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Bayes theorem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780393/sample-size-for-tablet-compression-and-capsule-filling-events-during-process-validation
#1
Naseem Ahmad Charoo, Mark Durivage, Ziyaur Rahman, Mohamad Haitham Ayad
During solid dosage form manufacturing, the uniformity of dosage units (UDU) is ensured by testing samples at two stages i.e. blend stage and tablet compression or capsule/powder filling stage. The aim of this work is to propose a sample size selection approach based on quality risk management principles for process performance qualification (PPQ) and continued process verification (CPV) stages by linking UDU to potential formulation and process risk factors. Bayes Success run theorem appeared to be the most appropriate approach among various methods considered in this work for computing sample size for PPQ...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746950/-bayes-theorem-and-base-rate-error-on-the-predictive-value-of-risk-factors-and-screening-tests
#2
Markus Antonius Wirtz
Regularly, risk assessments or decisions are based on dichotomous characteristics or measures. For instance, critical high values in screening tests may indicate an enhanced risk of having a disease. The prevalence of a risk factor (e. g. high blood pressure, depression) may indicate the need of a medical treatment or the occurrence of a negative consequence (e. g. early retirement). In such situations risk assessments are typically based on conditional event rates or conditional event probabilities: What is the risk of having a disease under the condition of having a symptom, risk factor or a critical screening indication? The valid interpretation of conditional event rates poses a considerable challenge for practitioners as well as for rehabilitation patients...
July 26, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716809/determining-clinical-decision-thresholds-for-hiv-positive-patients-suspected-of-having-tuberculosis
#3
Tom Boyles, Isabella Locatelli, Nicolas Senn, Mark Ebell
Clinical decision thresholds may aid the evaluation of diagnostic tests but have rarely been determined for tuberculosis (TB). We presented clinicians with six web-based clinical scenarios, describing patients with HIV and possible TB at various sites and with a range of clinical stability. The probability of disease was varied randomly and clinicians asked to make treatment decisions; threshold curves and therapeutic thresholds were calculated. Test and treatment thresholds were calculated using Bayes theorem and the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF...
August 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673674/is-ct-angiography-of-the-pulmonary-arteries-indicated-in-patients-with-high-clinical-probability-of-pulmonary-embolism
#4
L Martínez Montesinos, J M Plasencia Martínez, J M García Santos
When a diagnostic test confirms clinical suspicion, the indicated treatment can be administered. A problem arises when the diagnostic test does not confirm the initially suspected diagnosis; when the suspicion is grounded in clinically validated predictive rules and is high, the problem is even worse. This situation arises in up to 40% of patients with high suspicion for acute pulmonary embolism, raising the question of whether CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries should be done systematically. This paper reviews the literature about this issue and lays out the best evidence about the relevant recommendations for patients with high clinical suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism and negative findings on CT angiography...
June 30, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657526/useful-of-tokyo-guidelines-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cholecystitis-anatomopathologie-correlationship
#5
Christian Janikow, Edgardo Corti, Nicolás Menso, Gastón Moretti, Martín Alé, Martín Sánchez, Paul Eduardo Lada
BACKGROUND: In the year 2007 a group of experts come together to discuss criteria for acute cholecystitis and to establish therapeutic guidelines and states of gravity in this disease. OBJECTIVES: we correlated the criteria of the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 with the anatomopathology study of the surgical specimen. SETTING: Service of Urgencies of the National Clinic Hospital in Córdoba, Argentine. METHODS: We studied 324 patients (120 male and 204 female) older than 15 years and without limits of age with the criteria of acute cholecystitis a cord to the Tokyo guidelines 2007...
2017: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650354/prediction-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-beyond-milan-criteria-after-resection-validation-of-a-clinical-risk-score-in-an-international-cohort
#6
Jian Zheng, Joanne F Chou, Mithat Gönen, Neeta Vachharajani, William C Chapman, Maria B Majella Doyle, Simon Turcotte, Franck Vandenbroucke-Menu, Réal Lapointe, Stefan Buettner, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Jan N M Ijzermans, Chung Yip Chan, Brian K P Goh, Jin Yao Teo, Juinn Huar Kam, Prema R Jeyaraj, Peng Chung Cheow, Alexander Y F Chung, Pierce K H Chow, London L P J Ooi, Vinod P Balachandran, T Peter Kingham, Peter J Allen, Michael I D'Angelica, Ronald P DeMatteo, William R Jarnagin, Ser Yee Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate a previously reported recurrence clinical risk score (CRS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Salvage transplantation after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection is limited to patients who recur within Milan criteria (MC). Predicting recurrence patterns may guide treatment recommendations. METHODS: An international, multicenter cohort of R0 resected HCC patients were categorized by MC status at presentation...
July 22, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589779/faking-handedness-individual-differences-in-ability-to-fake-handedness-social-cognitions-of-the-handedness-of-others-and-a-forensic-application-using-bayes-theorem
#7
I C McManus, Giulia Buckens, Naomi Harris, Alexandra Flint, Hei Ling Abigail Ng, Foteini Vovou
People usually describe their handedness honestly, but that need not necessarily be the case. A legal case is described of a murder said by the pathologist to be committed by a left-hander but the defendant claimed to be right-handed, and the first author assessed the defendant's handedness as an expert witness. We know of no previous work on faking handedness, and so we tested 30 right-handers and 25 left-handers on various handedness tasks, and then asked the participants to repeat the tasks while faking being of opposite handedness...
June 7, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579595/study-on-the-increased-probability-of-detecting-adverse-drug-reactions-based-on-bayes-theorem-evaluation-of-the-usefulness-of-information-on-the-onset-timing-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#8
Shinji Oshima, Takako Enjuji, Akio Negishi, Hayato Akimoto, Kousuke Ohara, Mitsuyoshi Okita, Sachihiko Numajiri, Naoko Inoue, Shigeru Ohshima, Akira Terao, Daisuke Kobayashi
In order to avoid adverse drug reactions (ADRs), pharmacists are reconstructing ADR-related information based on various types of data gathered from patients, and then providing this information to patients. Among the data provided to patients is the time-to-onset of ADRs after starting the medication (i.e., ADR onset timing information). However, a quantitative evaluation of the effect of onset timing information offered by pharmacists on the probability of ADRs occurring in patients receiving this information has not been reported to date...
June 3, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574204/rational-clinical-evaluation-of-suspected-acute-coronary-syndromes-the-value-of-more-information
#9
David G Hancock, Ming-Yu Anthony Chuang, Rebecca Bystrom, Amera Halabi, Rachel Jones, Matthew Horsfall, Louise Cullen, William A Parsonage, Derek P Chew
OBJECTIVE: Many meta-analyses have provided synthesised likelihood ratio data to aid clinical decision-making. However, much less has been published on how to safely combine clinical information in practice. We aimed to explore the benefits and risks of pooling clinical information during the ED assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Clinical information on 1776 patients was collected within a randomised trial conducted across five South Australian EDs between July 2011 and March 2013...
June 2, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573589/low-resolution-refinement-of-atomic-models-against-crystallographic-data
#10
Robert A Nicholls, Oleg Kovalevskiy, Garib N Murshudov
This review describes some of the problems encountered during low-resolution refinement and map calculation. Refinement is considered as an application of Bayes' theorem, allowing combination of information from various sources including crystallographic experimental data and prior chemical and structural knowledge. The sources of prior knowledge relevant to macromolecules include basic chemical information such as bonds and angles, structural information from reference models of known homologs, knowledge about secondary structures, hydrogen bonding patterns, and similarity of non-crystallographically related copies of a molecule...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562551/final-diagnoses-and-probability-of-new-reason-for-encounter-at-an-urban-clinic-in-japan-a-4-year-observational-study
#11
Motoharu Fukushi, Yukishige Ishibashi, Naoki Nago
Past clinical data are not currently used to calculate pretest probabilities, as they have not been put into a database in clinical settings. This observational study was designed to determine the initial reasons for utilizing home visits or visits to an outpatient urban clinic in Japan.All family medical clinic outpatients and patients visited by the clinic (total = 11,688) over 1460 days were enrolled.We used a Bayes theorem-based clinical decision support system to analyze codes for initial reason-for-encounter (examination and final diagnosis: pretest probability) and final diagnosis of patients with fever (conditional pretest probability)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556556/competing-risks-model-in-screening-for-preeclampsia-in-twin-pregnancies-by-maternal-factors-and-biomarkers-at-11-13-weeks-gestation
#12
Carla Francisco, David Wright, Zsófia Benkő, Argyro Syngelaki, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To develop a model for preeclampsia (PE) in twin pregnancies based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks' gestation. METHODS: This was a screening study in twin pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Bayes theorem was used to combine the a priori risk from maternal factors with various combinations of uterine artery pulsatility index (UTPI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and placental growth factor (PLGF) multiple of the median (MoM) values...
May 27, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537096/bayes-theorem-and-its-application-to-cardiovascular-nursing
#13
David R Thompson, Colin R Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521616/a-10-gene-classifier-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-development-and-multicenter-accuracy-study
#14
Hernán E González, José R Martínez, Sergio Vargas-Salas, Antonieta Solar, Loreto Veliz, Francisco Cruz, Tatiana Arias, Soledad Loyola, Eleonora Horvath, Hernán Tala, Eufrosina Traipe, Manuel Meneses, Luis Marín, Nelson Wohllk, René E Diaz, Jesús Véliz, Pedro Pineda, Patricia Arroyo, Natalia Mena, Milagros Bracamonte, Giovanna Miranda, Elsa Bruce, Soledad Urra
BACKGROUND: In most of the world, diagnostic surgery remains the most frequent approach for indeterminate thyroid cytology. Although several molecular tests are available for testing in centralized commercial laboratories in the United States, there are no available kits for local laboratory testing. The aim of this study was to develop a prototype in vitro diagnostic (IVD) gene classifier for the further characterization of nodules with an indeterminate thyroid cytology. METHODS: In a first stage, the expression of 18 genes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in a broad histopathological spectrum of 114 fresh-tissue biopsies...
August 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508528/competing-risks-model-in-screening-for-preeclampsia-in-twin-pregnancies-by-maternal-characteristics-and-medical-history
#15
Carla Francisco, David Wright, Zsófia Benkő, Argyro Syngelaki, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: A survival-time regression model for the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia (PE) in singleton pregnancies using maternal demographic characteristics and medical history was previously reported. The objective of this paper is to extend this model for dichorionic (DC) and monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies. METHODS: The study population included 1,789 DC and 430 MC twin pregnancies and 93,297 singleton pregnancies. A survival-time model for the gestational age at delivery with PE was developed from variables of maternal characteristics and history...
May 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485630/estimation-of-diagnostic-performance-of-dementia-screening-tests-mini-mental-state-examination-mini-cog-clock-drawing-test-and-ascertain-dementia-8-questionnaire
#16
Li Yang, Jing Yan, Xiaoqing Jin, Yu Jin, Wei Yu, Shanhu Xu, Haibin Wu, Ying Xu, Caixia Liu
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is one of the leading causes of dependence in the elderly. This study was conducted to estimate diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) by Bayesian models. METHOD: A total of 2015 participants aged 65 years or more in eastern China were enrolled. The four screening tests were administered and scored by specifically trained psychiatrists...
May 9, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435311/application-of-bayesian-decision-making-to-laboratory-testing-for-lyme-disease-and-comparison-with-testing-for-hiv
#17
Michael J Cook, Basant K Puri
In this study, Bayes' theorem was used to determine the probability of a patient having Lyme disease (LD), given a positive test result obtained using commercial test kits in clinically diagnosed patients. In addition, an algorithm was developed to extend the theorem to the two-tier test methodology. Using a disease prevalence of 5%-75% in samples sent for testing by clinicians, evaluated with a C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the probability of infection given a positive test ranged from 26...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408468/avoidance-of-voiding-cystourethrography-in-infants-younger-than-3-months-with-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infection-and-normal-renal-ultrasound
#18
Jean-Yves Pauchard, Hassib Chehade, Chafika Zohra Kies, Eric Girardin, Francois Cachat, Mario Gehri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents the most common bacterial infection in infants, and its prevalence increases with the presence of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is invasive, and its indication in infants <3 months is not yet defined. This study aims to investigate, in infants aged 0-3 months, if the presence of Escherichia coli versus non-E. coli bacteria and/or normal or abnormal renal ultrasound (US) could avoid the use of VCUG...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386994/a-comparison-of-bayesian-and-monte-carlo-sensitivity-analysis-for-unmeasured-confounding
#19
Lawrence C McCandless, Paul Gustafson
Bias from unmeasured confounding is a persistent concern in observational studies, and sensitivity analysis has been proposed as a solution. In the recent years, probabilistic sensitivity analysis using either Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis (MCSA) or Bayesian sensitivity analysis (BSA) has emerged as a practical analytic strategy when there are multiple bias parameters inputs. BSA uses Bayes theorem to formally combine evidence from the prior distribution and the data. In contrast, MCSA samples bias parameters directly from the prior distribution...
April 6, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384335/data-processing-of-qualitative-results-from-an-interlaboratory-comparison-for-the-detection-of-flavescence-dor%C3%A3-e-phytoplasma-how-the-use-of-statistics-can-improve-the-reliability-of-the-method-validation-process-in-plant-pathology
#20
Aude Chabirand, Marianne Loiseau, Isabelle Renaudin, Françoise Poliakoff
A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests...
2017: PloS One
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