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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148131/temporal-and-spatial-variability-of-surface-motor-activation-zones-in-hemiplegic-patients-during-functional-electrical-stimulation-therapy-sessions
#1
Jovana Malešević, Matija Štrbac, Milica Isaković, Vladimir Kojić, Ljubica Konstantinović, Aleksandra Vidaković, Suzana Dedijer Dujović, Miloš Kostić, Thierry Keller
The goal of this study was to investigate surface motor activation zones and their temporal variability using an advanced multi-pad functional electrical stimulation system. With this system motor responses are elicited through concurrent activation of electrode matrix pads collectively termed "virtual electrodes" (VEs) with appropriate stimulation parameters. We observed VEs used to produce selective wrist, finger, and thumb extension movements in 20 therapy sessions of 12 hemiplegic stroke patients. The VEs which produce these three selective movements were created manually on the ergonomic multi-pad electrode by experienced clinicians based on visual inspection of the muscle responses...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145511/crowdsourcing-prior-information-to-improve-study-design-and-data-analysis
#2
Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz, Joe W Tidwell, Michael R Dougherty
Though Bayesian methods are being used more frequently, many still struggle with the best method for setting priors with novel measures or task environments. We propose a method for setting priors by eliciting continuous probability distributions from naive participants. This allows us to include any relevant information participants have for a given effect. Even when prior means are near-zero, this method provides a principle way to estimate dispersion and produce shrinkage, reducing the occurrence of overestimated effect sizes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141631/detection-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus-2-during-the-wild-rabbit-oryctolagus-cuniculus-eradication-from-the-berlengas-archipelago-portugal
#3
F A Abade Dos Santos, C Carvalho, Oliveira Nuno, J J Correia, M Henriques, M C Peleteiro, M Fevereiro, M D Duarte
BACKGROUND: In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. RESULTS: While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140792/a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-for-identifying-significant-polygenic-effects-while-controlling-for-confounding-and-repeated-measures
#4
Christopher McMahan, James Baurley, William Bridges, Chase Joyner, Muhamad Fitra Kacamarga, Robert Lund, Carissa Pardamean, Bens Pardamean
Genomic studies of plants often seek to identify genetic factors associated with desirable traits. The process of evaluating genetic markers one by one (i.e. a marginal analysis) may not identify important polygenic and environmental effects. Further, confounding due to growing conditions/factors and genetic similarities among plant varieties may influence conclusions. When developing new plant varieties to optimize yield or thrive in future adverse conditions (e.g. flood, drought), scientists seek a complete understanding of how the factors influence desirable traits...
November 15, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138952/age-estimation-by-assessment-of-pulp-chamber-volume-a-bayesian-network-for-the-evaluation-of-dental-evidence
#5
Emanuele Sironi, Franco Taroni, Claudio Baldinotti, Cosimo Nardi, Gian-Aristide Norelli, Matteo Gallidabino, Vilma Pinchi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the performance of a Bayesian method in the evaluation of dental age-related evidence collected by means of a geometrical approximation procedure of the pulp chamber volume. Measurement of this volume was based on three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography images. METHODS: The Bayesian method was applied by means of a probabilistic graphical model, namely a Bayesian network. Performance of that method was investigated in terms of accuracy and bias of the decisional outcomes...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136145/a-two-step-method-for-variable-selection-in-the-analysis-of-a-case-cohort-study
#6
P J Newcombe, S Connolly, S Seaman, S Richardson, S J Sharp
Background: Accurate detection and estimation of true exposure-outcome associations is important in aetiological analysis; when there are multiple potential exposure variables of interest, methods for detecting the subset of variables most likely to have true associations with the outcome of interest are required. Case-cohort studies often collect data on a large number of variables which have not been measured in the entire cohort (e.g. panels of biomarkers). There is a lack of guidance on methods for variable selection in case-cohort studies...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131105/survival-rates-in-closed-and-open-vitrification-for-human-mature-oocyte-cryopreservation-a-meta-analysis
#7
Hyun Sik Youm, Jong-Ryeol Choi, Daesik Oh, Yong Ho Rho
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Survival of warmed oocytes is the first part and is one of the most important aspects of in vitro fertilization following oocyte cryopreservation. There is no definite conclusion about the difference in survival rates between closed and open vitrification for oocyte cryopreservation. This study aimed to investigate whether there is a difference in survival rates between closed and open vitrification for cryopreservation of human mature oocytes. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase databases...
November 1, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129157/thrombectomy-6-to-24-hours-after-stroke-with-a-mismatch-between-deficit-and-infarct
#8
Raul G Nogueira, Ashutosh P Jadhav, Diogo C Haussen, Alain Bonafe, Ronald F Budzik, Parita Bhuva, Dileep R Yavagal, Marc Ribo, Christophe Cognard, Ricardo A Hanel, Cathy A Sila, Ameer E Hassan, Monica Millan, Elad I Levy, Peter Mitchell, Michael Chen, Joey D English, Qaisar A Shah, Frank L Silver, Vitor M Pereira, Brijesh P Mehta, Blaise W Baxter, Michael G Abraham, Pedro Cardona, Erol Veznedaroglu, Frank R Hellinger, Lei Feng, Jawad F Kirmani, Demetrius K Lopes, Brian T Jankowitz, Michael R Frankel, Vincent Costalat, Nirav A Vora, Albert J Yoo, Amer M Malik, Anthony J Furlan, Marta Rubiera, Amin Aghaebrahim, Jean-Marc Olivot, Wondwossen G Tekle, Ryan Shields, Todd Graves, Roger J Lewis, Wade S Smith, David S Liebeskind, Jeffrey L Saver, Tudor G Jovin
Background The effect of endovascular thrombectomy that is performed more than 6 hours after the onset of ischemic stroke is uncertain. Patients with a clinical deficit that is disproportionately severe relative to the infarct volume may benefit from late thrombectomy. Methods We enrolled patients with occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery or proximal middle cerebral artery who had last been known to be well 6 to 24 hours earlier and who had a mismatch between the severity of the clinical deficit and the infarct volume, with mismatch criteria defined according to age (<80 years or ≥80 years)...
November 11, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127857/the-updated-network-meta-analysis-of-neoadjuvant-therapy-for-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Ayako Nakashoji, Tetsu Hayashida, Takamichi Yokoe, Hinako Maeda, Tomoka Toyota, Masayuki Kikuchi, Rurina Watanuki, Aiko Nagayama, Tomoko Seki, Maiko Takahashi, Takayuki Abe, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: We previously described a systematic assessment of the neoadjuvant therapies for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) positive breast cancer, using network meta-analysis. Accumulation of new clinical data has compelled us to update the analysis. METHODS: Randomized trials comparing different anti-HER2 regimens in the neoadjuvant setting were included, and odds ratio for pathologic complete response (pCR) in seven treatment arms were assessed by pooling effect sizes...
October 31, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124304/modeling-coverage-gaps-in-haplotype-frequencies-via-bayesian-inference-to-improve-stem-cell-donor-selection
#10
Yoram Louzoun, Idan Alter, Loren Gragert, Mark Albrecht, Martin Maiers
Regardless of sampling depth, accurate genotype imputation is limited in regions of high polymorphism which often have a heavy-tailed haplotype frequency distribution. Many rare haplotypes are thus unobserved. Statistical methods to improve imputation by extending reference haplotype distributions using linkage disequilibrium patterns that relate allele and haplotype frequencies have not yet been explored. In the field of unrelated stem cell transplantation, imputation of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes has an important application in identifying the best-matched stem cell donor when searching large registries totaling over 28,000,000 donors worldwide...
November 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121922/assisting-differential-clinical-diagnosis-of-cattle-diseases-using-smartphone-based-technology-in-low-resource-settings-a-pilot-study
#11
Tariku Jibat Beyene, Amanuel Eshetu, Amina Abdu, Etenesh Wondimu, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene Tufa, Sami Ibrahim, Crawford W Revie
BACKGROUND: The recent rise in mobile phone use and increased signal coverage has created opportunities for growth of the mobile Health sector in many low resource settings. This pilot study explores the use of a smartphone-based application, VetAfrica-Ethiopia, in assisting diagnosis of cattle diseases. We used a modified Delphi protocol to select important diseases and Bayesian algorithms to estimate the related disease probabilities based on various clinical signs being present in Ethiopian cattle...
November 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121066/probability-of-lek-collapse-is-lower-inside-sage-grouse-core-areas-effectiveness-of-conservation-policy-for-a-landscape-species
#12
Emma Suzuki Spence, Jeffrey L Beck, Andrew J Gregory
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO), enacted by Governor Freudenthal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120090/ednaoccupancy-an-r-package-for-multi-scale-occupancy-modeling-of-environmental-dna-data
#13
Robert M Dorazio, Richard A Erickson
In this article we describe eDNAoccupancy, an R package for fitting Bayesian, multi-scale occupancy models. These models are appropriate for occupancy surveys that include three, nested levels of sampling: primary sample units within a study area, secondary sample units collected from each primary unit, and replicates of each secondary sample unit. This design is commonly used in occupancy surveys of environmental DNA (eDNA). eDNAoccupancy allows users to specify and fit multi-scale occupancy models with or without covariates, to estimate posterior summaries of occurrence and detection probabilities, and to compare different models using Bayesian model-selection criteria...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119601/an-integrative-approach-to-assess-x-chromosome-inactivation-using-allele-specific-expression-with-applications-to-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#14
Nicholas B Larson, Zachary C Fogarty, Melissa C Larson, Kimberly R Kalli, Kate Lawrenson, Simon Gayther, Brooke L Fridley, Ellen L Goode, Stacey J Winham
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) epigenetically silences transcription of an X chromosome in females; patterns of XCI are thought to be aberrant in women's cancers, but are understudied due to statistical challenges. We develop a two-stage statistical framework to assess skewed XCI and evaluate gene-level patterns of XCI for an individual sample by integration of RNA sequence, copy number alteration, and genotype data. Our method relies on allele-specific expression (ASE) to directly measure XCI and does not rely on male samples or paired normal tissue for comparison...
November 8, 2017: Genetic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110320/a-general-framework-for-constraint-approaches-to-adjusted-risk-differences
#15
Yuanyuan Tang, Michelle Xia, Liangrui Sun, John A Spertus, Philip G Jones
The risk difference is an intelligible measure for comparing disease incidence in two exposure or treatment groups. Despite its convenience in interpretation, it is less prevalent in epidemiological and clinical areas where regression models are required in order to adjust for confounding. One major barrier to its popularity is that standard linear binomial or Poisson regression models can provide estimated probabilities out of the range of (0,1), resulting in possible convergence issues. For estimating adjusted risk differences, we propose a general framework covering various constraint approaches based on binomial and Poisson regression models...
November 7, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108936/phylogenetic-relationships-of-deprea-new-insights-into-the-evolutionary-history-of-physaloid-groups
#16
Rocío Deanna, Gloria E Barboza, Carolina Carrizo García
Deprea is the genus with the second highest species richness in tribe Physalideae (Solanaceae) and comprises 50 species that are mainly distributed in the Andes of South America. The taxonomy of Deprea has been unstable after controversial hypotheses about its position and circumscription. Additionally, biogeographical inferences are only based on observations of the restricted area of distribution of some species and no ancestral area estimation have been performed. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis and an ancestral area reconstruction of Deprea in order to establish its circumscription, resolve its position within Physalideae, and reconstruct its biogeographical history...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106675/the-efficacy-of-consensus-tree-methods-for-summarising-phylogenetic-relationships-from-a-posterior-sample-of-trees-estimated-from-morphological-data
#17
Joseph E O'Reilly, Philip C J Donoghue
Consensus trees are required to summarise trees obtained through MCMC sampling of a posterior distribution, providing an overview of the distribution of estimated parameters such as topology, branch lengths and divergence times. Numerous consensus tree construction methods are available, each presenting a different interpretation of the tree sample. The rise of morphological clock and sampled-ancestor methods of divergence time estimation, in which times and topology are co-estimated, has increased the popularity of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) consensus tree method...
November 2, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106638/linking-individual-natural-history-to-population-outcomes-in-tuberculosis
#18
Phillip P Salvatore, Alvaro Proaño, Emily A Kendall, Robert H Gilman, David W Dowdy
Background: Substantial individual heterogeneity exists in the clinical manifestations and duration of active tuberculosis. We sought to link the individual-level characteristics of TB disease to observed population-level outcomes. Methods: We developed an individual-based, stochastic model of TB disease in a hypothetical cohort of patients with smear-positive TB. We conceptualized the disease process as consisting of two states - progression and recovery - including transitions between the two...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100938/generative-diffeomorphic-modelling-of-large-mri-data-sets-for-probabilistic-template-construction
#19
Claudia Blaiotta, Patrick Freund, M Jorge Cardoso, John Ashburner
In this paper we present a hierarchical generative model of medical image data, which can capture simultaneously the variability of both signal intensity and anatomical shapes across large populations. Such a model has a direct application for learning average-shaped probabilistic tissue templates in a fully automated manner. While in principle the generality of the proposed Bayesian approach makes it suitable to address a wide range of medical image computing problems, our work focuses primarily on neuroimaging applications...
October 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097902/using-a-bayesian-network-to-predict-l5-s1-spinal-compression-force-from-posture-hand-load-anthropometry-and-disc-injury-status
#20
Richard E Hughes
Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
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