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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932666/interval-estimation-for-a-proportion-using-a-double-sampling-scheme-with-two-fallible-classifiers
#1
Shi-Fang Qiu, Heng Lian, G Y Zou, Xiao-Song Zeng
Double-sampling schemes using one classifier assessing the whole sample and another classifier assessing a subset of the sample have been introduced for reducing classification errors when an infallible or gold standard classifier is unavailable or impractical. Inference procedures have previously been proposed for situations where an infallible classifier is available for validating a subset of the sample that has already been classified by a fallible classifier. Here, we consider the case where both classifiers are fallible, proposing and evaluating several confidence interval procedures for a proportion under two models, distinguished by the assumption regarding ascertainment of two classifiers...
December 8, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931342/evaluation-of-serum-inflammatory-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-treatment-outcome-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#2
A Singanayagam, K Manalan, D W Connell, J D Chalmers, S Sridhar, A I Ritchie, A Lalvani, M Wickremasinghe, O M Kon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), globulin and white blood cell (WBC) count as predictors of treatment outcome in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). METHODS: An observational study of patients with active PTB was conducted at a tertiary centre. All patients had serum CRP, globulin and WBC measured at baseline and at 2 months following commencement of treatment. The outcome of interest was requirement for extension of treatment beyond 6 months. RESULTS: There were 226 patients included in the study...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931301/corticosteroid-related-toxicity-in-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-urticariachronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#3
Dennis Ledford, Michael S Broder, Evgeniya Antonova, Theodore A Omachi, Eunice Chang, Allan Luskin
BACKGROUND: Treatments for patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who were unresponsive to antihistamines include oral corticosteroids (OCS). Risks of OCS-related side effects in these patients have not been described quantitatively. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between OCS use and the risk of developing side effects possibly attributable to OCS and associated health care costs in privately insured patients with CIU/CSU...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931236/trends-in-self-rated-health-and-association-with-socioeconomic-position-in-estonia-data-from-cross-sectional-studies-in-1996-2014
#4
Mariliis Põld, Kersti Pärna, Inge Ringmets
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health (SRH) and socioeconomic position (SEP) as important determinants of health differences are associated with health and economic changes in society. The objectives of this paper were (1) to describe trends in SRH and (2) to analyze associations between SRH and SEP among adults in Estonia in 1996-2014. METHODS: The study was based on a 25-64-year-old subsample (n = 18757) of postal cross-sectional surveys conducted every second year in Estonia during 1990-2014...
December 8, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930763/association-among-facial-paralysis-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-facial-plastic-surgery-patients
#5
Jason C Nellis, Masaru Ishii, Patrick J Byrne, Kofi D O Boahene, Jacob K Dey, Lisa E Ishii
Importance: Though anecdotally linked, few studies have investigated the impact of facial paralysis on depression and quality of life (QOL). Objective: To measure the association between depression, QOL, and facial paralysis in patients seeking treatment at a facial plastic surgery clinic. Design, Setting, Participants: Data were prospectively collected for patients with all-cause facial paralysis and control patients initially presenting to a facial plastic surgery clinic from 2013 to 2015...
December 8, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930752/prevalence-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-and-surgeon-diagnostic-accuracy-in-facial-plastic-and-oculoplastic-surgery-clinics
#6
Andrew W Joseph, Lisa Ishii, Shannon S Joseph, Jane I Smith, Peiyi Su, Kristin Bater, Patrick Byrne, Kofi Boahene, Ira Papel, Theda Kontis, Raymond Douglas, Christine C Nelson, Masaru Ishii
Importance: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relative contraindication for facial plastic surgery, but formal screening is not common in practice. The prevalence of BDD in patients seeking facial plastic surgery is not well documented. Objective: To establish the prevalence of BDD across facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practice settings, and estimate the ability of surgeons to screen for BDD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter prospective study recruited a cohort of 597 patients who presented to academic and private facial plastic and oculoplastic surgery practices from March 2015 to February 2016...
December 8, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930537/hypervascularity-is-more-frequent-in-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-compared-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#7
Xingjian Lai, Meijuan Liu, Yu Xia, Liang Wang, Yalan Bi, Xiaoyi Li, Bo Zhang, Meng Yang, Qing Dai, Yuxin Jiang
This study was designed to retrospectively compare the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and the features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).A total of 97 patients with 127 MTCs between January 2000 and January 2016 and 107 consecutive patients with 132 PTCs were included in this study. Two radiologists retrospectively determined the sonographic features and compared the findings of MTCs and PTCs.Compared with the patients with PTCs, the patients with MTCs were older (46.9 years vs 42...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930442/multifactor-influences-of-shared-decision-making-in-acoustic-neuroma-treatment
#8
Jason C Nellis, Jeff D Sharon, Seth E Pross, Lisa E Ishii, Masaru Ishii, Jacob K Dey, Howard W Francis
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with treatment modality selection in acoustic neuromas. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary care neurotology clinic. PATIENTS: Data were prospectively collected from patients initially presenting to a tertiary care neurotology clinic between 2013 and 2016. Patients who did not have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), demographic, psychometric, or audiometric data were excluded from analysis...
December 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929433/cramer-rao-lower-bound-evaluation-for-linear-frequency-modulation-based-active-radar-networks-operating-in-a-rice-fading-environment
#9
Chenguang Shi, Sana Salous, Fei Wang, Jianjiang Zhou
This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler) estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM)-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS) component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS) components...
December 6, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928975/assessing-causality-in-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-schizophrenia-risk-a-two-sample-mendelian-randomization-study
#10
S H Gage, H J Jones, S Burgess, J Bowden, G Davey Smith, S Zammit, M R Munafò
BACKGROUND: Observational associations between cannabis and schizophrenia are well documented, but ascertaining causation is more challenging. We used Mendelian randomization (MR), utilizing publicly available data as a method for ascertaining causation from observational data. METHOD: We performed bi-directional two-sample MR using summary-level genome-wide data from the International Cannabis Consortium (ICC) and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cannabis initiation (p < 10-5) and schizophrenia (p < 5 × 10-8) were combined using an inverse-variance-weighted fixed-effects approach...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928972/a-meta-analysis-of-acute-use-of-alcohol-and-the-risk-of-suicide-attempt
#11
G Borges, C L Bagge, C J Cherpitel, K R Conner, R Orozco, I Rossow
BACKGROUND: No review has used a meta-analytic approach to estimate common odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of acute use of alcohol (AUA) on suicide attempts. We aim to report the results of the first meta-analysis of controlled epidemiological studies on AUA and suicide attempt. METHOD: The English-language literature on Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar was searched for original articles and critical review on AUA and suicide attempt (period 1996-2015). Studies had to report an OR estimate for this association...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928770/an-examination-of-the-sociodemographic-and-health-determinants-of-major-depressive-disorder-among-black-women
#12
Ndidiamaka N Amutah-Onukagha, Lauren A Doamekpor, Michelle Gardner
OBJECTIVES: Black women disproportionately share the distribution of risk factors for physical and mental illnesses. The goal of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms among black women. METHODS: Pooled data from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to assess the sociodemographic and health correlates of MDD symptoms among black women (n = 227)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927842/parental-contributions-to-early-embryo-development-influences-of-urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternatives-among-couples-undergoing-ivf-treatment
#13
Haotian Wu, Lisa Ashcraft, Brian W Whitcomb, Tayyab Rahil, Ellen Tougias, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception urinary concentrations of phthalates and phthalate alternatives associated with diminished early stage embryo quality in couples undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male, but not female, urinary concentrations of select metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives are associated with diminished blastocyst quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds associated with adverse reproductive health, they are in widespread use across the world...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927755/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-myocarditis-listed-for-heart-transplantation
#14
Chantal A ElAmm, Sadeer G Al-Kindi, Guilherme H Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Myocarditis can cause dilated cardiomyopathy resulting in end-stage heart failure requiring advanced therapies. There is little contemporary information on the clinical progression, need for mechanical circulatory support, and outcomes of orthotopic heart transplantation of these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We queried the UNOS database (United Network for Organ Sharing) for all adults listed for orthotopic heart transplantation (2000-2015) with a listed diagnosis of myocarditis...
December 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926975/large-for-gestational-age-infants-and-adverse-outcomes-among-uncomplicated-pregnancies-at-term
#15
Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Van Thi Thanh Truong, Claudia Pedroza, Suneet P Chauhan
Background While traumatic delivery with large for gestational age (LGA; birth weight above 90%) is acknowledged, there is paucity of data regarding other morbidity and mortality associated with LGA. Our hypothesis was that compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA), LGA have a significantly higher rate of composite neonatal morbidity (CNM). Objective Our objective was to compare the CNM among uncomplicated LGA versus AGA at term (37 weeks or more) among all available Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) databases...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925109/analysis-of-factors-associated-with-traffic-accidents-of-cyclists-attended-in-brazilian-state-capitals
#16
Carlos Augusto Moreira de Sousa, Camila Alves Bahia, Patrícia Constantino
Introduction: Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. Methodology: VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923367/integrating-mean-and-variance-heterogeneities-to-identify-differentially-expressed-genes
#17
Weiwei Ouyang, Qiang An, Jinying Zhao, Huaizhen Qin
BACKGROUND: In functional genomics studies, tests on mean heterogeneity have been widely employed to identify differentially expressed genes with distinct mean expression levels under different experimental conditions. Variance heterogeneity (aka, the difference between condition-specific variances) of gene expression levels is simply neglected or calibrated for as an impediment. The mean heterogeneity in the expression level of a gene reflects one aspect of its distribution alteration; and variance heterogeneity induced by condition change may reflect another aspect...
December 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923356/metric-properties-of-the-prescribe-healthy-life-screening-questionnaire-to-detect-healthy-behaviors-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#18
Paola Bully, Alvaro Sanchez, Gonzalo Grandes, Haizea Pombo, Ma Soledad Arietalenizbeaskoa, Veronica Arce, Catalina Martinez
BACKGROUND: Feasible and valid assessment of healthy behaviors is the first step for integrating health promotion in routine primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of the "prescribe healthy life" screening questionnaire, a brief tool for detecting physical activity levels, consumption of fruit and vegetables, tobacco use and patients' compliance with minimal recommendations. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study to determine the reliability and validity of this questionnaire by means of mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922877/diagnostic-accuracy-of-central-venous-catheter-confirmation-by-bedside-ultrasound-versus-chest-radiography-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Enyo A Ablordeppey, Anne M Drewry, Alexander B Beyer, Daniel L Theodoro, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller, Christopher R Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Articles and abstracts describing the diagnostic accuracy of bedside ultrasound compared with chest radiography for confirmation of central venous catheters in sufficient detail to reconstruct 2 × 2 contingency tables were reviewed...
December 5, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922762/nonchemotherapy-drug-induced-agranulocytosis-in-children-detected-by-a-prospective-pharmacovigilance-program
#20
Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías, Elena Ramírez
OBJECTIVES: A prospective evaluation of nonchemotherapy drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIA) cases, which are infrequent in the pediatric population. We characterize agranulocytosis cases and assess lab test differences between drug- and nondrug-induced agranulocytosis. METHODS: Through our Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital we detected pediatric agranulocytosis cases from July 2007 to December 2010. This program estimates the incidence, drug causality, clinical features, outcomes of DIA pediatric cases, and assesses laboratory differences with respect to non-DIA...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
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