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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334498/evidence-based-interpretation-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-pet-results-a-clinician-s-tool
#1
David Bergeron, Rik Ossenkoppele, Robert Jr Laforce
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) allows for in vivo detection of fibrillar amyloid plaques, a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, amyloid-β PET interpretation is limited by the imperfect correlation between PET and autopsy, and the fact that it is positive in about 20% to 30% of cognitively normal individuals and non-AD dementias, especially when older or carrying the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4). When facing a positive amyloid PET, clinicians have to evaluate the probability of a pathologic false positive as well as the probability of amyloid positivity being age-related, comorbid to a primary non-AD dementia (clinicopathologic false positive)...
January 12, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330138/a-biogeographic-and-ecological-perspective-to-the-evolution-of-reproductive-behaviour-in-the-family-salamandridae
#2
Sarah Kieren, Max Sparreboom, Axel Hochkirch, Michael Veith
Amphibians have a complex reproductive behaviour, which shows the highest diversity among tetrapodes. The family Salamandridae, distributed across the entire Holarctic, is one of the most diverse groups of extant salamanders comprising 114 species in 21 genera. The family has a remarkable diversity of courtship modes, amplexus and sperm transfer. It is often hypothesised that this diversity has evolved in adaptation to a specific mating and/or breeding habitat. We test this hypothesis based upon a phylogenetic reconstruction using the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 45 Salamandridae species, representing all existing genera...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325601/evaluation-of-elisa-and-haemagglutination-inhibition-as-screening-tests-in-serosurveillance-for-h5-h7-avian-influenza-in-commercial-chicken-flocks
#3
M E Arnold, M J Slomka, A C Breed, C K Hjulsager, S Pritz-Verschuren, S Venema-Kemper, R J Bouwstra, R Trebbien, S Zohari, V Ceeraz, L E Larsen, R J Manvell, G Koch, I H Brown
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes...
January 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324641/genetic-algorithm-based-motion-estimation-method-using-orientations-and-emgs-for-robot-controls
#4
Jeongsook Chae, Yong Jin, Yunsick Sung, Kyungeun Cho
Demand for interactive wearable devices is rapidly increasing with the development of smart devices. To accurately utilize wearable devices for remote robot controls, limited data should be analyzed and utilized efficiently. For example, the motions by a wearable device, called Myo device, can be estimated by measuring its orientation, and calculating a Bayesian probability based on these orientation data. Given that Myo device can measure various types of data, the accuracy of its motion estimation can be increased by utilizing these additional types of data...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323249/probabilistic-data-integration-identifies-reliable-gametocyte-specific-proteins-and-transcripts-in-malaria-parasites
#5
Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Robin van der Lee, Will Stone, Kjerstin Lanke, David A Baker, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Taco W A Kooij, Matthias Marti, Chris Drakeley, Joseph J Campo, Teunis J P van Dam, Robert Sauerwein, Teun Bousema, Martijn A Huynen
Plasmodium gametocytes are the sexual forms of the malaria parasite essential for transmission to mosquitoes. To better understand how gametocytes differ from asexual blood-stage parasites, we performed a systematic analysis of available 'omics data for P. falciparum and other Plasmodium species. 18 transcriptomic and proteomic data sets were evaluated for the presence of curated "gold standards" of 41 gametocyte-specific versus 46 non-gametocyte genes and integrated using Bayesian probabilities, resulting in gametocyte-specificity scores for all P...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321889/using-expert-knowledge-to-incorporate-uncertainty-in-cause-of-death-assignments-for-modeling-of-cause-specific-mortality
#6
Daniel P Walsh, Andrew S Norton, Daniel J Storm, Timothy R Van Deelen, Dennis M Heisey
Implicit and explicit use of expert knowledge to inform ecological analyses is becoming increasingly common because it often represents the sole source of information in many circumstances. Thus, there is a need to develop statistical methods that explicitly incorporate expert knowledge, and can successfully leverage this information while properly accounting for associated uncertainty during analysis. Studies of cause-specific mortality provide an example of implicit use of expert knowledge when causes-of-death are uncertain and assigned based on the observer's knowledge of the most likely cause...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319143/prognostic-factors-of-breast-cancer-survival-in-the-islamic-republic-of-iran-an-additive-empirical-bayesian-approach
#7
Samane Nematolahi, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Najaf Zare, Majid Akrami, Sedighe Tahmasebi
Breast cancer is a public health challenge in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Relatively few studies have dealt with large dataset and advanced statistical methods. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of prognostic factors on breast cancer survival using Additive Empirical Bayesian model with large data set. Breast cancer data set included 1574 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2002 to 2012 that registered from Cancer Registry in Fars Province, Islamic Republic of Iran. Overall survival rates at 2, 3, 5 and 10 years were 0...
January 2, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306687/real-time-prediction-and-avoidance-of-secondary-crashes-under-unexpected-traffic-congestion
#8
Hyoshin Park, Ali Haghani, Siby Samuel, Michael A Knodler
According to the Federal Highway Administration, nonrecurring congestion contributes to nearly half of the overall congestion. Temporal disruptions impact the effective use of the complete roadway, due to speed reduction and rubbernecking resulting from primary incidents that in turn provoke secondary incidents. There is an additional reduction of discharge flow caused by secondary incident that significantly increases total delay. Therefore, it is important to sequentially predict the probability of secondary incidents and develop appropriate countermeasures to reduce the associated risk...
January 4, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306517/patterns-of-kidney-function-decline-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a-post-hoc-analysis-from-the-halt-pkd-trials
#9
Godela M Brosnahan, Kaleab Z Abebe, Charity G Moore, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Kyongtae T Bae, Jared J Grantham, Robert W Schrier, William E Braun, Arlene B Chapman, Michael F Flessner, Peter C Harris, Marie C Hogan, Ronald D Perrone, Dana C Miskulin, Theodore I Steinman, Vicente E Torres
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical studies of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) reported that loss of kidney function usually follows a steep and relentless course. A detailed examination of individual patterns of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has not been performed. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal post hoc analysis of data collected during the Halt Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease (HALT-PKD) trials. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 494 HALT-PKD Study A participants (younger; preserved eGFR) and 435 Study B participants (older; reduced eGFR) who had more than 3 years of follow-up and 7 or more eGFR assessments...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305934/efficacy-of-laparoscopic-nissen-fundoplication-vs-transoral-incisionless-fundoplication-or-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#10
Joel Richter, Ambuj Kumar, Seth Lipka, Branko Miladinovic, Vic Velanovich
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) have been compared with those of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or a sham procedure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but there has been no direct comparison of TIF vs LNF. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the relative efficacies of TIF vs LNF in patients with GERD. METHODS: We searched publication databases and conference abstracts through May 10, 2017 for randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of TIF or LNF with that of a sham procedure or PPIs in patients with GERD...
January 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304849/should-i-stay-or-should-i-go-movement-of-adult-triatoma-sordida-within-the-peridomestic-area-of-a-typical-brazilian-cerrado-rural-household
#11
Edson Santos Dantas, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Daniel Antunes Maciel Villela, Fernando Araújo Monteiro, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is primarily transmitted to humans by hematophagous insects of the subfamily Triatominae. Although knowledge on triatomine movement capabilities at the micro-geographical scale is of fundamental importance concerning the development of effective vector control strategies, it remains a poorly understood subject. Furthermore, survival rates and size estimates of natural populations are important topics to consider when evaluating transmission intensity...
January 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301596/study-of-zero-inflated-regression-models-in-a-large-scale-population-survey-of-sub-health-status-and-its-influencing-factors
#12
Tao Xu, Guang-Jin Zhu, Shao-Mei Han
Objective Sub-health status has progressively gained more attention from both medical professionals and the publics. Treating the number of sub-health symptoms as count data rather than dichotomous data helps to completely and accurately analyze findings in sub-healthy population. This study aims to compare the goodness of fit for count outcome models to identify the optimum model for sub-health study. Methods The sample of the study derived from a large-scale population survey on physiological and psychological constants from 2007 to 2011 in 4 provinces and 2 autonomous regions in China...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300386/modeling-the-acmg-amp-variant-classification-guidelines-as-a-bayesian-classification-framework
#13
Sean V Tavtigian, Marc S Greenblatt, Steven M Harrison, Robert L Nussbaum, Snehit A Prabhu, Kenneth M Boucher, Leslie G Biesecker
PurposeWe evaluated the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) variant pathogenicity guidelines for internal consistency and compatibility with Bayesian statistical reasoning.MethodsThe ACMG/AMP criteria were translated into a naive Bayesian classifier, assuming four levels of evidence and exponentially scaled odds of pathogenicity. We tested this framework with a range of prior probabilities and odds of pathogenicity.ResultsWe modeled the ACMG/AMP guidelines using biologically plausible assumptions...
January 4, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297307/cornas-coverage-dependent-rna-seq-analysis-of-gene-expression-data-without-biological-replicates
#14
Joel Z B Low, Tsung Fei Khang, Martti T Tammi
BACKGROUND: In current statistical methods for calling differentially expressed genes in RNA-Seq experiments, the assumption is that an adjusted observed gene count represents an unknown true gene count. This adjustment usually consists of a normalization step to account for heterogeneous sample library sizes, and then the resulting normalized gene counts are used as input for parametric or non-parametric differential gene expression tests. A distribution of true gene counts, each with a different probability, can result in the same observed gene count...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297278/incorporating-biological-prior-knowledge-for-bayesian-learning-via-maximal-knowledge-driven-information-priors
#15
Shahin Boluki, Mohammad Shahrokh Esfahani, Xiaoning Qian, Edward R Dougherty
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic classification is problematic because small samples are ubiquitous; and, for these, use of prior knowledge is critical. If knowledge concerning the feature-label distribution - for instance, genetic pathways - is available, then it can be used in learning. Optimal Bayesian classification provides optimal classification under model uncertainty. It differs from classical Bayesian methods in which a classification model is assumed and prior distributions are placed on model parameters...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294591/-choice-of-genetic-model-on-meta-analysis-of-genetic-association-studies-introduction-of-genetic-model-free-approach-for-bayesian-analysis
#16
H Weng, E X Lin, T J Tong, X Wan, P L Geng, X T Zeng
Meta-analysis used for genetic association studies became popular among researchers, with the amount of published papers increased rapidly. In this paper, we will focus on the introduction on the selection of genetic models. Traditionally, methods used for Meta-analysis on genetic association studies was to calculate the statistics based on available genetic models which not only increasing the probability of false-positives but also making the interpretation of results more difficult. Hence, a critical step in the Meta-analysis of genetic association studies was to choose the appropriate inheritance model...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287095/probabilistic-inversion-of-expert-assessments-to-inform-projections-about-antarctic-ice-sheet-responses
#17
Robert William Fuller, Tony E Wong, Klaus Keller
The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing global temperatures is a key component of sea-level projections. Current projections of the AIS contribution to sea-level changes are deeply uncertain. This deep uncertainty stems, in part, from (i) the inability of current models to fully resolve key processes and scales, (ii) the relatively sparse available data, and (iii) divergent expert assessments. One promising approach to characterizing the deep uncertainty stemming from divergent expert assessments is to combine expert assessments, observations, and simple models by coupling probabilistic inversion and Bayesian inversion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285815/formal-models-and-quantitative-measures-of-multisensory-integration-a-selective-overview
#18
Hans Colonius, Adele Diederich
Multisensory integration (MI) is defined as the neural process by which unisensory signals are combined to form a new product that is significantly different from the responses evoked by the modality-specific component stimuli. In recent years, MI research has seen exponential growth in the number of empirical and theoretical studies. This paper presents a selective overview of formal modeling approaches to MI. Emphasis is on models and measures for behavioral paradigms like, e.g., localization, judgment of temporal order or simultaneity, and reaction times, but some concepts for the modeling of single cell spike rates are treated as well...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284369/bayesian-phase-ii-optimization-for-time-to-event-data-based-on-historical-information
#19
Anja Bertsche, Frank Fleischer, Jan Beyersmann, Gerhard Nehmiz
After exploratory drug development, companies face the decision whether to initiate confirmatory trials based on limited efficacy information. This proof-of-concept decision is typically performed after a Phase II trial studying a novel treatment versus either placebo or an active comparator. The article aims to optimize the design of such a proof-of-concept trial with respect to decision making. We incorporate historical information and develop pre-specified decision criteria accounting for the uncertainty of the observed treatment effect...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281962/variable-selection-models-for-genomic-selection-using-whole-genome-sequence-data-and-singular-value-decomposition
#20
Theo H E Meuwissen, Ulf G Indahl, Jørgen Ødegård
BACKGROUND: Non-linear Bayesian genomic prediction models such as BayesA/B/C/R involve iteration and mostly Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms, which are computationally expensive, especially when whole-genome sequence (WGS) data are analyzed. Singular value decomposition (SVD) of the genotype matrix can facilitate genomic prediction in large datasets, and can be used to estimate marker effects and their prediction error variances (PEV) in a computationally efficient manner. Here, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a direct, non-iterative method for the estimation of marker effects for the BayesC genomic prediction model...
December 27, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
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