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Likelihood ratio

Susan M O'Brien, Samantha Jaglowski, John C Byrd, Rajat Bannerji, Kristie A Blum, Christopher P Fox, Richard R Furman, Peter Hillmen, Thomas J Kipps, Marco Montillo, Jeff Sharman, Sam Suzuki, Danelle F James, Alvina D Chu, Steven E Coutre
Importance: Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor taken once daily, is approved in the United States for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and allows for treatment without chemotherapy. Extended treatment with ibrutinib has demonstrated increased complete response (CR) rates over time. Objective: To analyze baseline factors that predict CR in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma treated with ibrutinib...
February 22, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Walter Fierz
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is widely used to describe the discriminatory power of a diagnostic test to differentiate between populations having or not having a specific disease, using a dichotomous threshold. In this way, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) can be calculated to be used in Bayes' way of estimating disease probabilities. Similarly, LRs can be calculated for certain ranges of test results. However, since many diagnostic tests are of quantitative nature, it would be desirable to estimate LRs for each quantitative result...
2018: PloS One
James M Whedon, Andrew W J Toler, Justin M Goehl, Louis A Kazal
OBJECTIVE: Pain relief resulting from services delivered by doctors of chiropractic may allow patients to use lower or less frequent doses of opioids, leading to reduced risk of adverse effects. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the association between utilization of chiropractic services and the use of prescription opioid medications. DESIGN: The authors used a retrospective cohort design to analyze health insurance claims data. SETTING: The data source was the all payer claims database administered by the State of New Hampshire...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Reshma Munbodh, Jonathan P S Knisely, David A Jaffray, Douglas J Moseley
PURPOSE: We present and evaluate a fully automated 2D-3D intensity-based registration framework using a single limited field-of-view (FOV) 2D kV radiograph and a 3D kV CBCT for 3D estimation of patient setup errors during brain radiotherapy. METHODS: We evaluated two similarity measures, the Pearson correlation coefficient on image intensity values (ICC) and maximum likelihood measure with Gaussian noise (MLG), derived from the statistics of transmission images...
February 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Stephanie Chapman, Kurt Ashack, Eric Bell, Myra Ann Sendelweck, Robert Dellavalle
BACKGROUND: Understanding of associations between indoor tanning and risky health related behaviors such as sexual activity and substance abuse among high school students across the United States is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: To identify risky health related behaviors among high school students utilizing indoor tanning and analyze differences between state specific data. METHODS: Results from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 2013 in 14 different states were analyzed...
September 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Roland Faigle, Lisa A Cooper, Rebecca F Gottesman
We sought to determine individual and system contributions to race disparities in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement after stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Hospitals were categorized based on the percentage of ethnic/racial minority stroke patients (< 25% ethnic/racial minorities ["majority-white hospitals"], 25-50% ethnic/racial minorities ["racially integrated hospitals"], or > 50% ethnic/racial minorities ["minority-serving hospitals"])...
February 21, 2018: Dysphagia
Wei Chu, Weiwei Jin, Daihong Liu, Jian Wang, Chengjun Geng, Lihua Chen, Xuequan Huang
Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly used to identify pathological complete responses (pCRs) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the utility of DWI using a pooled analysis. Materials and Methods: Literature databases were searched prior to July 2017. Fifteen studies with a total of 1181 patients were included. The data were extracted to perform pooled analysis, heterogeneity testing, threshold effect testing, sensitivity analysis, publication bias analysis and subgroup analyses...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Patrick N Pereira, Luis O Sarian, Adriana Yoshida, Karla G Araújo, Ricardo H O Barros, Ana C Baião, Daniella B Parente, Sophie Derchain
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the ADNEX MR scoring system for the prediction of adnexal mass malignancy, using a simplified magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. METHODS: In this prospective study, 200 patients with 237 adnexal masses underwent MRI between February 2014 and February 2016 and were followed until February 2017. Two radiologists calculated ADNEX MR scores using an MRI protocol with a simplified dynamic study, not a high temporal resolution study, as originally proposed...
February 21, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
Stephanie M Ozalas, Victoria Huang, Luigi Brunetti, Timothy Reilly
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the 2003 and 2012 Beers criteria (BC) to predict negative clinical outcomes associated with potentially inappropriate medications in hospitalized older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Acute Care of Elders (ACE) unit in a community-based teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to an ACE unit who were older than 65 years of age and prescribed at least one medication upon hospital admission...
December 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Michael Lebenbaum, Maria Chiu, Simone Vigod, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Involuntary admissions to psychiatric hospitals are common; however, research examining the trends in prevalence over time and predictors is limited. Aims To examine trends in prevalence and risk factors for involuntary admissions in Ontario, Canada. METHOD: We conducted an analysis of all mental health bed admissions from 2009 to 2013 and assessed the association between patient sociodemographics, service utilisation, pathway to care and severity characteristics for involuntary admissions using a modified Poisson regression...
March 2018: BJPsych Open
Hye Jeong Kim, Mi Kyung Kwak, In Ho Choi, So-Young Jin, Hyeong Kyu Park, Dong Won Byun, Kyoil Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules. Methods: One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin), maximum (EMax), and standard deviation (ESD) of SWE elasticity indices were measured...
February 23, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Siamak Sabour
Purpose: The purpose of this letter, in response to Hall, Mehta, and Fackrell (2017), is to provide important knowledge about methodology and statistical issues in assessing the reliability and validity of an audiologist-administered tinnitus loudness matching test and a patient-reported tinnitus loudness rating. Method: The author uses reference textbooks and published articles regarding scientific assessment of the validity and reliability of a clinical test to discuss the statistical test and the methodological approach in assessing validity and reliability in clinical research...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Brian W Pence, Jon C Mills, Angela M Bengtson, Bradley N Gaynes, Tiffany L Breger, Robert L Cook, Richard D Moore, David J Grelotti, Conall O'Cleirigh, Michael J Mugavero
Importance: Depression commonly affects adults with HIV and complicates the management of HIV. Depression among individuals with HIV tends to be chronic and cyclical, but the association of this chronicity with HIV outcomes (and the related potential for screening and intervention to shorten depressive episodes) has received little attention. Objective: To examine the association between increased chronicity of depression and multiple HIV care continuum indicators (HIV appointment attendance, treatment failure, and mortality)...
February 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Jianhong Wang, Huaiyu Wu, Fajin Dong, Binbin Li, Zhanghong Wei, Quanzhou Peng, Duo Dong, Min Li, Jinfeng Xu
To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL injury) by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed databases and included studies prior to April 2017. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, studies evaluating ultrasound to diagnose ACL injury were selected. MRI, arthroscopy and clinical-follow were considered the reference standards. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was assessed using a combination of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (LR), post-test probability, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and by summarizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Evangelista Sagnelli, Tommaso Stroffolini, Caterina Sagnelli, Bruno Cacopardo, Angelo Andriulli, Sergio Babudieri, Nicola Coppola, Giovanni B Gaeta, Piero L Almasio
BACKGROUND: In 2017, oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became available free of charge for all HCV-RNA-positive patients, irrespective of their fibrosis stage. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD) in Italy just before the introduction of DAA therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with CLD were enrolled in two national surveys conducted in 2001 and in 2014...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Isabel J Boero, Anthony J Paravati, Jiayi Hou, Erin F Gillespie, Anna Schoenbrunner, Jonathan Unkart, Anne M Wallace, John P Einck, Loren K Mell, James D Murphy
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the impact of individual surgeons and institutions on the use of mastectomy or breast conserving surgery (BCS) among elderly women with breast cancer. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Current literature characterizes patient clinical and demographic factors that increase likelihood of mastectomy use. However, the impact of the individual provider or institution is not well understood, and could provide key insights to biases in the decision-making process...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Marie Lecouffe-Desprets, Caroline Hémont, Antoine Néel, Claire Toquet, Agathe Masseau, Mohamed Hamidou, Regis Josien, Jérôme C Martin
In this study, we aimed at evaluating the contribution of an extended myositis-related antibodies (Abs) determination by immunoblot to the diagnosis, classification, and prognosis of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM). Medical records of all the patients (n = 237) with myositis-related Ab requests addressed to our department over a one-year period were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified as IIM, auto-immune disease (AID) other than IIM, and other diagnosis, and examined for their Ab profiles as determined by immunoblot...
February 20, 2018: Autoimmunity
Patrick M Flanigan, Arman Jahangiri, Drew Weinstein, Fara Dayani, Ankush Chandra, Ishan Kanungo, Sarah Choi, Sujatha Sankaran, Annette M Molinaro, Michael W McDermott, Mitchel S Berger, Manish K Aghi
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a postoperative neurological morbidity in glioblastoma whose risk factors, incidence, and prognostic implications remain undefined. OBJECTIVE: To develop an algorithm using preoperative factors to predict postoperative delirium. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 554 consecutive patients (mean age = 61.5 yr; 42% female) undergoing first glioblastoma procedure at our institution 2005 to 2011. RESULTS: Postoperative delirium occurred in 7% of patients (n = 38)...
February 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
Scott A Nabity, José E Hagan, Guilherme Araújo, Alcinéia O Damião, Jaqueline S Cruz, Nivison Nery, Elsio A Wunder, Mitermayer G Reis, Albert I Ko, Guilherme S Ribeiro
Early detection of leptospirosis with field-ready diagnostics may improve clinical management and mitigate outbreaks. We previously validated the point-of-care Dual Path Platform (DPP) for leptospirosis with sera in the laboratory. This prospective study compares the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the DPP using finger stick blood (FSB) against the serum DPP, venous whole blood (VWB) DPP, IgM-ELISA, and clinical impression. We sequentially enrolled 98 patients hospitalized for acute febrile illnesses, of which we confirmed 32 by leptospirosis reference tests...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Richard H Stanford, Arpita Nag, Douglas W Mapel, Todd A Lee, Richard Rosiello, Michael Schatz, Francis Vekeman, Marjolaine Gauthier-Loiselle, J F Philip Merrigan, Mei Sheng Duh
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a predictive model for first severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation using health insurance claims data and to validate the risk measure of controller medication to total COPD treatment (controller and rescue) ratio (CTR). STUDY DESIGN: A predictive model was developed and validated in 2 managed care databases: Truven Health MarketScan database and Reliant Medical Group database. This secondary analysis assessed risk factors, including CTR, during the baseline period (Year 1) to predict risk of severe exacerbation in the at-risk period (Year 2)...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
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