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Adaptive design

Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Pavithra Madhavi Naullage, Yuqing Qiu, Valeria Molinero
Cold-adapted organisms produce antifreeze proteins and glycoproteins to control the growth, melting and recrystallization of ice. It has been proposed that these molecules pin the crystal surface, creating a surface curvature that arrests its growth and melting. Here we use thermodynamic modeling and molecular simulations to elucidate how does the curvature of the metastable ice front depend on the temperature and distance between pinned molecules, and what determines the thermal hysteresis on melting and freezing, i...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Minqi Yang, Ning Ma, Yingying Zhu, Ying-Chu Su, Qingwei Chen, Fan-Chi Hsiao, Yanran Ji, Chien-Ming Yang, Guofu Zhou
Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrea Torchi, Davide Bochicchio, Giovanni M Pavan
The rational design of supramolecular polymers that can adapt or respond in time to specific stimuli in controlled way is interesting for many applications, but this requires understanding the molecular factors that make the material faster or slower in responding to the stimulus. To this end, it is necessary to study the dynamic adaptive properties at submolecular resolution, which is difficult at experimental level. Here we show coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations (<5Å resolution) demonstrating how the dynamic adaptivity and stimuli responsiveness of a supramolecular polymer is controlled by the intrinsic dynamics of the assembly, which is in turn determined by the structure of the monomers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Haley Adams, Gayathri Narasimham, John Rieser, Sarah Creem-Regehr, Jeanine Stefanucci, Bobby Bodenheimer
As virtual reality expands in popularity, an increasingly diverse audience is gaining exposure to immersive virtual environments (IVEs). A significant body of research has demonstrated how perception and action work in such environments, but most of this work has been done studying adults. Less is known about how physical and cognitive development affect perception and action in IVEs, particularly as applied to preteen and teenage children. Accordingly, in the current study we assess how preteens (children aged 8-12 years) and teenagers (children aged 15-18 years) respond to mismatches between their motor behavior and the visual information presented by an IVE...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Jared M Dickinson, Andrew C D'Lugos, Marcus A Naymik, Ashley L Siniard, Amanda J Wolfe, Donald P Curtis, Matthew J Huentelman, Chad C Carroll
Aerobic (AE) and resistance exercise (RE) elicit unique adaptations in skeletal muscle that have distinct implications for health and performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the unique transcriptome response of skeletal muscle to acute AE and RE. In a counter-balanced, cross-over design, six healthy, recreationally active young men (27{plus minus}3y) completed acute AE (40 min cycling, ~70% maximal HR) and RE (8 sets, 10 reps, ~65% 1RM), separated by ~1wk. Muscle biopsies ( vastus lateralis) were obtained before and at 1 and 4h post exercise...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Rhondene M Miller, Ronald S Kaiser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complicated nature of chronic pain involves an interplay between psychological and physical factors, often resulting in increased emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This review is designed to help the medical practitioner who is working with chronic pain patients to be aware of psychological assessment techniques that can add to comprehensive patient understanding and more effectively guide treatment. Enhanced ability to assess and understand the emotional life of the chronic pain patient provides a basis for intervening and treating more successfully...
March 14, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Anna C Tasolamprou, Thomas Koschny, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M Soukoulis
We present the design of a dielectric inverse photonic crystal structure that couples line-defect waveguide propagating modes into highly directional beams of controllable directionality. The structure utilizes a triangular lattice made of air holes drilled in an infinitely thick Si slab, and it is designed for operation in the near-infrared and optical regime. The structure operation is based on the excitation and manipulation of dark dielectric surface states, in particular on the tailoring of the dark states' coupling to outgoing radiation...
November 15, 2017: ACS Photonics
Victor Feliz Pedrinha, Juliana Melo da Silva Brandão, Oscar Faciola Pessoa, Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues
Advances in endodontics have enabled the evolution of file manufacturing processes, improving performance beyond that of conventional files. In the present study, systems manufactured using state of the art methods and possessing special properties related to NiTi alloys ( i.e ., CM-Wire, M-Wire and R-Phase) were selected. The aim of this review was to provide a detailed analysis of the literature about the relationship between recently introduced NiTi files with different movement kinematics and shaping ability, apical extrusion of debris and dentin defects in root canal preparations...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Tristan J Coulter, Clifford J Mallett, Jefferson A Singer
The current study adopted McAdams' multilayer framework as the basis to develop a psychological portrait of an elite athlete who was identified as being particularly 'mentally tough'. The aim was to use this single case as an exemplar to demonstrate the utility of McAdams' framework for understanding the complexity of sport performers across three domains of personality: dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity. We operationalised these domains through the development of specific research questions and, subsequently, the collection and integration of the participant's Big Five traits, personal strivings, coping strategies, and response to a life story interview...
January 2018: European Journal of Personality
Semin Ryu, Dongbum Pyo, Soo-Chul Lim, Dong-Soo Kwon
Recently, various methods using, simultaneously, two types of tactile feedback have been proposed to emulate a real object. However, the possible masking effect when providing two types of tactile feedback has been scarcely reported. In this study, we investigated the masking effect caused by mechanical vibration on the perception of electrovibration. The absolute and difference thresholds of the electrovibration were measured according to the presence/absence, frequency, and intensity of the mechanical vibration...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neftali Vazquez, Lilia Sanchez, Rebecca Marks, Eduardo Martinez, Victor Fanniel, Alma Lopez, Andrea Salinas, Itzel Flores, Jesse Hirschmann, Robert Gilkerson, Erin Schuenzel, Robert Dearth, Reginald Halaby, Wendy Innis-Whitehouse, Megan Keniry
BACKGROUND: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) RNA-guided adaptive immune systems are found in prokaryotes to defend cells from foreign DNA. CRISPR Cas9 systems have been modified and employed as genome editing tools in wide ranging organisms. Here, we provide a detailed protocol to truncate genes in mammalian cells using CRISPR Cas9 editing. We describe custom donor vector construction using Gibson assembly with the commonly utilized pcDNA3 vector as the backbone...
March 14, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
Sana B Ali, Juana Romero, Kevin Morrison, Baria Hafeez, Jessica S Ancker
OBJECTIVES:  Although electronic patient portals are offered by most health care organizations, poor usability and poor fit to patient needs may pose barriers to adoption. We collaborated with an academic hospital to conduct iterative user evaluation of a newly deployed portal designed to deliver inpatient data upon hospital discharge. METHODS:  Three evaluators applied heuristic usability evaluation and conducted 23 individual user testing sessions with patients with chronic disease or managing the care of family members with chronic disease...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
Malassezia are lipid dependent basidiomycetous yeasts that inhabit the skin and mucosa of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and are a major component of the skin microbiome. They occur as skin commensals, but are also associated with various skin disorders and bloodstream infections. The genus currently comprises 17 species and has recently been assigned its own class, Malasseziomycetes. Importantly, multiple Malassezia species and/or genotypes may cause unique or similar pathologies and vary in their antifungal susceptibility...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Mahboubeh Kheirabadi, Gardner S Creech, Jennifer X Qiao, David S Nirschl, David K Leahy, Kenneth M Boy, Percy H Carter, Martin D Eastgate
Macrocyclic peptides containing N-alkylated amino acids have emerged as a promising therapeutic modality, capable of modulating protein-protein interactions and intracellular delivery of hydrophilic payloads. While multi-channel automated Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) is a practical approach for peptide synthesis, the requirement for slow and inefficient chromatographic purification of the product peptides is a significant limitation to exploring these novel compounds. Herein, we invent a "catch-release" strategy for the non-chromatographic purification of macrocyclic peptides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Katherine Rouleau, Monique Bourget, Patrick Chege, Francois Couturier, Paula Godoy-Ruiz, Paul H Grand'Maison, Melanie Henry, Kerling Israel, Videsh Kapoor, Hendra Kurniawan, Louella Lobo, Mahamane Maiga, Samantha Pereira Franca, Lynda Redwood-Campbell, Jamie Rodas, Raman Sohal, Dawit Wondimagegn, Robert Woolard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a limited evidentiary base on the development of family medicine in different contexts and countries. The lack of evidence impedes our ability to compare and characterize family medicine models and identify areas of success that have led to the effective provision of care. This paper offers a comparative compilation and analysis of the development of family medicine training programs in seven countries: Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Kenya, and Mali...
March 8, 2018: Family Medicine
Kiaran P McGee, Robert S Stormont, Scott A Lindsay, Victor Taracila, Dennis Savitskij, Fraser Robb, Robert Witte, Timothy Kaufmann, John Huston Iii, Stephen J Riederer, Eric Borisch, Phillip J Rossman
The growth in the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning has been facilitated by scanner hardware and software advances that have enabled RT patients to be imaged in treatment position while providing morphologic and functional assessment of tumor volumes and surrounding normal tissues. Despite these advances, manufacturers have been slow to develop radiofrequency (RF) coils that closely follow the contour of a RT patient undergoing MR imaging. Instead, relatively large form surface coil arrays have been adapted from diagnostic imaging...
March 14, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Péter Bakonyi, László Koók, Enikő Keller, Katalin Bélafi-Bakó, Tamás Rózsenberszki, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale, Dinh Duc Nguyen, J Rajesh Banu, Nándor Nemestóthy
The purpose of this research was to improve microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance - treating landfill-derived waste liquor - by applying effluents of various biogas fermenters as inocula. It turned out that the differences of initial microbial community profiles notably influenced the efficiency of MFCs. In fact, the adaptation time (during 3 weeks of operation) has varied significantly, depending on the source of inoculum and accordingly, the obtainable cumulative energy yields were also greatly affected (65% enhancement in case of municipal wastewater sludge inoculum compared to sugar factory waste sludge inoculum)...
March 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Pamela Jacobsen, Emmanuelle Peters, Thomas Ward, Philippa A Garety, Mike Jackson, Paul Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Hearing voices can be a distressing and disabling experience for some, whilst it is a valued experience for others, so-called 'healthy voice-hearers'. Cognitive models of psychosis highlight the role of memory, appraisal and cognitive biases in determining emotional and behavioural responses to voices. A memory bias potentially associated with distressing voices is the overgeneral memory bias (OGM), namely the tendency to recall a summary of events rather than specific occasions...
March 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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