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Adaptive trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340371/walking-adaptability-assessments-with-the-interactive-walkway-between-systems-agreement-and-sensitivity-to-task-and-subject-variations
#1
Daphne J Geerse, Bert H Coolen, Melvyn Roerdink
The ability to adapt walking to environmental circumstances is an important aspect of walking, yet difficult to assess. The Interactive Walkway was developed to assess walking adaptability by augmenting a multi-Kinect-v2 10-m walkway with gait-dependent visual context (stepping targets, obstacles) using real-time processed markerless full-body kinematics. In this study we determined Interactive Walkway's usability for walking-adaptability assessments in terms of between-systems agreement and sensitivity to task and subject variations...
March 2, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339723/leveraging-molecular-datasets-for-biomarker-based-clinical-trial-design-in-glioblastoma
#2
Shyam K Tanguturi, Lorenzo Trippa, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Kristine Pelton, David Knoff, David Sandak, Neal I Lindeman, Azra H Ligon, Rameen Beroukhim, Giovanni Parmigiani, Patrick Y Wen, Keith L Ligon, Brian M Alexander
Background.: Biomarkers can improve clinical trial efficiency, but designing and interpreting biomarker-driven trials require knowledge of relationships among biomarkers, clinical covariates, and endpoints. We investigated these relationships across genomic subgroups of glioblastoma (GBM) within our institution (DF/BWCC), validated results in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and demonstrated potential impacts on clinical trial design and interpretation. Methods.: We identified genotyped patients at DF/BWCC, and clinical associations across 4 common GBM genomic biomarker groups were compared along with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and survival post-progression (SPP)...
February 20, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339555/an-item-bank-for-abuse-of-prescription-pain-medication-from-the-patient-reported-outcomes-measurement-information-system-promis%C3%A2
#3
Paul A Pilkonis, Lan Yu, Nathan E Dodds, Kelly L Johnston, Suzanne M Lawrence, Thomas F Hilton, Dennis C Daley, Ashwin A Patkar, Dennis McCarty
Objective.:  There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Methods.:  Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments...
October 8, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339416/improving-vocational-outcomes-in-first-episode-psychosis-by-addressing-cognitive-impairments-using-cognitive-adaptation-training
#4
Kelly A Allott, Eoin Killackey, Pamela Sun, Warrick J Brewer, Dawn I Velligan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) uses compensatory strategies and environmental supports to support cognitive impairments and improve functioning. CAT may be useful for addressing vocational recovery in first-episode psychosis (FEP) because cognitive impairments are common and vocational recovery is a key goal of young people with FEP. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical observations and practice experience when delivering CAT with FEP clients and explore potential benefits via objective outcome measures for improving vocational outcomes...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338976/synchronisms-between-bud-and-cambium-phenology-in-black-spruce-early-flushing-provenances-exhibit-early-xylem-formation
#5
Magali Perrin, Sergio Rossi, Nathalie Isabel
Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#6
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338728/characterising-root-trait-variability-in-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-germplasm
#7
Yinglong Chen, Michel Edmond Ghanem, Kadambot Hm Siddique
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337990/lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-anticipates-choices-and-integrates-prior-with-current-information
#8
Ramon Nogueira, Juan M Abolafia, Jan Drugowitsch, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Maria V Sanchez-Vives, Rubén Moreno-Bote
Adaptive behavior requires integrating prior with current information to anticipate upcoming events. Brain structures related to this computation should bring relevant signals from the recent past into the present. Here we report that rats can integrate the most recent prior information with sensory information, thereby improving behavior on a perceptual decision-making task with outcome-dependent past trial history. We find that anticipatory signals in the orbitofrontal cortex about upcoming choice increase over time and are even present before stimulus onset...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337139/a-mixed-methods-trial-of-broad-band-noise-and-nature-sounds-for-tinnitus-therapy-group-and-individual-responses-modeled-under-the-adaptation-level-theory-of-tinnitus
#9
Mithila Durai, Grant D Searchfield
Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335841/cardiovascular-outcomes-with-minute%C3%A2-ventilation-targeted-adaptive-servo-ventilation-therapy-in-heart-failure-the-cat-hf-trial
#10
Christopher M O'Connor, David J Whellan, Mona Fiuzat, Naresh M Punjabi, Gudaye Tasissa, Kevin J Anstrom, Adam V Benjafield, Holger Woehrle, Amy B Blase, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Olaf Oldenberg
BACKGROUND: Sleep apnea is common in hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The CAT-HF (Cardiovascular Improvements With MV-ASV Therapy in Heart Failure) trial investigated whether minute ventilation (MV) adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) improved cardiovascular outcomes in hospitalized HF patients with moderate-to-severe sleep apnea. METHODS: Eligible patients hospitalized with HF and moderate-to-severe sleep apnea were randomized to ASV plus optimized medical therapy (OMT) or OMT alone (control)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335798/treatment-of-mucocutaneous-manifestations-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-with-anakinra-a-pilot-open-label-study
#11
Peter C Grayson, Yusuf Yazici, Melissa Merideth, H Nida Sen, Michael Davis, Elaine Novakovich, Elizabeth Joyal, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Cailin H Sibley
BACKGROUND: The effect of IL-1 blocking therapy on mucocutaneous manifestations of Behçet's disease is incompletely understood. METHODS: Six patients with Behçet's disease and ongoing oral/genital ulcers for ≥1 month were enrolled into an adaptive, two-phase clinical trial and included in the analysis. Study duration was 6 months with extension up to 16 months. All were treated non-blinded with anakinra 100 mg subcutaneous daily with the option to escalate the dose to 200 mg in partial responders after 1 month and 300 mg after 6 months...
March 24, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335643/prospects-and-progress-of-atezolizumab-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
Johan Vansteenkiste, Els Wauters, Keunchil Park, Achim Rittmeyer, Alan Sandler, Alexander Spira
Immunotherapy has recently come to the forefront of oncology treatment as a potential means of combating cancer by restoring the body's adaptive cancer-immunity cycle. Atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody agent that specifically targets programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a key molecule in the cancer-immunity pathway, to block binding to its receptors PD-1 and B7.1. Areas covered: This review covers the role of atezolizumab in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies have reported promising efficacy in this indication...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335618/aav-an-overview-of-unanswered-questions
#13
Kenneth I Berns, Nicholas Muzyczka
Today AAV is one of the most promising and successful gene therapy vectors. AAV vectors have been successful in the treatment of several monogenic diseases in early clinical trials1. Although work in the past has focused primarily on gene replacement, many investigators are now adapting the vector system to new clinical modalities including RNAi and gene modifying strategies such as Crisper/cas91. Moreover, Glybera2 has been licensed for clinical use in the European Union for treatment of a lysosomal storage disease...
March 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334851/the-modulatory-effect-of-adaptive-deep-brain-stimulation-on-beta-bursts-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Simon Little, Martijn Beudel, Damian M Herz, Huiling Tan, Peter Brown
Adaptive deep brain stimulation uses feedback about the state of neural circuits to control stimulation rather than delivering fixed stimulation all the time, as currently performed. In patients with Parkinson's disease, elevations in beta activity (13-35 Hz) in the subthalamic nucleus have been demonstrated to correlate with clinical impairment and have provided the basis for feedback control in trials of adaptive deep brain stimulation. These pilot studies have suggested that adaptive deep brain stimulation may potentially be more effective, efficient and selective than conventional deep brain stimulation, implying mechanistic differences between the two approaches...
February 13, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334399/association-of-hiv-status-with-local-immune-response-to-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implications-for-immunotherapy
#15
Elizabeth L Yanik, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Farah Succaria, Tracee L McMiller, Maria L Ascierto, Jessica Esandrio, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Toby Cornish, Evan J Lipson, Suzanne L Topalian, Eric A Engels, Janis M Taube
Importance: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333619/the-effect-of-vibrotactile-cuing-on-recovery-strategies-from-a-treadmill-induced-trip
#16
Beom-Chan Lee, Bernard J Martin, Timothy A Thrasher, Charles S Layne
Effective fall prevention technologies need to detect and transmit the key information that will alert an individual in advance about a potential fall. This study investigated advanced vibrotactile cuing that may facilitate trip recovery for balance-impaired individuals who are prone to falling. A split-belt treadmill that simulated unpredictable trip perturbations was developed to compare balance recovery without and with cuing. Kinetic and kinematic measures from force plates and full body motion capture system were used to characterize the recovery responses...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332352/development-of-inhibitors-targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-and-2-for-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Tianchi Yu, Bo Tang, Xueying Sun
Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors and also one of the major obstacles for effective cancer therapies. Cancer cells take advantage of their ability to adapt hypoxia to initiate a special transcriptional program that renders them more aggressive biological behaviors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the key factors that control hypoxia-inducible pathways by regulating the expression of a vast array of genes involved in cancer progression and treatment resistance. HIFs, mainly HIF-1 and -2, have become potential targets for developing novel cancer therapeutics...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330497/atopic-dermatitis-anti-ige-paediatric-trial-adapt-the-role-of-anti-ige-in-severe-paediatric-eczema-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Susan Chan, Victoria Cornelius, Tao Chen, Suzana Radulovic, Mandy Wan, Rahi Jahan, Gideon Lack
BACKGROUND: The evidence for systemic treatments for severe childhood eczema is limited and largely based on extrapolation of data from adult studies. Current therapies are often immunosuppressant and may be associated with both short- and long-term side effects. There is increasing in vitro and murine-model evidence for the role of IgE in the immunopathogenesis of atopic eczema. The aim of the study is to assess whether anti-IgE treatment (omalizumab) improves eczema, compared to placebo...
March 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329434/integrated-treatment-of-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders-examination-of-imaginal-exposure-length
#19
Adam C Mills, Christal L Badour, Kristina J Korte, Therese K Killeen, Aisling V Henschel, Sudie E Back
Efforts to improve the efficiency of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have demonstrated that reducing the length of imaginal exposures does not negatively affect treatment outcome. A recent adaptation of PE, called Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure [COPE], integrates substance use disorder treatment with PE in the same timeframe (twelve 90-minute sessions, 8 of which include imaginal exposure). The current study, which represents a subanalysis of a larger randomized controlled trial, examined how the length of imaginal exposures (nonrandomized and measured continually) related to PTSD, substance use, and depression in a sample of military veterans (N = 31) who completed the COPE treatment...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328699/a-mindfulness-program-adapted-for-adolescents-with-chronic-pain-feasibility-acceptability-and-initial-outcomes
#20
Danielle A Ruskin, Michelle M Gagnon, Sara A Kohut, Jennifer N Stinson, Kathryn S Walker
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric chronic pain is a major health issue which can lead to significant interference in daily functioning. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI's), which emphasize acceptance rather than control of pain, have gained increasing attention as a viable treatment option among adults with chronic pain. The effectiveness of MBIs for chronic pain in pediatric populations remains largely unknown. This prospective pre-post interventional study was conducted to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial effectiveness of an 8-week group MBI for adolescents (MBI-A) with chronic pain...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
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