, Julia Krämer, Jürgen Kasper, Sascha Köpke, Wolfgang Gaissmaier
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NAT) is associated with the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Risk stratification algorithms have been developed, however, without detectable reduction of PML incidence. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to which extent patients and physicians understand and accept risks associated with NAT treatment. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study in German MS centers (n=73) among NAT-treated MS patients (n=801) and their neurologists (n=99)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431505/using-evaluability-assessment-to-assess-local-community-development-health-programmes-a-scottish-case-study
#3
Melissa Belford, Tony Robertson, Ruth Jepson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme's objectives (health or otherwise) is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback) can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430155/dynamic-construction-scheme-for-virtualization-security-service-in-software-defined-networks
#4
Zhaowen Lin, Dan Tao, Zhenji Wang
For a Software Defined Network (SDN), security is an important factor affecting its large-scale deployment. The existing security solutions for SDN mainly focus on the controller itself, which has to handle all the security protection tasks by using the programmability of the network. This will undoubtedly involve a heavy burden for the controller. More devastatingly, once the controller itself is attacked, the entire network will be paralyzed. Motivated by this, this paper proposes a novel security protection architecture for SDN...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429527/balancing-health-care-education-and-patient-care-in-the-uk-workplace-a-realist-synthesis
#5
Sarah Sholl, Rola Ajjawi, Helen Allbutt, Jane Butler, Divya Jindal-Snape, Jill Morrison, Charlotte Rees
CONTEXT: Patient care activity has recently increased without a proportionate rise in workforce numbers, impacting negatively on health care workplace learning. Health care professionals are prepared in part by spending time in clinical practice, and for medical staff this constitutes a contribution to service. Although stakeholders have identified the balance between health care professional education and patient care as a key priority for medical education research, there have been very few reviews to date on this important topic...
April 20, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425926/chemical-source-localization-fusing-concentration-information-in-the-presence-of-chemical-background-noise
#6
Víctor Pomareda, Rudys Magrans, Juan M Jiménez-Soto, Dani Martínez, Marcel Tresánchez, Javier Burgués, Jordi Palacín, Santiago Marco
We present the estimation of a likelihood map for the location of the source of a chemical plume dispersed under atmospheric turbulence under uniform wind conditions. The main contribution of this work is to extend previous proposals based on Bayesian inference with binary detections to the use of concentration information while at the same time being robust against the presence of background chemical noise. For that, the algorithm builds a background model with robust statistics measurements to assess the posterior probability that a given chemical concentration reading comes from the background or from a source emitting at a distance with a specific release rate...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423044/the-long-term-outcome-of-micturition-defecation-and-sexual-function-after-spinal-surgery-for-cauda-equina-syndrome
#7
Nina S Korse, Anna B Veldman, Wilco C Peul, Carmen L A Vleggeert-Lankamp
BACKGROUND: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421620/by-our-bootstraps-comparing-methods-for-measuring-auditory-40-hz-steady-state-neural-activity
#8
J Christopher Edgar, Charles L Fisk Iv, Yu-Han Chen, Breannan Stone-Howell, Michael A Hunter, Mingxiong Huang, Juan R Bustillo, José M Cañive, Gregory A Miller
Although the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is of clinical interest, the construct validity of EEG and MEG measures of 40 Hz ASSR cortical microcircuits is unclear. This study evaluated several MEG and EEG metrics by leveraging findings of (a) an association between the 40 Hz ASSR and age in the left but not right hemisphere, and (b) right- > left-hemisphere differences in the strength of the 40 Hz ASSR. The contention is that, if an analysis method does not demonstrate a left 40 Hz ASSR and age relationship or hemisphere differences, then the obtained measures likely have low validity...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418158/the-phenology-of-leaf-quality-and-its-within-canopy-variation-are-essential-for-accurate-modeling-of-photosynthesis-in-tropical-evergreen-forests
#9
Jin Wu, Shawn P Serbin, Xiangtao Xu, Loren P Albert, Min Chen, Ran Meng, Scott R Saleska, Alistair Rogers
Leaf quantity (i.e. canopy leaf area index, LAI), quality (i.e. per-area photosynthetic capacity), and longevity all influence the photosynthetic seasonality of tropical evergreen forests. However, these components of tropical leaf phenology are poorly represented in most terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). Here, we explored alternative options for the representation of leaf phenology effects in TBMs that employ the Farquahar, von Caemmerer & Berry (FvCB) representation of CO2 assimilation. We developed a two-fraction leaf (sun and shade), two-layer canopy (upper and lower) photosynthesis model to evaluate different modeling approaches and assessed three components of phenological variations (i...
April 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417517/evaluating-clinical-ethics-support-a-participatory-approach
#10
Suzanne Metselaar, Guy Widdershoven, Rouven Porz, Bert Molewijk
The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services (CESS) in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what 'good CESS' should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be it as receivers or providers...
May 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416159/new-finite-element-study-protocol-clinical-simulation-of-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#11
Antoine Bouton, Yohann Simon, Florent Goussard, Luciano Teresi, Vittorio Sansalone
The aim of this work was to model tooth movement in a more clinically-exact fashion, thanks to the use of new IT tools and imaging systems (cone-beam). Image segmentation and 3D reconstruction now enable us to model the anatomy realistically, while finite element (FE) analysis makes it possible to evaluate stresses and their distribution on the level of the tooth, the periodontal ligament (PDL) and the alveolar bone when a force is applied. The principle is to monitor tooth movement by obtaining optical impressions at each stage of treatment...
April 13, 2017: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413730/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-clothianidin-on-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#12
Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Although neonicotinoids are targeted at insects, their predominant use as a seed dressing and their long persistence in soils mean that non-target soil organisms such as earthworms are likely to be chronically exposed to them. Chronic exposure may pose risks that are not evaluated in most toxicity tests. We experimentally tested the effect of field-realistic concentrations of a commonly used neonicotinoid, clothianidin, on mortality, weight gain, and food consumption to assess the impacts of chronic exposure over four months on fitness of L...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413339/efficient-generation-of-receiver-operating-characteristics-for-the-evaluation-of-damage-detection-in-practical-structural-health-monitoring-applications
#13
Chang Liu, Jacob Dobson, Peter Cawley
Permanently installed guided wave monitoring systems are attractive for monitoring large structures. By frequently interrogating the test structure over a long period of time, such systems have the potential to detect defects much earlier than with conventional one-off inspection, and reduce the time and labour cost involved. However, for the systems to be accepted under real operational conditions, their damage detection performance needs to be evaluated in these practical settings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) is an established performance metric for one-off inspections, but the generation of the ROC requires many test structures with realistic damage growth at different locations and different environmental conditions, and this is often impractical...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411668/-realist-evaluation-for-implementation-research
#14
Cécile Marie Dupin
The realist approach to evaluation can be useful faced with the complexity of health interventions in populations. Implementation is the process by which these interventions are put into practice. Scientific realism can provide an important contribution to the development of programme theories through implementation research, and help to reveal the distal and proximal mechanisms of programmes aimed at combatting social inequalities in healthcare.
April 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406346/a-novel-laparoscopic-grasper-with-two-parallel-jaws-capable-of-extracting-the-mechanical-behaviour-of-soft-tissues
#15
Dariush Nazarynasab, Farzam Farahmand, Alireza Mirbagheri, Elnaz Afshari
Data related to force-deformation behaviour of soft tissue plays an important role in medical/surgical applications such as realistically modelling mechanical behaviour of soft tissue as well as minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and medical diagnosis. While the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue is very complex due to its different constitutive components, some issues increase its complexity like behavioural changes between the live and dead tissues. Indeed, an adequate quantitative description of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues requires high quality in vivo experimental data to be obtained and analysed...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405926/the-use-of-theatre-in-medical-education-in-the-emergency-cases-school-an-appealing-and-widely-accessible-way-of-learning
#16
Christodoulos Keskinis, Vasileios Bafitis, Panagiota Karailidou, Christina Pagonidou, Panteleimon Pantelidis, Alexandros Rampotas, Michail Sideris, Georgios Tsoulfas, Dimitrios Stakos
INTRODUCTION: Theatre models in medical education have been used worldwide in order to train medical students and graduates in managing various situations. However, the literature reports little regarding its appeal to trainees. We conducted a medical seminar, entitled Emergency Cases School, which employed such techniques. Actors simulated the actions of doctors and patients involved in various emergency cases, in front of a large audience, in a specially modified theatre hall which resembled the emergency room environment...
April 12, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403822/provider-and-patient-perspectives-on-opioids-and-alternative-treatments-for-managing-chronic-pain-a-qualitative-study
#17
Lauren S Penney, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Lynn L DeBar, Charles Elder, Richard A Deyo
BACKGROUND: Current literature describes the limits and pitfalls of using opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic pain and the importance of identifying alternatives. The objective of this study was to identify the practical issues patients and providers face when accessing alternatives to opioids, and how multiple parties view these issues. METHODS: Qualitative data were gathered to evaluate the outcomes of acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C) services for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) using structured interview guides among patients with CMP (n = 90) and primary care providers (PCPs) (n = 25) purposively sampled from a managed care health care system as well as from contracted community A/C providers (n = 14)...
March 24, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401176/evaluation-of-a-projection-domain-lung-nodule-insertion-technique-in-thoracic-computed-tomography
#18
Chi Ma, Lifeng Yu, Baiyu Chen, Chi Wan Koo, Edwin A Takahashi, Joel G Fletcher, David L Levin, Ronald S Kuzo, Lyndsay D Viers, Stephanie A Vincent-Sheldon, Shuai Leng, Cynthia H McCollough
Task-based assessment of computed tomography (CT) image quality requires a large number of cases with ground truth. Prospective case acquisition can be time-consuming. Inserting lesions into existing cases to simulate positive cases is a promising alternative. The aim was to evaluate a recently developed projection-based lesion insertion technique in thoracic CT. In total, 32 lung nodules of various attenuations were segmented from 21 patient cases, forward projected, inserted into projections, and reconstructed...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400467/use-of-the-genereader-ngs-system-in-a-clinical-pathology-laboratory-a-comparative-study
#19
Ulrike Koitzsch, Carina Heydt, Hans Attig, Isabelle Immerschitt, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse, Alessandro Fammartino, Reinhard H Büttner, Yi Kong, Margarete Odenthal
Despite its successful use in academic research, next-generation sequencing (NGS) still represents many challenges for routine clinical adoption due to its inherent complexity and specialised expertise typically required to set-up, test and operate a complete workflow.This study aims to evaluate QIAGEN's newly launched GeneReader NGS System solution in a pathology laboratory setting by assessing the system's ease of use, sequencing accuracy and data reproducibility. Our laboratory was able to implement the system and validate its performance using clinical samples in direct comparison to an approved Sanger sequencing platform and to an alternative in-house NGS technology...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398906/evaluation-of-the-i-breastsimulator-i-software-platform-for-breast-tomography
#20
Giovanni Mettivier, Kristina Bliznakova, Ioannis Sechopoulos, John Boone, Francesca Di Lillo, Antonio Sarno, Roberta Castriconi, Paolo Russo
The aim of this work is the evaluation of the software BreastSimulator, a breast X-ray imaging simulation software as a tool for the creation of 3D uncompressed breast digital models and for the simulation and the optimization of computed tomographic (CT) scanners dedicated to the breast. Eight 3D digital breast phantoms were created with glandular fraction in the range 10% to 68%. The models are characterised by different sizes and modelled realistic anatomical features.. X-ray CT projections were simulated for a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner and reconstructed with the FDK algorithm...
April 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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