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sleep psychomotor vigilance task difficulty

Julie L Huffmyer, Matthew Moncrief, Jessica A Tashjian, Amanda M Kleiman, David C Scalzo, Daniel J Cox, Edward C Nemergut
BACKGROUND: Residency training requires work in clinical settings for extended periods of time, resulting in altered sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and potentially deleterious effects on safe performance of daily activities, including driving a motor vehicle. METHODS: Twenty-nine anesthesiology resident physicians in postgraduate year 2 to 4 drove for 55 min in the Virginia Driving Safety Laboratory using the Driver Guidance System (MBFARR, LLC, USA). Two driving simulator sessions were conducted, one experimental session immediately after the final shift of six consecutive night shifts and one control session at the beginning of a normal day shift (not after call)...
June 2016: Anesthesiology
Paul Whitney, John M Hinson, Melinda L Jackson, Hans P A Van Dongen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To better understand the sometimes catastrophic effects of sleep loss on naturalistic decision making, we investigated effects of sleep deprivation on decision making in a reversal learning paradigm requiring acquisition and updating of information based on outcome feedback. DESIGN: Subjects were randomized to a sleep deprivation or control condition, with performance testing at baseline, after 2 nights of total sleep deprivation (or rested control), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep...
May 2015: Sleep
Mark E Howard, Melinda L Jackson, David Berlowitz, Fergal O'Donoghue, Philip Swann, Justine Westlake, Vanessa Wilkinson, Rob J Pierce
Drivers are not always aware that they are becoming impaired as a result of sleepiness. Using specific symptoms of sleepiness might assist with recognition of drowsiness related impairment and help drivers judge whether they are safe to drive a vehicle, however this has not been evaluated. In this study, 20 healthy volunteer professional drivers completed two randomized sessions in the laboratory - one under 24h of acute sleep deprivation, and one with alcohol. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and a 30min simulated driving task (AusEdTM) were performed every 3-4h in the sleep deprivation session, and at a BAC of 0...
January 2014: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kelly L Sinclair, Jennie L Ponsford, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Clare Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in sustained attention are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), as a result of primary (i.e., neuropathology) and/or secondary factors (i.e., fatigue, sleep disturbance, depressed mood). The extent to which secondary factors play a role in attention deficits is relatively unexamined. Moreover, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) is seldom used in TBI assessment despite its sensitivity to secondary factors observed following injury. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the usefulness of the auditory PVT in identifying attentional difficulties in patients with TBI compared with noninjured controls, and also to explore the impact of fatigue, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness on sustained attention performances...
2013: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Emilie Fortier-Brochu, Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Hans Ivers, Charles M Morin
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with insomnia consistently report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning (e.g., memory, concentration). However, objective measurements of their performance on neuropsychological tests have produced inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to provide a quantitative summary of evidence regarding the magnitude of differences between individuals with primary insomnia and normal sleepers on a broad range of neuropsychological measures...
February 2012: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Melinda L Jackson, Mark E Howard, Maree Barnes
Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns...
2011: Progress in Brain Research
John A Groeger, June C Y Lo, Christopher G Burns, Derk-Jan Dijk
The effects of executive load on working memory performance during sleep inertia after morning or afternoon naps were assessed using a mixed design with nap/wake as a between-subjects factor and morning/afternoon condition as a within-subject factor. Thirty-two healthy adults (mean 22.5 ± 3.0 years) attended two laboratory sessions after a night of restricted sleep (6 hrs), and at first visit, were randomly assigned to the Nap or Wake group. Working memory (n-back) and subjective workload were assessed approximately 5 and 25 minutes after 90-minute morning and afternoon nap opportunities and at the corresponding times in the Wake condition...
April 2011: Behavioral Neuroscience
David Sparrow, Mark Aloia, Deborah A Demolles, Daniel J Gottlieb
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most widely prescribed treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Although it has been shown to improve the symptoms of OSAS, many patients have difficulty adhering to this treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention to improve adherence to CPAP. METHODS: A randomised clinical trial was undertaken in 250 patients being started on CPAP therapy for OSAS...
December 2010: Thorax
Katharina Blatter, Christian Cajochen
The investigation of time-of-day effects on cognitive performance began in the early days of psychophysiological performance assessments. Since then, standardised, highly controlled protocols (constant routine and forced desynchrony) and a standard performance task (psychomotor vigilance task) have been developed to quantify sleep-wake homeostatic and internal circadian time-dependent effects on human cognitive performance. However, performance assessment in this field depends on a plethora of factors. The roles of task difficulty, task duration and complexity, the performance measure per se, practice effects, inter-individual differences, and ageing are all relevant aspects...
February 28, 2007: Physiology & Behavior
J Lynn Caldwell, Brian F Prazinko, Terri Rowe, David Norman, Kecia K Hall, John A Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Working night shift (reverse cycle) presents problems to personnel due to the difficulty in maintaining alertness during the nighttime hours. When the shift must be worked several consecutive nights, a cumulative sleep debt is created. Appropriate countermeasures are required to help personnel obtain as much sleep as possible so they may perform their duties effectively. HYPOTHESIS: The objectives were to determine whether a hypnotic taken before daytime sleep would improve sleep quality, and to determine whether improved daytime sleep would increase alertness, reduce fatigue, and mitigate the usual performance decrements which occur on night shift...
February 2003: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine
Isabelle Rouleau, Anne Décary, Anne-Josée Chicoine, Jacques Montplaisir
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To better characterize the cognitive deficits observed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by examining procedural skill learning abilities. DESIGN: Procedural skill learning was assessed using Mirror Tracing and Rotary Pursuit skill learning tasks. Subjects also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. SETTING: Cognitive testing was performed during the day following the second of two consecutive nights during which sleep and respiratory variables were recorded...
June 15, 2002: Sleep
W A Weinberg, R A Brumback
We present a novel condition, designated as a primary disorder of vigilance, that has symptoms which overlap those of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Vigilance is the state of being watchful, awake, and alert. When vigilance is lost, the individual has difficulty sustaining attention. The most obvious evidence of lowered vigilance is motor restlessness (fidgeting and moving about, yawning and stretching, talkativeness, or a combination of these) to improve alertness when sitting or standing still or when involved in tasks requiring continuous mental performance...
May 1990: Journal of Pediatrics
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