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Likelihood ratio

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679928/likelihood-ratio-development-for-mixed-y-str-profiles
#1
Duncan Taylor, James Curran, John Buckleton
In this paper we introduce a new likelihood ratio method for evaluating mixed Y-STR profiles that is based on the premise that, given a haplotype has been seen in the person of interest, the most likely source of a second haplotype, matching at all or most loci, is in an individual with a recent common ancestor. We have called the new method the "Haplotype centred" (HC) method for likelihood ratio derivation. For single source, unambiguous haplotypes the HC method performs identically with the Kappa method proposed by Brenner...
April 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679780/diagnostic-accuracy-of-mdct-in-differentiating-gallbladder-cancer-from-acute-and-xanthogranulomatous-cholecystitis
#2
Ashish P Wasnik, Mathew S Davenport, Ravi K Kaza, William J Weadock, Aaron Udager, Nahid Keshavarzi, Bin Nan, Katherine E Maturen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector CT (MDCT) for differentiating gallbladder cancer from acute and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis using previously described imaging features. METHODS: In this IRB approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective cohort study, contrast-enhanced MDCT of histologically confirmed acute cholecystitis (n = 17), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (n = 25), and gallbladder cancer (n = 18) were reviewed independently by three abdominal radiologists blinded to outcome...
April 14, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679726/late-presenting-dural-tear-incidence-risk-factors-and-associated-complications
#3
Wesley M Durand, J Mason DePasse, Eren O Kuris, JaeWon Yang, Alan H Daniels
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Unrecognized and inadequately repaired intraoperative durotomies may lead to cerebrospinal fluid leak, pseudomeningocele, and other complications. Few studies have investigated durotomy that is unrecognized intraoperatively and requires additional postoperative management (hereafter, late-presenting dural tear [LPDT]), though estimates of LPDT range from 0.6 - 8.3 per 1,000 spinal surgeries. These single-center studies are based on relatively small sample sizes for an event of this rarity, all with <10 patients experiencing LPDT...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677588/in-vitro-bioassays-reveal-that-additives-are-significant-contributors-to-the-toxicity-of-commercial-household-pesticides
#4
Jason P van de Merwe, Peta A Neale, Steven D Melvin, Frederic D L Leusch
Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay...
March 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677197/a-novel-statistical-method-for-assessing-effective-adherence-to-medication-and-calculating-optimal-drug-dosages
#5
Garrett Greene, Richard W Costello, Breda Cushen, Imran Sulaiman, Elaine Mac Hale, Ronan M Conroy, Frank Doyle
OBJECTIVE: We derive a novel model-based metric for effective adherence to medication, and validate it using data from the INhaler Compliance Assessment device (INCATM). This technique employs dose timing data to estimate the threshold drug concentration needed to maintain optimal health. METHODS: The parameters of the model are optimised against patient outcome data using maximum likelihood methods. The model is fitted and validated by secondary analysis of two independent datasets from two remote-monitoring studies of adherence, conducted through clinical research centres of 5 Irish hospitals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677066/agreement-analysis-what-he-said-she-said-versus-you-said
#6
Thomas R Vetter, Patrick Schober
Correlation and agreement are 2 concepts that are widely applied in the medical literature and clinical practice to assess for the presence and strength of an association. However, because correlation and agreement are conceptually distinct, they require the use of different statistics. Agreement is a concept that is closely related to but fundamentally different from and often confused with correlation. The idea of agreement refers to the notion of reproducibility of clinical evaluations or biomedical measurements...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675988/dose-dependent-impact-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-clinical-course-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#7
Tammo L Tergast, Anika Wranke, Hans Laser, Svetlana Gerbel, Michael P Manns, Markus Cornberg, Benjamin Maasoumy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication in patients with liver cirrhosis leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and a high mortality. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and the potential relevance of the taken dosage on the incidence and clinical course of SBP. METHODS: Overall, 613 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were included...
April 19, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675878/interobserver-reliability-of-histopathologic-features-for-distinguishing-between-cutaneous-polyarteritis-nodosa-and-superficial-thrombophlebitis
#8
Parnhathai Hutachuda, Suchanan Hanamornroongruang, Penvadee Pattanaprichakul, Pattriya Chanyachailert, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan
AIMS: Interobserver reliability of histopathologic features in differentiation between cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN) and superficial thrombophlebitis (ST) by assessment of inter-rater agreement of five histologic features were investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: All sections of cPAN and ST were independently evaluated by three experienced pathologists and one resident of pathology. The studied histopathologic features included elastic fiber distribution in vascular wall, pattern of smooth muscle arrangement, internal elastic lamina pattern, fibrinoid necrosis, and luminal thrombosis...
April 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674798/switching-of-antihypertensive-drugs-at-tertiary-care-government-hospital-hyderabad-india-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-investigation
#9
Varsha Varakantham, Ashok Kumar Kurakula Sailoo, Venkaiah Kodali, Dinesh Kumar Bharatraj
OBJECTIVE: Switching of antihypertensive drugs is attributed to uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) which imposes a great burden on health economics. But again, switching leads to accomplishment of the goal BP, thereby improving the health status. Such studies are well documented in developed nations but rarely reported in developing countries, especially in India. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate various factors associated with switching of antihypertensive drugs. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective investigation was performed using a standardized schedule adapting the World Health Organization indicators for drug utilization in a tertiary care government hospital, Hyderabad, India...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674134/higher-dietary-acid-load-is-associated-with-higher-likelihood-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-among-american-adults
#10
Mohsen Mazidi, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between dietary acid load, potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a national representative sample of American adults. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database (for 1999-2002) was used. PAD was diagnosed by ankle brachial index assessment. Analysis of covariance was used to examine adjusted mean of different dietary acid load by PAD status; multivariable logistic regression was used to relate dietary acid load with prevalent PAD...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673426/statins-and-musculoskeletal-conditions-in-u-s-air-force-active-duty-aviators
#11
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Joseph H Wagner, Genny M Maupin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions within the population of U.S. Air Force active duty aviators. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of aviators between 2004-2014 as identified from personnel data. Based on pharmacy data, participants were divided into two groups: statin users (received a statin for at least 90 d) and nonusers (never received a statin throughout the study period)...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673321/relationship-of-sarcopenia-with-steatohepatitis-and-advanced-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Rui Yu, Qiangwei Shi, Lei Liu, Lidong Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have emerged indicating that sarcopenia is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, we aimed to systematically review and quantify the association between sacropenia and the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched (until August 2017) for studies examining the relationship of sarcopenia with steatohepatitis and advanced liver fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
April 19, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673255/reducing-muslim-mammography-disparities-outcomes-from-a-religiously-tailored-mosque-based-intervention
#13
Aasim I Padela, Sana Malik, Syeda Akila Ally, Michael Quinn, Stephen Hall, Monica Peek
OBJECTIVE: To describe the design of, and participant-level outcomes related to, a religiously tailored, peer-led group education program aimed at enhancing Muslim women's mammography intention. METHOD: Using a community-engaged approach and mixed methods, we identified and addressed barrier beliefs impeding mammography screening among Muslim American women. Our religiously tailored, mosque-based, peer-led intervention involved facilitated discussions and expert-led didactics conveying health-related religious teachings, and information about the benefits and process of mammography...
April 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671696/emergency-department-visits-in-a-cohort-of-persons-with-substance-use-incorporating-the-role-of-social-networks
#14
Paul Sacamano, Noa Krawczyk, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Frequent emergency department (ED) visits often suggest inappropriate use for low acuity needs and multiple comorbidities, including substance use disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations of individuals and their social networks with high frequency ED use among persons reporting substance use. METHODS: Information was obtained from interview responses from the first 6-month follow-up visit of a longitudinal. Prevalence ratios for the outcome of high frequency ED visits (≥2 in 6 months) were determined with a generalized linear model, log link, Poisson distribution and robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671149/biological-scoring-system-for-early-prediction-of-acute-bowel-ischemia-after-cardiac-surgery-the-palm-score
#15
Elie Zogheib, Cyril Cosse, Charles Sabbagh, Simon Marx, Thierry Caus, Marc Henry, Joseph Nader, Mathurin Fumery, Michael Bernasinski, Patricia Besserve, Faouzi Trojette, Cedric Renard, Pierre Duhaut, Said Kamel, Jean-Marc Regimbeau, Hervé Dupont
BACKGROUND: Bowel ischemia is a life-threatening emergency defined as an inadequate vascular perfusion leading to bowel inflammation resulting from impaired colonic/small bowel blood supply. Main issue for physicians regarding bowel ischemia diagnosis lies in the absence of informative and specific clinical or biological signs leading to delayed management, resulting in a poorer prognosis, especially after cardiac surgery. The aim of the present series was to propose a simple scoring system based on biological data for the diagnosis of bowel ischemia...
April 18, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669737/association-between-person-centredness-and-financially-driven-postponement-of-care-in-european-primary-care-a-cross-sectional-multicountry-study
#16
Jens Detollenaere, Pauline Boeckxstaens, Sara Willems
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that person-centred care has beneficial effects on several health-related outcomes. We investigated the association between a general practitioner's person-centred attitude and financially driven postponement of care in European countries. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected within the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study, which included 69 201 patients and 7183 general practitioners from 31 European countries (all 27 European Union member states, 2 candidate states [former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey], Norway and Switzerland)...
April 18, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669540/predictive-values-of-upper-gastrointestinal-cancer-alarm-symptoms-in-the-general-population-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#17
Sanne Rasmussen, Peter Fentz Haastrup, Kirubakaran Balasubramaniam, René DePont Christensen, Jens Søndergaard, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl
BACKGROUND: Survival rates for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer are poor since many are diagnosed at advanced stages. Fast track endoscopy has been introduced to prompt diagnosis for patients with alarm symptoms that could be indicative of upper GI cancer. However, these symptoms may represent benign conditions and little is known about the predictive values of alarm symptoms of upper GI cancer in the general population. METHODS: The study is a nationwide cohort study of 60,562 individuals aged 45 years or above randomly selected from the Danish general population...
April 18, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669046/nephrology-comanagement-and-the-quality-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-primary-care-for-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#18
Justin X G Zhu, Danielle M Nash, Eric McArthur, Alexandra Farag, Amit X Garg, Arsh K Jain
Background: In primary care, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently prescribed excessive doses of antibiotics relative to their kidney function. We examined whether nephrology comanagement is associated with improved prescribing in primary care. Methods: In a retrospective propensity score-matched cross-sectional study, we studied the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions by primary care physicians to Ontarians ≥66 years of age with CKD Stages 4 and 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1...
April 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668916/extraintestinal-manifestations-in-vedolizumab-and-anti-tnf-treated-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Marla C Dubinsky, Raymond K Cross, William J Sandborn, Millie Long, Xue Song, Nianwen Shi, Yao Ding, Samantha Eichner, Brandee Pappalardo, Arijit Ganguli, Anthony Wang
Background: Extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) can impact morbidity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]). This study compared incidence rates of EIMs in patients with moderate to severe IBD receiving gut-selective vedolizumab (VDZ) vs those receiving systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies. Methods: Adult IBD patients receiving VDZ or anti-TNFs were identified from the MarketScan claims database from September 28, 2012, through September 30, 2016...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668564/a-systematic-review-of-the-utility-of-the-hoffmann-sign-for-the-diagnosis-of-degenerative-cervical-myelopathy
#20
Alexandra Fogarty, Eric Lenza, Gaurav Gupta, Peter Jarzem, Kaberi Dasgupta, Mohan Radhakrishna
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review OBJECTIVE.: To determine the validity of the Hoffmann sign for the detection of degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) for patients presenting with cervical complaints. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While physical exam maneuvers are often used to diagnose DCM, no previous review has synthesized diagnostic accuracy data. METHODS: Medline, Embase and HealthStar were searched for articles from 1 January 1947 to 1 March 2017 using the following terms: Spinal Cord Diseases, Spinal Cord Compression, Cervical Vertebrae, Signs and Symptoms, Physical Examination, Epidemiologic studies, Epidemiologic Research Design, Predictive Value of Tests and Myelopathy...
April 17, 2018: Spine
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