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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044458/patient-reported-quality-of-life-outcomes-after-de-escalated-chemoradiation-for-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-findings-from-a-phase-2-trial
#1
John V Hegde, Narek Shaverdian, Megan E Daly, Carol Felix, Deborah L Wong, Michael H Rosove, Jordan H Garst, Pin-Chieh Wang, Darlene Veruttipong, Shyam Rao, Ruben C Fragoso, Jonathan W Riess, Michael L Steinberg, Allen M Chen
BACKGROUND: The current study represents a subset analysis of quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among patients treated on a phase 2 trial of de-escalated chemoradiation for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: Eligibility included newly diagnosed, (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 7th edition) stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, p16 positivity, age ≥ 18 years, and a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 1. Treatment was induction paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg/m(2) and carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6 for 2 cycles followed by response-adapted, dose-reduced radiation of 54 Gy or 60 Gy with weekly concurrent paclitaxel at a dose of 30 mg/m(2) ...
October 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042191/roadmap-to-achieve-25-hypertension-control-in-africa-by-2025
#2
Anastase Dzudie, Brian Rayner, Dike Ojji, Aletta E Schutte, Marc Twagirumukiza, Albertino Damasceno, Seringe Abdou Ba, Abdoul Kane, Euloge Kramoh, Jean Baptiste Anzouan Kacou, Basden Onwubere, Ruth Cornick, Karen Sliwa, Benedict Anisiuba, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Elijah Ogola, Mohamed Awad, George Nel, Harun Otieno, Ali Ibrahim Toure, Samuel Kingue, Andre Pascal Kengne, Pablo Perel, Alma Adler, Neil Poulter, Bongani Mayosi
BACKGROUND: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) has identified hypertension as the highest area of priority action to reduce heart disease and stroke on the continent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this PASCAR roadmap on hypertension was to develop practical guidance on how to implement strategies that translate existing knowledge into effective action and improve detection, treatment and control of hypertension and cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by the year 2025...
October 14, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#3
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040780/fear-boosts-the-early-neural-coding-of-faces
#4
Maria Teresa Turano, Junpeng Lao, Anne-Raphaëlle Richoz, Peter de Lissa, Sarah Belinda Aimée Degosciu, Maria Pia Viggiano, Roberto Caldara
The rapid extraction of facial identity and emotional expressions is critical for adapted social interactions. These biologically relevant abilities have been associated with early neural responses on the face sensitive N170 component. However, whether all facial expressions uniformly modulate the N170, and whether this effect occurs only when emotion categorization is task-relevant, is still unclear. To clarify this issue, we recorded high-resolution electrophysiological signals while 22 observers perceived the six basic expressions plus neutral...
October 10, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039265/hiv-prevention-trial-design-in-an-era-of-effective-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#5
Amy Cutrell, Deborah Donnell, David T Dunn, David V Glidden, Anneke Grobler, Brett Hanscom, Britt S Stancil, R Daniel Meyer, Ronnie Wang, Robert L Cuffe
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has demonstrated remarkable effectiveness protecting at-risk individuals from HIV-1 infection. Despite this record of effectiveness, concerns persist about the diminished protective effect observed in women compared with men and the influence of adherence and risk behaviors on effectiveness in targeted subpopulations. Furthermore, the high prophylactic efficacy of the first PrEP agent, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC), presents challenges for demonstrating the efficacy of new candidates...
October 17, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038276/reduced-chlorhexidine-and-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-after-serial-chlorhexidine-exposure
#6
Pooja Bhardwaj, Amrita Hans, Kinnari Ruikar, Ziqiang Guan, Kelli L Palmer
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) are critical public health concerns because they are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a bisbiguanide cationic antiseptic that is routinely used for patient bathing and other infection control practices. VREfm are likely frequently exposed to CHX; however, the long-term effects of CHX exposure have not been studied in enterococci. In this study, we serially exposed VREfm to increasing concentrations of CHX for a period of 21 days in two independent experimental evolution trials...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038168/fasting-vs-non-fasting-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-accuracy
#7
Vasanth Sathiyakumar, Jihwan Park, Asieh Golozar, Mariana Lazo, Renato Quispe, Eliseo Guallar, Roger S Blumenthal, Steven R Jones, Seth S Martin
Background -Recent recommendations favoring non-fasting lipid assessment may impact low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) estimation. The novel method of LDL-C estimation (LDL-CN) uses a flexible approach to derive patient-specific triglyceride (TG) to very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratios. This adaptability may confer an accuracy advantage in non-fasting patients over the fixed approach of the classical Friedewald method (LDL-CF). Methods -We used a US cross-sectional sample of 1,545,634 patients (959,153 fasting ≥10-12 hours; 586,481 non-fasting) from the second harvest of the Very Large Database of Lipids study to assess for the first time the impact of fasting status on novel LDL-C accuracy...
October 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038099/home-blood-pressure-management-intervention-in-low-to-middle-income-countries-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#8
Cheryl Anderson, Sufia Dadabhai, Albertino Damasceno, Anastase Dzudie, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Deepak Kamath, Namratha Kandula, Noel Kayange, Renato Quispe, Ambuj Roy, Syed Shah, Rafael Vidal-Perez
BACKGROUND: Control of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is poor, often less than 10%. A strong body of evidence demonstrates that home blood pressure management lowers blood pressure, and recent guidelines from the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence recommends home blood pressure monitoring. However, the preponderance of data on the benefits of home blood pressure management comes from studies in high-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine whether an intervention of home blood pressure management is feasible in LMICs...
October 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037326/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-may-improve-recovery-and-muscle-adaptations-after-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Vagner R Silva, Felipe L Belozo, Thayana O Micheletti, Marcelo Conrado, Jeffrey R Stout, Gustavo D Pimentel, Adam M Gonzalez
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037101/the-potential-of-solanezumab-and-gantenerumab-to-prevent-alzheimer-s-disease-in-people-with-inherited-mutations-that-cause-its-early-onset
#10
Francesco Panza, Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Bruno P Imbimbo, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Rosanna Tortelli, Rosa Capozzo, Paola Bisceglia, Andrea Dimitri, Roberta Stallone, Vittorio Dibello, Nicola Quaranta, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
The recent failure of several clinical trials on anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) drugs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggested earlier intervention in the disease course. Secondary prevention trials have been started in autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) individuals without cognitive dysfunction and in cognitively healthy subjects at risk of developing sporadic AD (SAD). Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss prevention trials in ADAD and SAD, with a focus on the anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies solanezumab and gantenerumab presently in Phase III clinical development...
October 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036837/simvastatin-as-a-potential-disease-modifying-therapy-for-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-rationale-for%C3%A2-clinical-trial-and-current-progress
#11
Camille B Carroll, Richard K H Wyse
Many now believe the holy grail for the next stage of therapeutic advance surrounds the development of disease-modifying approaches aimed at intercepting the year-on-year neurodegenerative decline experienced by most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on recommendations of an international committee of experts who are currently bringing multiple, potentially disease-modifying, PD therapeutics into long-term neuroprotective PD trials, a clinical trial involving 198 patients is underway to determine whether Simvastatin provides protection against chronic neurodegeneration...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036330/adding-experimental-arms-to-platform-clinical-trials-randomization-procedures-and-interim-analyses
#12
Steffen Ventz, Matteo Cellamare, Giovanni Parmigiani, Lorenzo Trippa
Multi-arm clinical trials use a single control arm to evaluate multiple experimental treatments. In most cases this feature makes multi-arm studies considerably more efficient than two-arm studies. A bottleneck for implementation of a multi-arm trial is the requirement that all experimental treatments have to be available at the enrollment of the first patient. New drugs are rarely at the same stage of development. These limitations motivate our study of statistical methods for adding new experimental arms after a clinical trial has started enrolling patients...
July 17, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034316/large-scale-network-coupling-with-the-fusiform-cortex-facilitates-future-social-motivation
#13
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034014/improving-the-outcome-of-vein-grafts-should-vascular-surgeons-turn-veins-into-arteries
#14
REVIEW
Toshihiko Isaji, Takuya Hashimoto, Kota Yamamoto, Jeans M Santana, Bogdan Yatsula, Haidi Hu, Hualong Bai, Guo Jianming, Tambudzai Kudze, Toshiya Nishibe, Alan Dardik
Autogenous vein grafts remain the gold standard conduit for arterial bypass, particularly for the treatment of critical limb ischemia. Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment, i.e., adequate dilation and wall thickening, contributes to the superior performance of vein grafts. However, abnormal venous wall remodeling with excessive neointimal hyperplasia commonly causes vein graft failure. Since the PREVENT trials failed to improve vein graft outcomes, new strategies focus on the adaptive response of the venous endothelial cells to the post-surgical arterial environment...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031778/extended-adjuvant-aromatase-inhibition-after-sequential-endocrine-therapy-data-a-randomised-phase-3-trial
#15
Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen, Irene E G van Hellemond, Petronella G M Peer, Astrid C P Swinkels, Carolien H Smorenburg, Maurice J C van der Sangen, Judith R Kroep, Hiltje De Graaf, Aafke H Honkoop, Frans L G Erdkamp, Franchette W P J van den Berkmortel, Maaike de Boer, Wilfred K de Roos, Sabine C Linn, Alexander L T Imholz, Caroline M Seynaeve
BACKGROUND: The effect of extended adjuvant aromatase inhibition in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer after sequential endocrine therapy of tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor for a 5-year treatment period still needs clarification. To address this issue, we began the DATA study to assess different durations of anastrozole therapy after tamoxifen. METHODS: DATA was a prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 study done in 79 hospitals in the Netherlands...
October 11, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031740/eyetracking-metrics-reveal-impaired-spatial-anticipation-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
Silvia Primativo, Camilla Clark, Keir Xx Yong, Nicholas C Firth, Jennifer Nicholas, Daniel Alexander, Jason D Warren, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch
Eyetracking technology has had limited application in the dementia field to date, with most studies attempting to discriminate syndrome subgroups on the basis of basic oculomotor functions rather than higher-order cognitive abilities. Eyetracking-based tasks may also offer opportunities to reduce or ameliorate problems associated with standard paper-and-pencil cognitive tests such as the complexity and linguistic demands of verbal test instructions, and the problems of tiredness and attention associated with lengthy tasks that generate few data points at a slow rate...
October 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031002/resistance-training-reduces-metabolic-syndrome-and-inflammatory-markers-in-older-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Crisieli M Tomeleri, Mariana F Souza, Roberto C Burini, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Alex S Ribeiro, Melissa Antunes, João P Nunes, Danielle Venturini, Décio S Barbosa, Luís B Sardinha, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: There is controversial information regarding the effects of resistance training (RT) on the reduction of risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related phenotypes, particularly, in older women. This study analyzed the effects of a 12-week RT program without dietary interventions on MetS components and inflammatory biomarkers in older women. METHODS: Fifty-three older women (70.4 ± 5.7 years; 26.7 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) ) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 26) that performed 12 weeks of RT program or a control group (CG, n = 27) that did not perform any type of physical exercise (same period)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030913/effect-of-water-restriction-on-milk-yield-and-quality-in-lacaune-breed-ewes
#18
D Casamassima, M Palazzo, M Nardoia, A G D'Alessandro, F Vizzarri
The effect of water restriction on body weight, body condition score, milk yield, and milk composition and rheological characteristics in intensively reared Lacaune ewes was evaluated. After 7 days of adaptation, the trial lasted 28 days. Thirty lactating ewes (48 ± 5 months of age; mean value ± standard deviation) at the beginning of third lactation month were divided into three groups (n = 10), corresponding to the following water restriction treatment: a group control received no drinking water restriction (W100), and two groups received water to the extent of 80% and 60% of W100 daily consumption (W80 and W60 group respectively)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030654/predictive-and-prognostic-value-of-tumor-volume-and-its-changes-during-radical-radiotherapy-of-stage%C3%A2-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#19
Lukas Käsmann, Maximilian Niyazi, Oliver Blanck, Christian Baues, René Baumann, Sophie Dobiasch, Chukwuka Eze, Daniel Fleischmann, Tobias Gauer, Frank A Giordano, Yvonne Goy, Jan Hausmann, Christoph Henkenberens, David Kaul, Lisa Klook, David Krug, Matthias Mäurer, Cédric M Panje, Johannes Rosenbrock, Lisa Sautter, Daniela Schmitt, Christoph Süß, Alexander H Thieme, Maike Trommer-Nestler, Sonia Ziegler, Nadja Ebert, Daniel Medenwald, Christian Ostheimer
PURPOSE: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes heterogeneous presentation of the disease including lymph node involvement and large tumour volumes with infiltration of the mediastinum, heart or spine. In the treatment of stage III NSCLC an interdisciplinary approach including radiotherapy is considered standard of care with acceptable toxicity and improved clinical outcome concerning local control...
October 13, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030383/12-week-24-7-ambulatory-artificial-pancreas-with-weekly-adaptation-of-insulin-delivery-settings-effect-on-hemoglobin-a1c-and-hypoglycemia
#20
Eyal Dassau, Jordan E Pinsker, Yogish C Kudva, Sue A Brown, Ravi Gondhalekar, Chiara Dalla Man, Steve Patek, Michele Schiavon, Vikash Dadlani, Isuru Dasanayake, Mei Mei Church, Rickey E Carter, Wendy C Bevier, Lauren M Huyett, Jonathan Hughes, Stacey Anderson, Dayu Lv, Elaine Schertz, Emma Emory, Shelly K McCrady-Spitzer, Tyler Jean, Paige K Bradley, Ling Hinshaw, Alejandro J Laguna Sanz, Ananda Basu, Boris Kovatchev, Claudio Cobelli, Francis J Doyle
OBJECTIVE: Artificial pancreas (AP) systems are best positioned for optimal treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are currently being tested in outpatient clinical trials. Our consortium developed and tested a novel adaptive AP in an outpatient, single-arm, uncontrolled multicenter clinical trial lasting 12 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty adults with T1D completed a continuous glucose monitor (CGM)-augmented 1-week sensor-augmented pump (SAP) period...
October 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
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