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Likelihood ratio

Neeraj Narula, Abdul-Aziz Alshahrani, Yuhong Yuan, Walter Reinisch, Jean-Frederic Colombel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the association of the patient-reported outcomes for rectal bleeding and stool frequency among patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) in endoscopic remission. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of studies reporting the association of patient-reported outcomes (the patient-reported components of the Mayo score: rectal bleeding and stool frequency) and endoscopic remission (Mayo endoscopic subscore of 0 or 1). We performed a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy using the hierarchical bivariate method...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Prashant Singh, Ananya Arora, Tor A Strand, Daniel A Leffler, Markku Mäki, Ciaran P Kelly, Vineet Ahuja, Govind K Makharia
GOALS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of point of care tests (POCTs) for diagnosing celiac disease (CD). BACKGROUND: Recently, POCTs for CD have been developed and are commercially available. Studies have reported significant variability in their sensitivity (70% to 100%) and specificity (85% to 100%). STUDY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane library through June 2017...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Anya Umlauf, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Ben Gouaux, Ronald J Ellis, Andrew J Levine, David J Moore, Scott L Letendre
OBJECTIVE: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently recommended for all persons living with HIV (PLWH), regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count, and should be continued throughout life. Nonetheless, vigilance of the safety of ART, including its neurotoxicity, must continue. We hypothesized that use of certain ART drugs might be associated with aging-related cerebral degenerative changes among PLWH. DESIGN: Clinicopathological study of PLWH who were using ART drugs at the last clinical assessment...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
Brian P Tanis, Bradley Bott, Brian J Gaston
Anti-predator behaviors like vigilance or hiding come at the expense of other fitness increasing behaviors such as foraging. To compensate for this trade-off, prey assess predation risk and modify the frequency of anti-predator behaviors according to the likelihood of the threat. In this study, we tested the ability of house crickets ( Acheta domesticus ) to indirectly assess predation risk via odors from a mammalian predator, Elliot's short-tailed shrew ( Blarina hylophaga ). As natural differences in encounter rates and predation risk differs between sexes, we tested if male and female crickets perceive similar rates of predation risk from the presence of shrew odor measured via anti-predator behavioral response...
2018: PeerJ
Silvana Teixeira Dal Ponte, Ana Paula Alegretti, Diogo André Pilger, Gabriela Petitot Rezende, Giordanna Andrioli, Helena Cocolichio Ludwig, Luciano Diogo, Luciano Zubaran Goldani, Melina Loreto, Pauline Simas Machado, Renato Seligman
Introduction: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to suspected or confirmed infection. Clinical evaluations are essential for its early detection and treatment. Blood cultures may take as long as 2 days to yield a result and are not always reliable. However, recent studies have suggested that neutrophil CD64 expression may be a sensitive and specific alternative for the diagnosis of systemic infection. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the difference in CD64 values between subjects with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), suspected or confirmed sepsis, who meet diagnostic criteria for SIRS upon arriving at an emergency department...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Mizuki Saito, Yoshihiro Shimazaki, Toshiya Nonoyama, Yasushi Tadokoro
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported that oral health status is associated with various systemic health issues. This study examined the correlations among oral health, lifestyle factors, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in aged participants. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional oral and medical health checkup data from 2,379 participants aged 75 and 80 years. MetS was diagnosed according to the Harmonization criteria, with the exception of the criterion for central obesity, and body mass index was used instead of waist circumference...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
Charles A Herzog, Tanya Natwick, Shuling Li, David M Charytan
OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to analyze temporal trends in cardiac stress testing in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries from 2008 to 2012, types of stress testing, and comparative utilization related to the presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). BACKGROUND: A long-held perception depicts patients with CKD as being treated less intensively for cardiovascular disease than nonrenal patients. We wondered whether use of diagnostic testing for ischemic heart disease is affected by the presence of CKD...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Martin J Brodie, Toufic Fakhoury, Belinda McDonough, Anny-Odile Colson, Armel Stockis, Sami Elmoufti, John Whitesides
To assess the association, if any, between brivaracetam (BRV)-induced elevated carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) and toxicity and efficacy in patients with epilepsy. Data were pooled from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies of adjunctive BRV in adults with uncontrolled focal seizures (N01252/NCT00490035, N01253/NCT00464269, N01358/NCT01261325). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of interest (ataxia, diplopia, dizziness, nystagmus, somnolence, accidental overdose or poisoning, and toxicity), discontinuations due to TEAEs, and serious TEAEs (SAEs) were assessed in subgroups who did/did not receive carbamazepine (CBZ) at study entry (CBZ+ and CBZ-)...
June 4, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Lu Shen, Guoxing Zhou, Fei Tang, Yi Lin, Jie Zhou, Pinshuo Lv, Yibin Wang, Genlin Zong, Jiangmin Zhao
PURPOSE: To perform a meta-analysis for assessing the accuracy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-derived quantitative parameters (kurtosis values, K; and corrected diffusion coefficients non-Gaussian bias, D) in separating malignant cancers from benign lesions. METHODS: Relevant studies were searched in PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and were analyzed by Meta-DiSc software. RESULTS: Fourteen eligible studies involving 1847 lesions in 1107 patients (895 were benign and 952 were malignant) were included...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Benjamin Gille, Maxim De Schaepdryver, Janne Goossens, Lieselot Dedeene, Joke De Vocht, Emanuela Oldoni, An Goris, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Bart Depreitere, Kristl G Claeys, Jos Tournoy, Philip Van Damme, Koen Poesen
AIMS: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron degeneration disease with a diagnostic delay of about one year after symptoms onset. In ALS, blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels are elevated, but it is not entirely clear what drives this increase and what the diagnostic performance of serum NfL is in terms of predictive values and likelihood ratios. The aims of this study were to further explore the prognostic and diagnostic performances of serum NfL to discriminate between patients with ALS and ALS mimics, and to investigate the relationship between serum NfL with motor neuron degeneration...
June 16, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Michela Dispinzieri, Eliana La Rocca, Elisabetta Meneghini, Alba Fiorentino, Laura Lozza, Serena Di Cosimo, Massimiliano Gennaro, Vito Cosentino, Milena Sant, Emanuele Pignoli, Riccardo Valdagni, Francesca Bonfantini, Maria Carmen De Santis
The purpose of the study was to examine adherence to hormone therapy (HT) in elderly breast cancer patients (≥ 65 years old) treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed data on 550 ER-positive breast cancer patients given hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy from June 2009 to September 2016. Baseline comorbidities considered in the hypertension-augmented Charlson Comorbidity Index (hCCI) were retrospectively retrieved. Total hCCI scores were classified as no comorbidity (hCCI = 0), low burden of comorbidity (hCCI = 1), and high burden of comorbidity (hCCI ≥ 2)...
June 16, 2018: Medical Oncology
Pamela Samson, Sana Rehman, Aditya Juloori, Todd DeWees, Michael Roach, Jeffrey Bradley, Gregory M M Videtic, Kevin Stephans, Clifford Robinson
PURPOSE: Clinical concern remains regarding the relationship between consecutive (QD) versus nonconsecutive (QoD) lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment schedules and outcomes for clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined a multi-institutional series of patients receiving 5-fraction lung SBRT to compare the local failure rates and overall survival between patients receiving QD versus QoD treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Lung SBRT databases from 2 high-volume institutions were combined, and patients receiving 5-fraction SBRT for a solitary stage I NSCLC were identified...
April 10, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Michael J Bray, Eric S Torstenson, Sarah H Jones, Todd L Edwards, Digna R Velez Edwards
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual characteristics of women with fibroids in relation to fibroid size and number. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 2302 women (black and white, age range 18-87) with image- or surgery-confirmed fibroids from the Synthetic Derivative, a database of de-identified demographic and clinical information from patient electronic health records (EHRs) from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We performed multivariate regression analyses on the following outcomes: volume of largest fibroid, largest dimension of all fibroids, and number of fibroids (single vs multiple)...
August 2018: Maturitas
Parth K Modi, Samuel R Kaufman, Tudor Borza, Phyllis Yan, David C Miller, Ted A Skolarus, John M Hollingsworth, Edward C Norton, Vahakn B Shahinian, Brent K Hollenbeck
BACKGROUND: Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have been shown to reduce prostate cancer treatment among men unlikely to benefit because of competing risks (ie, potential overtreatment). This study assessed whether the level of engagement in ACOs by urologists affected rates of treatment, overtreatment, and spending. METHODS: A 20% sample of national Medicare data was used to identify men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2012 and 2014. The extent of urologist engagement in an ACO, as measured by the proportion of patients in an ACO managed by an ACO-participating urologist, served as the exposure...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
Kimberlee J Trudeau, Joanna Burtner, Albert J Villapiano, Megan Jones, Stephen F Butler, Kruti Joshi
This study evaluated the biopsychosocial characteristics of adults undergoing substance abuse evaluation with potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, or possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms, compared with those with no schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms. A cross-sectional, observational study examined 170,201 adults, aged 18 to 30, who completed the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV). Approximately 10% were classified as having possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms or potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Jace D Pierce, Kelly R Ylitalo, Beth A Lanning, Christine C Limbers
BACKGROUND: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionally affected by HIV and exhibit low levels of HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sex education and subsequent HIV testing among YMSM. METHODS: Data from sexually active men aged 15-24 years at interview in the 2006-2010 or 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Sex education included three contexts (formal institutions [e.g., schools], parents, and healthcare providers) and specific topics...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Y Hodovanets, A Babintseva, L Agafonova, O Makarova, A Frunza
Newborns are especially prone to oxidative stress (OS). Many free radical-mediated diseases have been described in newborns including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, encephalopathy, and kidney injury. Objective of this work was to determine predictive and diagnostic value of urinary malondialdehyde (UMDA) as a marker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically sick full-term newborns. 67 critically sick full-term neonates were enrolled in the study including 31 newborns with AKI (group I) and 36 newborns without AKI (group II)...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Hosihn Ryu, Jihyeon Moon, Jiyeon Jung
This study examined the influence of health behaviors and occupational stress on the prediabetic state of male office workers, and identified related risks and influencing factors. The study used a cross-sectional design and performed an integrative analysis on data from regular health checkups, health questionnaires, and a health behavior-related survey of employees of a company, using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed significant relationships of prediabetic state with health behaviors and occupational stress...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton, Nis Palm Suppli, Marianne Ewertz, Niels Kroman, Luigi Grassi, Christoffer Johansen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in early-stage breast cancer patients with and without schizophrenia or related disorders. METHODS: We used Danish national registers to identify all women with no prior history of cancer or organic mental disorders, who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer 1995-2011. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for not being allocated to guideline treatment...
June 11, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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