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Bayes theorem

Thomas H Payne, Bimal R Desai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Humaira Batool, M Usman Akram, Fouzia Batool, Wasi Haider Butt
OBJECTIVES: Frozen shoulder is a disease in which shoulder becomes stiff. Accurate diagnosis of frozen shoulder is helpful in providing economical and effective treatment for patients. This research provides the classification of unstructured data using data mining techniques. Prediction results are validated by K-fold cross-validation method. It also provides accurate diagnosis of frozen shoulder using Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest models. At the end results are presented by performance measure techniques...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sophia LeMaire, Viswanathan Raghuram, Cameron R Grady, Christina M Pickering, Chung-Lin Chou, Ezigbobiara N Umejiego, Mark A Knepper
Phosphorylation of the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel at four COOH-terminal serines plays a central role in the regulation of water permeability of the renal collecting duct. The level of phosphorylation at these sites is determined by a balance between phosphorylation by protein kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases. The phosphatases that dephosphorylate AQP2 have not been identified. Here, we use large-scale data integration techniques to identify serine-threonine phosphatases likely to interact with AQP2 in renal collecting duct principal cells...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Verónica Gómez Toledo, Ileana Gutiérrez Farfán, Antonio Verduzco-Mendoza, Emilio Arch-Tirado
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is defined as the conscious perception of a sensation of sound that occurs in the absence of an external stimulus. This audiological symptom affects 7% to 19% of the adult population. The aim of this study is to describe the associated comorbidities present in patients with tinnitus usingjoint and conditional probability analysis. PATIENTS: Patients of both genders, diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus, aged between 20 and 45 years, and had a full computerised medical record, were selected...
October 13, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Min Yi Tan, David Wright, Lenia Koutoulas, Ranjit Akolekar, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the patient-specific risk of preeclampsia (PE) at 31-34 weeks' gestation by a combination of maternal characteristics and medical history with multiple of the median (MoM) values of serum placental growth factor (PLGF) and serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and compare the performance of screening to that achieved by the sFLT-1 to PLGF ratio. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in women attending for a third-trimester ultrasound scan at 31-34 weeks as part of routine pregnancy care...
September 27, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ahmad Mani-Varnosfaderani, Atefeh Kanginejad, Kambiz Gilany, Abolfazl Valadkhani
The present work deals with the development of a new baseline correction method based on the comparative learning capabilities of artificial neural networks. The developed method uses the Bayes probability theorem for prevention of the occurrence of the over-fitting and finding a generalized baseline. The developed method has been applied on simulated and real metabolomic gas-chromatography (GC) and Raman data sets. The results revealed that the proposed method can be used to handle different types of baselines with cave, convex, curvelinear, triangular and sinusoidal patterns...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Tal Galili, Isaac Meilijson
The Rao-Blackwell theorem offers a procedure for converting a crude unbiased estimator of a parameter θ into a "better" one, in fact unique and optimal if the improvement is based on a minimal sufficient statistic that is complete. In contrast, behind every minimal sufficient statistic that is not complete, there is an improvable Rao-Blackwell improvement. This is illustrated via a simple example based on the uniform distribution, in which a rather natural Rao-Blackwell improvement is uniformly improvable...
January 2, 2016: American Statistician
Zhongheng Zhang
Naïve Bayes classification is a kind of simple probabilistic classification methods based on Bayes' theorem with the assumption of independence between features. The model is trained on training dataset to make predictions by predict() function. This article introduces two functions naiveBayes() and train() for the performance of Naïve Bayes classification.
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
S Buczinski, J M Vandeweerd
Provision of good quality colostrum [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration ≥50g/L] is the first step toward ensuring proper passive transfer of immunity for young calves. Precise quantification of colostrum IgG levels cannot be easily performed on the farm. Assessment of the refractive index using a Brix scale with a refractometer has been described as being highly correlated with IgG concentration in colostrum. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of Brix refractometry to diagnose good quality colostrum...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Norman Fenton, Martin Neil, Daniel Berger
Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods...
June 2016: Annual Review of Statistics and its Application
John O Campbell
Many of the mathematical frameworks describing natural selection are equivalent to Bayes' Theorem, also known as Bayesian updating. By definition, a process of Bayesian Inference is one which involves a Bayesian update, so we may conclude that these frameworks describe natural selection as a process of Bayesian inference. Thus, natural selection serves as a counter example to a widely-held interpretation that restricts Bayesian Inference to human mental processes (including the endeavors of statisticians). As Bayesian inference can always be cast in terms of (variational) free energy minimization, natural selection can be viewed as comprising two components: a generative model of an "experiment" in the external world environment, and the results of that "experiment" or the "surprise" entailed by predicted and actual outcomes of the "experiment...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Vince Buffalo, Stephen M Mount, Graham Coop
Close relatives can share large segments of their genome identical by descent (IBD) that can be identified in genome-wide polymorphism data sets. There are a range of methods to use these IBD segments to identify relatives and estimate their relationship. These methods have focused on sharing on the autosomes, as they provide a rich source of information about genealogical relationships. We hope to learn additional information about recent ancestry through shared IBD segments on the X chromosome, but currently lack the theoretical framework to use this information fully...
September 2016: Genetics
Chengcheng Xu, Pan Liu, Wei Wang
The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the predictability of crash risk models that were developed using high-resolution real-time traffic data. More specifically the present study sought answers to the following questions: (a) how to evaluate the predictability of a real-time crash risk model; and (b) how to improve the predictability of a real-time crash risk model. The predictability is defined as the crash probability given the crash precursor identified by the crash risk model. An equation was derived based on the Bayes' theorem for estimating approximately the predictability of crash risk models...
September 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Dan B Jensen, Henk Hogeveen, Albert De Vries
Rapid detection of dairy cow mastitis is important so corrective action can be taken as soon as possible. Automatically collected sensor data used to monitor the performance and the health state of the cow could be useful for rapid detection of mastitis while reducing the labor needs for monitoring. The state of the art in combining sensor data to predict clinical mastitis still does not perform well enough to be applied in practice. Our objective was to combine a multivariate dynamic linear model (DLM) with a naïve Bayesian classifier (NBC) in a novel method using sensor and nonsensor data to detect clinical cases of mastitis...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Michelle Fritz, Marivi Fernández-Serra, José M Soler
We describe a method, that we call data projection onto parameter space (DPPS), to optimize an energy functional of the electron density, so that it reproduces a dataset of experimental magnitudes. Our scheme, based on Bayes theorem, constrains the optimized functional not to depart unphysically from existing ab initio functionals. The resulting functional maximizes the probability of being the "correct" parameterization of a given functional form, in the sense of Bayes theory. The application of DPPS to water sheds new light on why density functional theory has performed rather poorly for liquid water, on what improvements are needed, and on the intrinsic limitations of the generalized gradient approximation to electron exchange and correlation...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Barbara Medvar, Viswanathan Raghuram, Trairak Pisitkun, Abhijit Sarkar, Mark A Knepper
Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is regulated in part via vasopressin-mediated changes in protein half-life that are in turn dependent on AQP2 ubiquitination. Here we addressed the question, "What E3 ubiquitin ligase is most likely to be responsible for AQP2 ubiquitination?" using large-scale data integration based on Bayes' rule. The first step was to bioinformatically identify all E3 ligase genes coded by the human genome. The 377 E3 ubiquitin ligases identified in the human genome, consisting predominant of HECT, RING, and U-box proteins, have been used to create a publically accessible and downloadable online database (https://hpcwebapps...
July 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Sarah J Price, Sal A Stapley, Elizabeth Shephard, Kevin Barraclough, William T Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate data loss and bias in studies of Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) data that restrict analyses to Read codes, omitting anything recorded as text. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Patients contributing data to the CPRD. PARTICIPANTS: 4915 bladder and 3635 pancreatic, cancer cases diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009, matched on age, sex and general practitioner practice to up to 5 controls (bladder: n=21 718; pancreas: n=16 459)...
2016: BMJ Open
Roger S Day
PURPOSE: Despite an explosion of translational research to exploit biomarkers in diagnosis, prediction and prognosis, the impact of biomarkers on clinical practice has been limited. The elusiveness of clinical utility may partly originate when validation studies are planned, from a failure to articulate precisely how the biomarker, if successful, will improve clinical decision-making for patients. Clarifying what performance would suffice if the test is to improve medical care makes it possible to design meaningful validation studies...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Binghu Jiang, Wei Cai, Xianjun Lv, Huaijun Liu
BACKGROUND: Stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a noninvasive alternative to invasive fractional flow reserve for evaluating haemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. We aimed to systematically analyse the diagnostic performance and clinical utility of myocardial perfusion MRI for coronary artery disease (CAD) using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the standard reference. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library to July 2015 for studies using perfusion MR as a diagnostic test for CAD versus FFR...
October 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Andrew S Gordon, Adele H Marshall, Karen J Cairns
The number of elderly patients requiring hospitalisation in Europe is rising. With a greater proportion of elderly people in the population comes a greater demand for health services and, in particular, hospital care. Thus, with a growing number of elderly patients requiring hospitalisation competing with non-elderly patients for a fixed (and in some cases, decreasing) number of hospital beds, this results in much longer waiting times for patients, often with a less satisfactory hospital experience. However, if a better understanding of the recurring nature of elderly patient movements between the community and hospital can be developed, then it may be possible for alternative provisions of care in the community to be put in place and thus prevent readmission to hospital...
September 20, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
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