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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934616/a-model-based-bayesian-solution-for-characterization-of-complex-damage-scenarios-in-aerospace-composite-structures
#1
H Reed, Cara A C Leckey, A Dick, G Harvey, J Dobson
Ultrasonic damage detection and characterization is commonly used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composite components. In recent years there has been an increased development of guided wave based methods. In real materials and structures, these dispersive waves result in complicated behavior in the presence of complex damage scenarios. Model-based characterization methods utilize accurate three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of guided wave interaction with realistic damage scenarios to aid in defect identification and classification...
September 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931258/simulation-based-education-for-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-a-comparison-between-virtual-and-physical-training-models
#2
Gerben E Breimer, Faizal A Haji, Vivek Bodani, Melissa S Cunningham, Adriana-Lucia Lopez-Rios, Allan Okrainec, James M Drake
BACKGROUND: The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." OBJECTIVE: To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. METHODS: Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931057/challenges-and-advances-for-transcriptome-assembly-in-non-model-species
#3
Arnaud Ungaro, Nicolas Pech, Jean-François Martin, R J Scott McCairns, Jean-Philippe Mévy, Rémi Chappaz, André Gilles
Analyses of high-throughput transcriptome sequences of non-model organisms are based on two main approaches: de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly using mapping to assign reads prior to assembly. Given the limits of mapping reads to a reference when it is highly divergent, as is frequently the case for non-model species, we evaluate whether using blastn would outperform mapping methods for read assignment in such situations (>15% divergence). We demonstrate its high performance by using simulated reads of lengths corresponding to those generated by the most common sequencing platforms, and over a realistic range of genetic divergence (0% to 30% divergence)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929974/reconstruction-and-visualization-of-large-scale-volumetric-models-of-neocortical-circuits-for-physically-plausible-in-silico-optical-studies
#4
Marwan Abdellah, Juan Hernando, Nicolas Antille, Stefan Eilemann, Henry Markram, Felix Schürmann
BACKGROUND: We present a software workflow capable of building large scale, highly detailed and realistic volumetric models of neocortical circuits from the morphological skeletons of their digitally reconstructed neurons. The limitations of the existing approaches for creating those models are explained, and then, a multi-stage pipeline is discussed to overcome those limitations. Starting from the neuronal morphologies, we create smooth piecewise watertight polygonal models that can be efficiently utilized to synthesize continuous and plausible volumetric models of the neurons with solid voxelization...
September 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929854/l-%C3%A3-thique-de-la-modification-du-g%C3%A3-nome-en-clinique-une-dose-de-r%C3%A3-alisme-pour-les-leaders-en-sant%C3%A3
#5
Tania Bubela, Yael Mansour, Dianne Nicol
Les technologies de modification du génome promettent des avancées dans le traitement des maladies génétiques. Les auteurs abordent les enjeux éthiques et sociaux que soulèvent ces technologies, y compris leur utilisation dans des recherches précliniques, leur potentiel à résoudre les mutations somatiques et leur potentiel à modifier les lignées germinales qui peuvent être transmises aux prochaines générations. Ils demandent une réponse modérée de la part des leaders en santé, reposant sur une évaluation réaliste des avantages, des risques et des délais d'application clinique...
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926580/simple-yet-effective-historical-proximity-variables-improve-the-species-distribution-models-for-invasive-giant-hogweed-heracleum-mantegazzianum-s-l-in-poland
#6
Piotr Mędrzycki, Ingeborga Jarzyna, Artur Obidziński, Barbara Tokarska-Guzik, Zofia Sotek, Piotr Pabjanek, Adam Pytlarczyk, Izabela Sachajdakiewicz
Species distribution models are scarcely applicable to invasive species because of their breaking of the models' assumptions. So far, few mechanistic, semi-mechanistic or statistical solutions like dispersal constraints or propagule limitation have been applied. We evaluated a novel quasi-semi-mechanistic approach for regional scale models, using historical proximity variables (HPV) representing a state of the population in a given moment in the past. Our aim was to test the effects of addition of HPV sets of different minimal recentness, information capacity and the total number of variables on the quality of the species distribution model for Heracleum mantegazzianum on 116000 km2 in Poland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922120/motion-estimation-in-echocardiography-using-sparse-representation-and-dictionary-learning
#7
Nora Ouzir, Adrian Basarab, Herve Liebgott, Brahim Harbaoui, Jean-Yves Tourneret
This paper introduces a new method for cardiac motion estimation in 2D ultrasound images. The motion estimation problem is formulated as an energy minimization, whose data fidelity term is built using the assumption that the images are corrupted by multiplicative Rayleigh noise. In addition to a classical spatial smoothness constraint, the proposed method exploits the sparse properties of the cardiac motion to regularize the solution via an appropriate dictionary learning step. The proposed method is evaluated on one dataset with available ground-truth, including four sequences of highly realistic simulations...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921646/how-often-are-drugs-made-available-under-the-food-and-drug-administration-s-expanded-access-process-approved
#8
Amy E McKee, André O Markon, Kirk M Chan-Tack, Peter Lurie
In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919398/controlling-bovine-paratuberculosis-at-a-regional-scale-towards-a-decision-modelling-tool
#9
Gaël Beaunée, Elisabeta Vergu, Alain Joly, Pauline Ezanno
Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a worldwide enzootic disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), mainly introduced into farms by purchasing infected animals, has a large economic impact for dairy producers. Since diagnostic tests used in routine are poorly sensitive, observing Map spread in the field is hardly possible, whereas there is a need for evaluating control strategies. Our objective was to provide a modelling framework to compare the efficacy of regional control strategies combining internal biosecurity measures and testing of traded animals, against Map spread in a metapopulation of dairy cattle herds...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915861/informed-decision-making-with-and-for-people-with-dementia-efficacy-of-the-prodecide-education-program-for-legal-representatives-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-prodecide-rct
#10
Julia Lühnen, Burkhard Haastert, Ingrid Mühlhauser, Tanja Richter
BACKGROUND: In Germany, the guardianship system provides adults who are no longer able to handle their own affairs a court-appointed legal representative, for support without restriction of legal capacity. Although these representatives only rarely are qualified in healthcare, they nevertheless play decisive roles in the decision-making processes for people with dementia. Previously, we developed an education program (PRODECIDE) to address this shortcoming and tested it for feasibility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914090/exploring-the-theoretical-foundations-of-visual-art-programmes-for-people-living-with-dementia
#11
Gill Windle, Samantha Gregory, Teri Howson-Griffiths, Andrew Newman, Dave O'Brien, Anna Goulding
Despite the growing international innovations for visual arts interventions in dementia care, limited attention has been paid to their theoretical basis. In response, this paper explores how and why visual art interventions in dementia care influence changes in outcomes. The theory building process consists of a realist review of primary research on visual art programmes. This aims to uncover what works, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. We undertook a qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives of art programmes, and then synthesised these two pieces of work alongside broader theory to produce a conceptual framework for intervention development, further research and practice...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910377/parametric-analysis-of-occupant-ankle-and-tibia-injuries-in-frontal-impact
#12
Fuhao Mo, Xiaoqing Jiang, Shuyong Duan, Zhi Xiao, Sen Xiao, Wei Shi
OBJECTIVE: Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies. METHODS: An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established by coupling an isolated car cab model and a hybrid occupant model with a biofidelic pelvis-lower limb model, while its loading conditions were extracted from the realistic full-frontal impact test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905411/joint-arterial-input-function-and-tracker-kinetic-parameter-estimation-from-undersampled-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-using-a-model-consistency-constraint
#13
Yi Guo, Sajan Goud Lingala, Yannick Bliesener, R Marc Lebel, Yinghua Zhu, Krishna S Nayak
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a model-based reconstruction framework for joint arterial input function (AIF) and kinetic parameter estimation from undersampled brain tumor dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data. METHODS: The proposed method poses the tracer-kinetic (TK) model as a model consistency constraint, enabling the flexible inclusion of different TK models and TK solvers, and the joint estimation of the AIF. The proposed method is evaluated using an anatomic realistic digital reference object (DRO), and nine retrospectively down-sampled brain tumor DCE-MRI datasets...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905390/validation-of-the-gatortail-method-for-accurate-sizing-of-pulmonary-vessels-from-3d-medical-images
#14
Walter G O'Dell, Anne K Gormaley, David A Prida
PURPOSE: Detailed characterization of changes in vessel size is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a variety of vascular diseases. Because clinical measurement of vessel size is typically dependent on the radiologist's subjective interpretation of the vessel borders, it is often prone to high inter- and intra-user variability. Automatic methods of vessel sizing have been developed for two-dimensional images but a fully three-dimensional (3D) method suitable for vessel sizing from volumetric X-ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging has heretofore not been demonstrated and validated robustly...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905385/synthetic-breast-phantoms-from-patient-based-eigenbreasts
#15
Gregory M Sturgeon, Subok Park, William Paul Segars, Joseph Y Lo
PURPOSE: The limited number of 3D patient-based breast phantoms available could be augmented by synthetic breast phantoms in order to facilitate virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation. METHODS: These synthetic breast phantoms were developed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe a training set of images. PCA decomposed a training set of M breast CT volumes (with millions of voxels each) into an M-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts...
September 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902148/a-fatigue-crack-size-evaluation-method-based-on-lamb-wave-simulation-and-limited-experimental-data
#16
Jingjing He, Yunmeng Ran, Bin Liu, Jinsong Yang, Xuefei Guan
This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S₀ mode wave package...
September 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901947/a-robust-optimisation-approach-accounting-for-the-effect-of-fractionation-on-setup-uncertainties
#17
Matthew Lowe, Adam Henry Aitkenhead, Francesca Albertini, Antony John Lomax, Ranald I Mackay
Proton plans are subject to a number of uncertainties which must be accounted for to ensure that they are delivered safely. Misalignment resulting from residual errors in daily patient positioning can result in both a displacement and distortion of dose distributions. This can be particularly important for intensity modulated proton therapy treatments where the accurate alignment of highly modulated fields may be required to deliver the intended treatment. A number of methods to generate plans that are robust to these uncertainties exist...
September 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899887/strategies-for-research-engagement-of-clinicians-in-allied-health-stretch-a-mixed-methods-research-protocol
#18
Sharon Mickan, Rachel Wenke, Kelly Weir, Andrea Bialocerkowski, Christy Noble
INTRODUCTION: Allied health professionals (AHPs) report positive attitudes to using research evidence in clinical practice, yet often lack time, confidence and skills to use, participate in and conduct research. A range of multifaceted strategies including education, mentoring and guidance have been implemented to increase AHPs' use of and participation in research. Emerging evidence suggests that knowledge brokering activities have the potential to support research engagement, but it is not clear which knowledge brokering strategies are most effective and in what contexts they work best to support and maintain clinicians' research engagement...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894997/a-novel-framework-for-evaluating-the-image-accuracy-of-dynamic-mri-and-the-application-on-accelerated-breast-dce-mri
#19
Yuan Le, Marcel Dominik Nickel, Stephan Kannengiesser, Berthold Kiefer, Bruce Spottiswoode, Brian Dale, Victor Soon, Chen Lin
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel framework for evaluating the accuracy of quantitative analysis on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI with a specific combination of imaging technique, scanning parameters, and scanner and software performance and to test this framework with breast DCE MRI with Time-resolved angiography WIth Stochastic Trajectories (TWIST). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Realistic breast tumor phantoms were 3D printed as cavities and filled with solutions of MR contrast agent...
September 11, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894959/variation-in-phenology-and-density-differentially-affects-predator-prey-interactions-between-salamanders
#20
Thomas L Anderson, Freya E Rowland, Raymond D Semlitsch
Variation in the timing of breeding (i.e., phenological variation) can affect species interactions and community structure, in part by shifting body size differences between species. Body size differences can be further altered by density-dependent competition, though synergistic effects of density and phenology on species interactions are rarely evaluated. We tested how field-realistic variation in phenology and density affected ringed salamander (Ambystoma annulatum) predation on spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), and whether these altered salamander dynamics resulted in trophic cascades...
September 11, 2017: Oecologia
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