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Bayesian probability diagnosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891139/validation-of-a-clinical-scoring-system-for-bovine-respiratory-disease-complex-diagnosis-in-preweaned-dairy-calves-using-a-bayesian-framework
#1
S Buczinski, G Fecteau, J Dubuc, D Francoz
Bovine respiratory disease complex is a major cause of illness in dairy calves. The diagnosis of active infection of the lower respiratory tract is challenging on daily basis in the absence of accurate clinical signs. Clinical scoring systems such as the Californian scoring system, are appealing but were developed without considering the imperfection of reference standard tests used for case definition. This study used a Bayesian latent class model to update Californian prediction rules. The results of clinical examination and ultrasound findings of 608 preweaned dairy calves were used...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752813/the-long-exercise-test-in-periodic-paralysis-a-bayesian-analysis
#2
Daniel B Simmons, Julie Lanning, James C Cleland, Araya Puwanant, Paul T Twydell, Robert C Griggs, Rabi Tawil, Eric L Logigian
INTRODUCTION: The long exercise test (LET) is used to assess the diagnosis of periodic paralysis (PP), but LET methodology and normal "cut-off" values vary. METHODS: To determine optimal LET methodology and cut-offs, we reviewed LET data (abductor digiti minimi (ADM) motor response amplitude, area) from 55 PP patients (32 genetically definite) and 125 controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and area-under-the-curve (AUC) calculated to compare 1) peak-to-nadir versus baseline-to-nadir methodologies, and 2) amplitude versus area decrements...
May 12, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738108/causes-of-shortness-of-breath-in-the-acute-patient-a-national-study
#3
Zachariah E Hale, Astha Singhal, Renee Y Hsia
BACKGROUND: Dyspnea is a common and ambiguous complaint that results in 3.4 million emergency department visits annually. While learners may encounter lists of differential diagnoses to consider while in training, often these lists are not empirically based. We sought to establish an evidence-based differential diagnosis for dyspnea and to determine whether normal vital signs can rule out a life-threatening diagnosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2005-2014 for emergency department visits with a chief complaint of dyspnea and tallied the principal discharge diagnosis...
May 8, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736901/bayesian-logistic-regression-approaches-to-predict-incorrect-drg-assignment
#4
Mani Suleiman, Haydar Demirhan, Leanne Boyd, Federico Girosi, Vural Aksakalli
Episodes of care involving similar diagnoses and treatments and requiring similar levels of resource utilisation are grouped to the same Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG). In jurisdictions which implement DRG based payment systems, DRGs are a major determinant of funding for inpatient care. Hence, service providers often dedicate auditing staff to the task of checking that episodes have been coded to the correct DRG. The use of statistical models to estimate an episode's probability of DRG error can significantly improve the efficiency of clinical coding audits...
May 7, 2018: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685435/latent-class-analysis-of-real-time-qpcr-and-bacteriological-culturing-for-the-diagnosis-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-cow-composite-milk-samples
#5
Ingrid H Holmøy, Nils Toft, Hannah J Jørgensen, Tormod Mørk, Liv Sølverød, Ane Nødtvedt
Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows. The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678059/building-bayesian-networks-from-causal-rules
#6
Karima Sedki, Rosy Tsopra
Bayesian Networks (BNs) are often used for designing diagnosis decision support systems. They are a well-established method for reasoning under uncertainty and making inferences. But, eliciting the probabilities can be tedious and time-consuming especially in medical domain where variables are often related by qualitative terms rather than probabilities. The goal of this paper is to propose a method for eliciting the probabilities required in BNs by using and transforming causal rules which are often used in medicine...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609880/progression-free-survival-with-first-line-endocrine-based-therapies-among-postmenopausal-women-with-hr-her2-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-network-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rajeev Ayyagari, Derek Tang, Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Zhou Zhou, Jipan Xie, David Chandiwana, Anand A Dalal, Polly Ann Niravath
PURPOSE: The comparative efficacy of endocrine-based therapies (ETs) for hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is not well characterized. This network meta-analysis (NMA) synthesized available evidence on progression-free survival (PFS) with first-line ETs for postmenopausal HR+/HER2- mBC. METHODS: A systematic literature review identified randomized controlled trials of first-line ETs...
April 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584770/visualizing-the-bayesian-2-test-case-the-effect-of-tree-diagrams-on-medical-decision-making
#8
Karin Binder, Stefan Krauss, Georg Bruckmaier, Jörg Marienhagen
In medicine, diagnoses based on medical test results are probabilistic by nature. Unfortunately, cognitive illusions regarding the statistical meaning of test results are well documented among patients, medical students, and even physicians. There are two effective strategies that can foster insight into what is known as Bayesian reasoning situations: (1) translating the statistical information on the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and the false-alarm rate of a specific test for that disease from probabilities into natural frequencies, and (2) illustrating the statistical information with tree diagrams, for instance, or with other pictorial representation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575170/random-effects-meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-utility-of-tests-and-prediction-models
#9
L Wynants, R D Riley, D Timmerman, B Van Calster
The use of data from multiple studies or centers for the validation of a clinical test or a multivariable prediction model allows researchers to investigate the test's/model's performance in multiple settings and populations. Recently, meta-analytic techniques have been proposed to summarize discrimination and calibration across study populations. Here, we rather consider performance in terms of net benefit, which is a measure of clinical utility that weighs the benefits of true positive classifications against the harms of false positives...
May 30, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505826/phylogeny-molecular-dating-and-zoogeographic-history-of-the-titi-monkeys-callicebus-pitheciidae-of-eastern-brazil
#10
Jeferson Carneiro, Iracilda Sampaio, José de Sousa E Silva-Júnior, Izeni Farias, Tomas Hrbek, Alcides Pissinatti, Ronylson Silva, Antônio Martins-Junior, Jean Boubli, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Horacio Schneider
The titi monkeys belong to a genus of New World primates endemic to South America, which were recently reclassified in three genera (Cheracebus, Plecturocebus and Callicebus). The genus Callicebus, which currently includes five species, is endemic to eastern Brazil, occurring in the Caatinga, Savanna, and Atlantic Forest biomes. In the present study, we investigated the validity of these species and inferred their phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic patterns based on the molecular analysis of a concatenated sequence of 11 mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, derived from 13 specimens...
July 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480983/predicting-the-survival-of-gastric-cancer-patients-using-artificial-and-bayesian-neural-networks
#11
Azam Korhani Kangi, Abbas Bahrampour
Introduction and purpose: In recent years the use of neural networks without any premises for investigation of prognosis in analyzing survival data has increased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) use small processors with a continuous network to solve problems inspired by the human brain. Bayesian neural networks (BNN) constitute a neural-based approach to modeling and non-linearization of complex issues using special algorithms and statistical methods. Gastric cancer incidence is the first and third ranking for men and women in Iran, respectively...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411949/discrimination-of-malignant-and-normal-kidney-tissue-with-short-wave-infra-red-dispersive-raman-spectroscopy
#12
Miki Haifler, Isaac Pence, Yu Sun, Alexander Kutikov, Robert G Uzzo, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Chetan A Patil
Renal mass biopsy is still controversial due to imperfect accuracy(1). Raman spectroscopy (RS) demonstrated promise as an in vivo real-time, non-destructive diagnostic tool in many malignancies. Short wave infra-red (SWIR) RS has the potential to improve on previous RS systems for renal mass diagnosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a SWIR RS system in differentiating normal and malignant renal samples Measurements were acquired using a benchtop RS system with excitation wavelength at 1064 nm and an InGaAs array detector...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364118/robust-multicontrast-mri-spleen-segmentation-for-splenomegaly-using-multi-atlas-segmentation
#13
Yuankai Huo, Jiaqi Liu, Zhoubing Xu, Robert L Harrigan, Albert Assad, Richard G Abramson, Bennett A Landman
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential imaging modality in noninvasive splenomegaly diagnosis. However, it is challenging to achieve spleen volume measurement from three-dimensional MRI given the diverse structural variations of human abdomens as well as the wide variety of clinical MRI acquisition schemes. Multi-atlas segmentation (MAS) approaches have been widely used and validated to handle heterogeneous anatomical scenarios. In this paper, we propose to use MAS for clinical MRI spleen segmentation for splenomegaly...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334498/evidence-based-interpretation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-pet-results-a-clinician-s-tool
#14
David Bergeron, Rik Ossenkoppele, Robert Jr Laforce
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of fibrillar amyloid plaques, a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, amyloid-β PET interpretation is limited by the imperfect correlation between PET and autopsy, and the fact that it is positive in about 20% to 30% of cognitively normal individuals and non-AD dementias, especially when older or carrying the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). When facing a positive amyloid PET, clinicians have to evaluate the probability of a pathologic false positive as well as the probability of amyloid positivity being age-related, comorbid to a primary non-AD dementia (clinicopathologic false positive)...
January 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242838/a-dirichlet-multinomial-bayes-classifier-for-disease-diagnosis-with-microbial-compositions
#15
Xiang Gao, Huaiying Lin, Qunfeng Dong
Dysbiosis of microbial communities is associated with various human diseases, raising the possibility of using microbial compositions as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. We have developed a Bayes classifier by modeling microbial compositions with Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, which are widely used to model multicategorical count data with extra variation. The parameters of the Dirichlet-multinomial distributions are estimated from training microbiome data sets based on maximum likelihood. The posterior probability of a microbiome sample belonging to a disease or healthy category is calculated based on Bayes' theorem, using the likelihood values computed from the estimated Dirichlet-multinomial distribution, as well as a prior probability estimated from the training microbiome data set or previously published information on disease prevalence...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216851/what-does-igra-testing-add-to-the-diagnosis-of-ocular-tuberculosis-a-bayesian-latent-class-analysis
#16
Rupesh Agrawal, Robert Grant, Bhaskar Gupta, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, Julio J Gonzalez-Lopez, Peter K F Addison, Mark Westcott, Carlos E Pavesio
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the contribution made to the diagnostic work-up for patients with suspected ocular tuberculosis (TB) by QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) tests using latent class analysis model. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study. A Bayesian latent class model was constructed on the basis of demographics, phenotypes and test results from patients attending a tertiary referral center in the UK. This estimated the probability of ocular TB for each patient in two versions, first with and then without QFT...
December 8, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121922/assisting-differential-clinical-diagnosis-of-cattle-diseases-using-smartphone-based-technology-in-low-resource-settings-a-pilot-study
#17
Tariku Jibat Beyene, Amanuel Eshetu, Amina Abdu, Etenesh Wondimu, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene Tufa, Sami Ibrahim, Crawford W Revie
BACKGROUND: The recent rise in mobile phone use and increased signal coverage has created opportunities for growth of the mobile Health sector in many low resource settings. This pilot study explores the use of a smartphone-based application, VetAfrica-Ethiopia, in assisting diagnosis of cattle diseases. We used a modified Delphi protocol to select important diseases and Bayesian algorithms to estimate the related disease probabilities based on various clinical signs being present in Ethiopian cattle...
November 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091206/dynamics-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-according-to-subtype-in-italy-over-the-years-2000-14
#18
L Fabeni, C Alteri, D Di Carlo, N Orchi, L Carioti, A Bertoli, C Gori, F Forbici, F Continenza, G Maffongelli, C Pinnetti, A Vergori, A Mondi, A Ammassari, V Borghi, M Giuliani, G De Carli, S Pittalis, S Grisetti, A Pennica, C M Mastroianni, F Montella, A Cristaudo, C Mussini, E Girardi, M Andreoni, A Antinori, F Ceccherini-Silberstein, C F Perno, M M Santoro
Background: Transmitted drug-resistance (TDR) remains a critical aspect for the management of HIV-1-infected individuals. Thus, studying the dynamics of TDR is crucial to optimize HIV care. Methods: In total, 4323 HIV-1 protease/reverse-transcriptase sequences from drug-naive individuals diagnosed in north and central Italy between 2000 and 2014 were analysed. TDR was evaluated over time. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees with bootstrap and Bayesian-probability supports defined transmission clusters...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059331/automated-influenza-case-detection-for-public-health-surveillance-and-clinical-diagnosis-using-dynamic-influenza-prevalence-method
#19
Fuchiang Tsui, Y Ye, Victor Ruiz, Gregory F Cooper, Michael M Wagner
Objectives: To assess the performance of a Bayesian case detector (BCD) for influenza surveillance and clinical diagnosis. Methods: BCD uses a Bayesian network classifier to compute the posterior probability of a patient having influenza based on 31 findings from narrative clinical notes. To assess the potential for disease surveillance, we calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to indicate BCD's ability to differentiate between influenza and non-influenza encounters in emergency department settings...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032721/estimation-of-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-pregnancy-diagnosis-using-transrectal-ultrasonography-and-elisa-for-pregnancy-associated-glycoprotein-in-dairy-cows-using-a-bayesian-latent-class-model
#20
R W Shephard, J M Morton
AIMS: To determine the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography and an ELISA for pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in milk, in lactating dairy cows in seasonally calving herds approximately 85-100 days after the start of the herd's breeding period. METHODS: Paired results were used from pregnancy diagnosis using transrectal ultrasonography and ELISA for PAG in milk carried out approximately 85 and 100 days after the start of the breeding period, respectively, from 879 cows from four herds in Victoria, Australia...
January 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
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