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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927938/mice-learn-to-avoid-regret
#1
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926087/efficacy-of-dialectical-behavior-therapy-for-adolescents-at-high-risk-for-suicide-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Elizabeth McCauley, Michele S Berk, Joan R Asarnow, Molly Adrian, Judith Cohen, Kathyrn Korslund, Claudia Avina, Jennifer Hughes, Melanie Harned, Robert Gallop, Marsha M Linehan
Importance: Suicide is a leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-old individuals in the United States; evidence on effective treatment for adolescents who engage in suicidal and self-harm behaviors is limited. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) compared with individual and group supportive therapy (IGST) for reducing suicide attempts, nonsuicidal self-injury, and overall self-harm among high-risk youths. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted from January 1, 2012, through August 31, 2014, at 4 academic medical centers...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925955/a-multiprotein-supercomplex-controlling-oncogenic-signalling-in-lymphoma
#3
James D Phelan, Ryan M Young, Daniel E Webster, Sandrine Roulland, George W Wright, Monica Kasbekar, Arthur L Shaffer, Michele Ceribelli, James Q Wang, Roland Schmitz, Masao Nakagawa, Emmanuel Bachy, Da Wei Huang, Yanlong Ji, Lu Chen, Yandan Yang, Hong Zhao, Xin Yu, Weihong Xu, Maryknoll M Palisoc, Racquel R Valadez, Theresa Davies-Hill, Wyndham H Wilson, Wing C Chan, Elaine S Jaffe, Randy D Gascoyne, Elias Campo, Andreas Rosenwald, German Ott, Jan Delabie, Lisa M Rimsza, Fausto J Rodriguez, Fayez Estephan, Matthias Holdhoff, Michael J Kruhlak, Stephen M Hewitt, Craig J Thomas, Stefania Pittaluga, Thomas Oellerich, Louis M Staudt
B cell receptor (BCR) signaling has emerged as a therapeutic target in B cell lymphomas, but inhibiting this pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has benefited only a subset of patients1 . Gene expression profiling identified two major DLBCL subtypes, known as germinal center (GC) B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC)2,3 , with inferior outcomes following immunochemotherapy in ABC. Autoantigens drive BCR-dependent activation of NF-κB in ABC DLBCL through a kinase cascade of SYK, BTK and PKCβ to promote the assembly of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) adapter complex that recruits and activates IκB kinase (IKK)4-6 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925419/follow-up-study-regarding-the-medium-term-effectiveness-of-the-home-visiting-program-pro-kind-at-age-7-years-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Sören Kliem, Malte Sandner, Anna Lohmann, Susan Sierau, Verena Dähne, Annette M Klein, Tanja Jungmann
BACKGROUND: Pro Kind is a German adaptation of the US Nurse Family Partnership program. It is an intervention based on home visits targeting first-time mothers from disadvantaged populations. Pro Kind was implemented as a randomized control trial from 2006 to 2012 with N = 755 first-time mothers (TG n = 394, CG n = 391). The 7-8-year follow-up aims to assess the mid-term effects of the program. METHODS/DESIGN: Mid-term outcomes are being assessed by trained assessors...
June 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924320/nutritional-status-measures-are-correlated-with-pupillary-responsiveness-in-zambian-children
#5
Katherine Healy, Amanda C Palmer, Maxwell A Barffour, Kerry J Schulze, Ward Siamusantu, Justin Chileshe, Keith P West, Alain B Labrique
Background: Impairments in visual function have been well characterized in vitamin A deficiency. However, eye function may also be sensitive to other nutrient deficiencies. Objective: We examined associations between visual function-characterized by pupillary threshold or pupillary responsiveness-and nutritional status in Zambian children. Methods: We used digital pupillometry to measure visual responses to calibrated light stimuli (-2.9 to 0...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924184/the-influence-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-combined-with-the-pilates-method-on-lung-function-in-elderly-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Guilherme Medeiros de Alvarenga, Simone Arando Charkovski, Larissa Kelin Dos Santos, Mayara Alves Barbosa da Silva, Guilherme Oliveira Tomaz, Humberto Remigio Gamba
OBJECTIVE: Aging is progressive, and its effects on the respiratory system include changes in the composition of the connective tissues of the lung that influence thoracic and lung compliance. The Powerbreathe® K5 is a device used for inspiratory muscle training with resistance adapted to the level of the inspiratory muscles to be trained. The Pilates method promotes muscle rebalancing exercises that emphasize the powerhouse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inspiratory muscle training combined with the Pilates method on lung function in elderly women...
2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923936/multiple-micronutrient-plasma-level-changes-are-related-to-oxidative-stress-intensity-in-critically-ill-children
#7
Frédéric V Valla, Muriel Bost, Sylvain Roche, Marion Pitance, Charlotte Cuerq, Jenna Ridout, René Ecochard, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Amandine Bellon, Carole Ford-Chessel, Aurélie Portefaix, Etienne Javouhey, Emilie Blond
OBJECTIVES: Micronutrient supplementation in critically ill adults remains controversial. In the pediatric setting, the impact of oxidative stress on the overall micronutrient status has been poorly explored, due to the limited number of studies and to confounding factors (i.e., malnutrition or extra losses). In order to better understand this phenomenon, we aim to describe micronutrient status, focusing on seven micronutrients, in well-nourished critically ill children presenting with severe oxidative stress...
June 19, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923478/group-based-worry-intervention-for-persecutory-delusions-an-initial-feasibility-study
#8
Louise Isham, Heidemarie Grafahrend, Alecia Nickless, Katherine Pugh, Steve Pleasants, Nicola Smedley, Daniel Freeman, Alison Mulligan
BACKGROUND: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). AIM: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. METHOD: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). RESULTS: All but one participant completed measures at all time points...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922687/comparison-of-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-theory-of-mind-improvement-of-posttraumatic-growth-and-emotion-regulation-strategies
#9
Vahid Farnia, Abdulzahra Naami, Yadollah Zargar, Iran Davoodi, Safora Salemi, Faezeh Tatari, Ashraf Kazemi, Behrad Basanj, Touraj Ahmadi Jouybari, Mostafa Alikhani
BACKGROUND: Assessing various therapeutic methods with the intention to decrease the problems relevant to abused children is of high significance. Accordingly, the present study seeks to compare the effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF.CBT) with an emphasis on the theory of mind on posttraumatic growth and emotional regulation strategies in abused children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quasi-randomized clinical trial study was done on 39 abused children who referred to welfare organization centers in Ahvaz - Iran...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922123/animal-learning-in-a-multidimensional-discrimination-task-as-explained-by-dimension-specific-allocation-of-attention
#10
Flavia Aluisi, Anna Rubinchik, Genela Morris
Reinforcement learning describes the process by which during a series of trial-and-error attempts, actions that culminate in reward are reinforced, becoming more likely to be chosen in similar circumstances. When decisions are based on sensory stimuli, an association is formed between the stimulus, the action and the reward. Computational, behavioral and neurobiological accounts of this process successfully explain simple learning of stimuli that differ in one aspect, or along a single stimulus dimension. However, when stimuli may vary across several dimensions, identifying which features are relevant for the reward is not trivial, and the underlying cognitive process is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921891/management-of-low-and-intermediate-risk-adult-rhabdomyosarcoma-a-pooled-survival-analysis-of-553-patients
#11
Maha A T Elsebaie, Mohamed Amgad, Ahmed Elkashash, Ahmed Saber Elgebaly, Gehad Gamal E L Ashal, Emad Shash, Zeinab Elsayed
This is the second-largest retrospective analysis addressing the controversy of whether adult rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) should be treated with chemotherapy regimens adopted from pediatric RMS protocols or adult soft-tissue sarcoma protocols. A comprehensive database search identified 553 adults with primary non-metastatic RMS. Increasing age, intermediate-risk disease, no chemotherapy use, anthacycline-based and poor chemotherapy response were significant predictors of poor overall and progression-free survival...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921157/interval-and-point-estimation-in-adaptive-phase-ii-trials-with-binary-endpoint
#12
Arsénio Nhacolo, Werner Brannath
Phase II clinical trials are concerned with making decision of whether a treatment is sufficiently efficacious to be worth further investigations in late large scale Phase III trials. In oncology Phase II trials, frequentist single-arm two-stage group-sequential designs with a binary endpoint are commonly used. To allow for more flexibility, adaptive versions of these designs have been proposed. In this paper, we propose point and interval estimation for adaptive designs in which the second stage sample size is a pre-specified function of first stage's number of responses...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920583/5-aminolevulinic-acid-induced-fluorescence-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia-report-of-3-cases
#13
David W Roberts, Jaime J Bravo, Jonathan D Olson, William F Hickey, Brent T Harris, Lananh N Nguyen, Jennifer Hong, Linton T Evans, Xiaoyao Fan, Dennis Wirth, Brian C Wilson, Keith D Paulsen
BACKGROUND: Three patients enrolled in a clinical trial of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence-guidance, which has been demonstrated to facilitate intracranial tumor resection, were found on neuropathological examination to have focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in this case series visible fluorescence and quantitative levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during surgery and correlate these findings with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology...
June 16, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914097/oncolytic-reovirus-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-as-a-novel-immunotherapeutic-strategy-for-breast-cancer
#14
Ahmed A Mostafa, Daniel E Meyers, Chandini M Thirukkumaran, Peter J Liu, Kathy Gratton, Jason Spurrell, Qiao Shi, Satbir Thakur, Don G Morris
As the current efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) as monotherapy is limited, exploration of OVs as part of a broader immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for cancer is necessary. Here, we investigated the ability for immune checkpoint blockade to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus (RV) for the treatment of breast cancer (BrCa). In vitro, oncolysis and cytokine production were assessed in human and murine BrCa cell lines following RV exposure. Furthermore, RV-induced upregulation of tumor cell PD-L1 was evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913107/a-class-of-covariate-adjusted-response-adaptive-allocation-designs-for-multitreatment-binary-response-trials
#15
Atanu Biswas, Rahul Bhattacharya
A class of covariate-adjusted response-adaptive randomization procedures is developed for binary treatment outcomes in a phase III clinical trial set up involving multiple treatments. The target allocation is developed by combining the ethical aspects with statistical precision under the existence of treatment covariate interaction. Relevant measures of the performance for the proposed allocation designs are studied and compared.
June 18, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912645/use-of-a-modified-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-bcpap-device-for-children-in-respiratory-distress-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-safety-study
#16
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912281/evaluating-longitudinal-markers-under-two-phase-study-designs
#17
Marlena Maziarz, Tianxi Cai, Li Qi, Anna S Lok, Yingye Zheng
Little attention has been given to the design of efficient studies to evaluate longitudinal biomarkers. Measuring longitudinal markers on an entire cohort is cost prohibitive and, especially for rare outcomes such as cancer, may be infeasible. Thus, methods for evaluation of longitudinal biomarkers using efficient and cost-effective study designs are needed. Case cohort (CCH) and nested case-control (NCC) studies allow investigators to evaluate biomarkers rigorously and at reduced cost, with only a small loss in precision...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911577/the-dynamics-of-the-pain-system-is-intact-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-an-exploratory-experimental-study
#18
Tanja Schjødt Jørgensen, Marius Henriksen, Sara Rosager, Louise Klokker, Karen Ellegaard, Bente Danneskiold-Samsøe, Henning Bliddal, Thomas Graven-Nielsen
Background and aims Despite the high prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) it remains one of the most frequent knee disorders without a cure. Pain and disability are prominent clinical features of knee OA. Knee OA pain is typically localized but can also be referred to the thigh or lower leg. Widespread hyperalgesia has been found in knee OA patients. In addition, patients with hyperalgesia in the OA knee joint show increased pain summation scores upon repetitive stimulation of the OA knee suggesting the involvement of facilitated central mechanisms in knee OA...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911409/the-ottawa-panel-guidelines-on-programmes-involving-therapeutic-exercise-for-the-management-of-hand-osteoarthritis
#19
Lucie Brosseau, Odette Thevenot, Olivia MacKiddie, Jade Taki, George A Wells, Paulette Guitard, Guillaume Léonard, Nicole Paquet, Sibel Z Aydin, Karine Toupin-April, Sabrina Cavallo, Rikke Helene Moe, Kamran Shaikh, Wendy Gifford, Laurianne Loew, Gino De Angelis, Shirin Mehdi Shallwani, Ala' S Aburub, Aline Mizusaki Imoto, Prinon Rahman, Inmaculada C Álvarez Gallardo, Milkana Borges Cosic, Nina Østerås, Sabrina Lue, Tokiko Hamasaki, Nathaly Gaudreault, Tanveer E Towheed, Sahil Koppikar, Ingvild Kjeken, Dharini Mahendira, Glen P Kenny, Gail Paterson, Marie Westby, Lucie Laferrière, Guy Longchamp
OBJECTIVE: To identify programmes involving therapeutic exercise that are effective for the management of hand osteoarthritis and to provide stakeholders with updated, moderate to high-quality recommendations supporting exercises for hand osteoarthritis. METHODS: A systematic search and adapted selection criteria included comparable trials with exercise programmes for managing hand osteoarthritis. Based on the evaluated evidence, a panel of experts reached consensus through a Delphi approach endorsing the recommendations...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911107/colorectal-cancer-genomics-and-designing-rational-trials
#20
REVIEW
Sebastian Mondaca, Rona Yaeger
The widespread use of next generation sequencing (NGS) has led to a refined understanding of the genomics of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, progress in the use of molecular biomarkers in standard practice has been slow, and there is no approved targeted therapy for CRC based on a positive predictive marker yet. In this review, we will first summarize biomarkers with clinical utility in standard practice or targeted therapy trials and then consider how to rationally design clinical trials to more effectively target CRC...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
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