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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679742/adaptive-thermogenesis-by-dietary-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-emerging-evidence-and-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Rong Fan, Karsten Koehler, Soonkyu Chung
Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678821/individual-differences-in-torpor-expression-in-adult-mice-are-related-to-relative-birth-weight
#2
Goro A Kato, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Takeshi Eto, Yoshinobu Okubo, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in small mammals and birds, characterised by drastic reductions in metabolism and body temperature. Energy-constraining conditions, such as cold and starvation, are known to cause the expression of daily torpor. However, the reason for high degrees of inter- and intra- individual variation in torpor expression (TE) in similar situations is not clear. As littermates of altricial animals are exposed to an uneven allocation of maternal resources from conception to weaning, we tested whether early nutritional experiences have long-term effects on TE in adults...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678804/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-web-based-treatment-with-telephone-support-for-postpartum-women-with-anxiety-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Miriam T Ashford, Ellinor K Olander, Heather Rowe, Jane Rw Fisher, Susan Ayers
BACKGROUND: Postpartum anxiety can have adverse effects on the mother and child if left untreated. Time constraints and stigma are common barriers to postpartum treatment. Web-based treatments offer potential flexibility and anonymity. What Am I Worried About (WaWa) is a self-guided treatment based on cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness principles for women experiencing postpartum anxiety. WaWa was developed in Australia and consists of 9 modules with optional weekly telephone support...
April 20, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678450/effects-of-exercise-training-on-pulmonary-function-in-adults-with-chronic-lung-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Pablo A Salcedo, Jacob B Lindheimer, Jacquelyn C Klein-Adams, Anays M Sotolongo, Michael J Falvo
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of exercise training on indices of pulmonary function in adults with chronic lung disease using meta-analytic techniques. Whole body exercise training is well-known to confer favorable adaptations to multiple organ systems; however, exercise-induced adaptations to the respiratory system are assumed to be limited, if present at all, but have not been systematically reviewed. DATA SOURCES: Eligible trials were identified using a systematic search of Medline, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and GoogleScholar databases...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676975/eighteen-month-clinical-study-of-universal-adhesives-in-noncarious-cervical-lesions
#6
V C Ruschel, S Shibata, S C Stolf, Y Chung, L N Baratieri, H O Heymann, R Walter
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Scotchbond Universal (3M Oral Care) and Prime & Bond Elect (Dentsply Sirona) in the restoration of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial involving 63 subjects. Two hundred and three NCCLs were restored using Scotchbond Universal and Prime & Bond Elect using both an etch-and-rinse and a self-etch technique. Lesions were notch-shaped NCCLs, and the restorations were placed without any mechanical retention...
May 2018: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675715/eye-movements-in-interception-with-delayed-visual-feedback
#7
Clara Cámara, Cristina de la Malla, Joan López-Moliner, Eli Brenner
The increased reliance on electronic devices such as smartphones in our everyday life exposes us to various delays between our actions and their consequences. Whereas it is known that people can adapt to such delays, the mechanisms underlying such adaptation remain unclear. To better understand these mechanisms, the current study explored the role of eye movements in interception with delayed visual feedback. In two experiments, eye movements were recorded as participants tried to intercept a moving target with their unseen finger while receiving delayed visual feedback about their own movement...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674307/assessing-therapeutic-alliance-in-the-context-of-mhealth-interventions-for-mental-health-problems-development-of-the-mobile-agnew-relationship-measure-marm-questionnaire
#8
Katherine Berry, Amy Salter, Rohan Morris, Susannah James, Sandra Bucci
BACKGROUND: Digital health interventions in the form of smartphone apps aim to improve mental health and enable people access to support as and when needed without having to face the stigma they may experience in accessing services. If we are to evaluate mobile health (mHealth) apps and advance scientific understanding, we also need tools to help us understand in what ways mHealth interventions are effective or not. The concept of therapeutic alliance, a measure of the quality of the relationship between a health care provider and a service user, is a key factor in explaining the effects of mental health interventions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673923/crispr-cas9-for-cancer-research-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Tianzuo Zhan, Niklas Rindtorff, Johannes Betge, Matthias P Ebert, Michael Boutros
CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organisms. First discovered in bacteria as part of an adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 and modified versions have found a widespread use to engineer genomes and to activate or to repress the expression of genes. As such, CRISPR/Cas9 promises to accelerate cancer research by providing an efficient technology to dissect mechanisms of tumorigenesis, identify targets for drug development, and possibly arm cells for cell-based therapies...
April 16, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673783/meg-adaptation-reveals-action-representations-in-posterior-occipitotemporal-regions
#10
Anne Hauswald, Raffaele Tucciarelli, Angelika Lingnau
When we observe other people's actions, a number of parietal and precentral regions known to be involved in the planning and execution of actions are recruited for example seen as power decreases in alpha and beta frequencies indicative of increased activation. It has been argued that this recruitment reflects the process of simulating the observed action, thereby providing access to the meaning of the action. Alternatively, it has been suggested that rather than providing access to the meaning of an action, parietal and precentral regions might be recruited as a consequence of action understanding...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673575/classification-and-diagnostic-criteria-for-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system-where-do-we-stand-today
#11
REVIEW
G Mathey, M Michaud, S Pittion-Vouyovitch, M Debouverie
The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system is challenging, and although the currently available biological and imaging tools offer considerable support to physicians, these tools often fail to provide a simple and final answer at the time of a first event. Thus, sets of diagnostic criteria have been published and tested on patient cohorts, and are now used in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice. These criteria have evolved over time to take into account physicians' and patients' needs, along with emerging paraclinical tests...
April 16, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672881/response-adaptive-treatment-allocation-for-survival-trials-with-clustered-right-censored-data
#12
Pei-Fang Su, Siu Hung Cheung
A comparison of 2 treatments with survival outcomes in a clinical study may require treatment randomization on clusters of multiple units with correlated responses. For example, for patients with otitis media in both ears, a specific treatment is normally given to a single patient, and hence, the 2 ears constitute a cluster. Statistical procedures are available for comparison of treatment efficacies. The conventional approach for treatment allocation is the adoption of a balanced design, in which half of the patients are assigned to each treatment arm...
April 19, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672341/cost-effectiveness-of-a-weight-management-program-implemented-in-the-worksite-translation-of-fuel-your-life
#13
Phaedra S Corso, Justin B Ingels, Heather M Padilla, Heather Zuercher, David M DeJoy, Robert J Vandenberg, Mark G Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the Fuel Your Life (FYL) program dissemination. METHODS: Employees were recruited from three workplaces randomly assigned to one of the conditions: telephone coaching, small group coaching, and self-study. Costs were collected prospectively during the efficacy trial. The main outcome measures of interest were weight loss and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: The phone condition was most costly ($601-$589/employee) and the self-study condition was least costly ($145-$143/employee)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671908/effects-of-fat-supplementation-on-plasma-glucose-insulin-and-fatty-acid-analysis-in-ponies-maintained-on-a-forage-based-diet
#14
T Williams, B Rude, S Liao, C Mochal-King, M Nicodemus
The objective of this study was to observe how fat incorporated into an equine forage-based diet through supplementation altered levels of plasma glucose, insulin and fatty acids. Five Shetland/Hackney cross pony mares were fed alfalfa pellet diets top dressed with commercially available vegetable oil (blend of soya bean, canola and corn oils) at 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of diet. Ponies were randomly assigned one of four diets to start, with a 14-day adjustment period between transitioning to another one of the four diets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671799/from-the-paper-to-the-tablet-on-the-design-of-an-ar-based-tool-for-the-inspection-of-pre-fab-buildings-preliminary-results-of-the-sirae-project
#15
Cristina Portalés, Sergio Casas, Jesús Gimeno, Marcos Fernández, Montse Poza
Energy-efficient Buildings (EeB) are demanded in today’s constructions, fulfilling the requirements for green cities. Pre-fab buildings, which are modularly fully-built in factories, are a good example of this. Although this kind of building is quite new, the in situ inspection is documented using traditional tools, mainly based on paper annotations. Thus, the inspection process is not taking advantage of new technologies. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the SIRAE project that aims to provide an Augmented Reality (AR) tool that can seamlessly aid in the regular processes of pre-fab building inspections to detect and eliminate the possible existing quality and energy efficiency deviations...
April 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671383/sport-specific-biomechanical-responses-to-an-acl-injury-prevention-programme-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programmes have not been as successful at reducing injury rates in women's basketball as in soccer. This randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02530333) compared biomechanical adaptations in basketball and soccer players during jump-landing activities after an ACL injury prevention programme. Eighty-seven athletes were cluster randomised into intervention (6-week programme) and control groups. Three-dimensional biomechanical analyses of drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg (SAG-SL) sagittal, and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) frontal plane jump landing tasks were tested before and after the intervention...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671345/a-new-modeling-and-inference-approach-for-the-systolic-blood-pressure-intervention-trial-outcomes
#17
Song Yang, Walter T Ambrosius, Lawrence J Fine, Adam P Bress, William C Cushman, Dominic S Raj, Shakaib Rehman, Leonardo Tamariz
Background/aims In clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes, usually the significance tests and confidence intervals are based on a proportional hazards model. Thus, the temporal pattern of the treatment effect is not directly considered. This could be problematic if the proportional hazards assumption is violated, as such violation could impact both interim and final estimates of the treatment effect. Methods We describe the application of inference procedures developed recently in the literature for time-to-event outcomes when the treatment effect may or may not be time-dependent...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670611/advances-in-biomarker-guided-therapy-for-pediatric-and-adult-onset-neuroinflammatory-disorders-targeting-chemokines-cytokines
#18
REVIEW
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670545/effect-of-the-nu-age-diet-on-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Anna Marseglia, Weili Xu, Laura Fratiglioni, Cristina Fabbri, Agnes A M Berendsen, Agata Bialecka-Debek, Amy Jennings, Rachel Gillings, Nathalie Meunier, Elodie Caumon, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Barbara Pietruszka, Lisette C P G M De Groot, Aurelia Santoro, Claudio Franceschi
Background: Findings from animal and epidemiological research support the potential neuroprotective benefits from healthy diets. However, to establish diet-neuroprotective causal relations, evidence from dietary intervention studies is needed. NU-AGE is the first multicenter intervention assessing whether a diet targeting health in aging can counteract the age-related physiological changes in different organs, including the brain. In this study, we specifically investigated the effects of NU-AGE's dietary intervention on age-related cognitive decline...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669893/-sost-deficiency-leads-to-reduced-mechanical-strains-at-the-tibia-midshaft-in-strain-matched-in-vivo-loading-experiments-in-mice
#20
Laia Albiol, Myriam Cilla, David Pflanz, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Georg N Duda, Bettina M Willie, Sara Checa
Sclerostin, a product of the Sost gene, is a Wnt-inhibitor and thus negatively regulates bone accrual. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is also known to be activated in mechanotransduction. Sclerostin neutralizing antibodies are being tested in ongoing clinical trials to target osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta but their interaction with mechanical stimuli on bone formation remains unclear. Sost knockout (KO) mice were examined to gain insight into how long-term Sost deficiency alters the local mechanical environment within the bone...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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