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Bayes theorem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589779/faking-handedness-individual-differences-in-ability-to-fake-handedness-social-cognitions-of-the-handedness-of-others-and-a-forensic-application-using-bayes-theorem
#1
I C McManus, Giulia Buckens, Naomi Harris, Alexandra Flint, Hei Ling Abigail Ng, Foteini Vovou
People usually describe their handedness honestly, but that need not necessarily be the case. A legal case is described of a murder said by the pathologist to be committed by a left-hander but the defendant claimed to be right-handed, and the first author assessed the defendant's handedness as an expert witness. We know of no previous work on faking handedness, and so we tested 30 right-handers and 25 left-handers on various handedness tasks, and then asked the participants to repeat the tasks while faking being of opposite handedness...
June 7, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579595/study-on-the-increased-probability-of-detecting-adverse-drug-reactions-based-on-bayes-theorem-evaluation-of-the-usefulness-of-information-on-the-onset-timing-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#2
Shinji Oshima, Takako Enjuji, Akio Negishi, Hayato Akimoto, Kousuke Ohara, Mitsuyoshi Okita, Sachihiko Numajiri, Naoko Inoue, Shigeru Ohshima, Akira Terao, Daisuke Kobayashi
In order to avoid adverse drug reactions (ADRs), pharmacists are reconstructing ADR-related information based on various types of data gathered from patients, and then providing this information to patients. Among the data provided to patients is the time-to-onset of ADRs after starting the medication (i.e., ADR onset timing information). However, a quantitative evaluation of the effect of onset timing information offered by pharmacists on the probability of ADRs occurring in patients receiving this information has not been reported to date...
June 3, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574204/rational-clinical-evaluation-of-suspected-acute-coronary-syndromes-the-value-of-more-information
#3
David G Hancock, Ming-Yu Anthony Chuang, Rebecca Bystrom, Amera Halabi, Rachel Jones, Matthew Horsfall, Louise Cullen, William A Parsonage, Derek P Chew
OBJECTIVE: Many meta-analyses have provided synthesised likelihood ratio data to aid clinical decision-making. However, much less has been published on how to safely combine clinical information in practice. We aimed to explore the benefits and risks of pooling clinical information during the ED assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Clinical information on 1776 patients was collected within a randomised trial conducted across five South Australian EDs between July 2011 and March 2013...
June 2, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573589/low-resolution-refinement-of-atomic-models-against-crystallographic-data
#4
Robert A Nicholls, Oleg Kovalevskiy, Garib N Murshudov
This review describes some of the problems encountered during low-resolution refinement and map calculation. Refinement is considered as an application of Bayes' theorem, allowing combination of information from various sources including crystallographic experimental data and prior chemical and structural knowledge. The sources of prior knowledge relevant to macromolecules include basic chemical information such as bonds and angles, structural information from reference models of known homologs, knowledge about secondary structures, hydrogen bonding patterns, and similarity of non-crystallographically related copies of a molecule...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562551/final-diagnoses-and-probability-of-new-reason-for-encounter-at-an-urban-clinic-in-japan-a-4-year-observational-study
#5
Motoharu Fukushi, Yukishige Ishibashi, Naoki Nago
Past clinical data are not currently used to calculate pretest probabilities, as they have not been put into a database in clinical settings. This observational study was designed to determine the initial reasons for utilizing home visits or visits to an outpatient urban clinic in Japan.All family medical clinic outpatients and patients visited by the clinic (total = 11,688) over 1460 days were enrolled.We used a Bayes theorem-based clinical decision support system to analyze codes for initial reason-for-encounter (examination and final diagnosis: pretest probability) and final diagnosis of patients with fever (conditional pretest probability)...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556556/competing-risks-model-in-screening-for-preeclampsia-in-twin-pregnancies-by-maternal-factors-and-biomarkers-at-11-13-weeks-gestation
#6
Carla Francisco, David Wright, Zsófia Benkő, Argyro Syngelaki, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To develop a model for preeclampsia (PE) in twin pregnancies based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks' gestation. METHODS: This was a screening study in twin pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Bayes theorem was used to combine the a priori risk from maternal factors with various combinations of uterine artery pulsatility index (UTPI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and placental growth factor (PLGF) multiple of the median (MoM) values...
May 27, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537096/bayes-theorem-and-its-application-to-cardiovascular-nursing
#7
David R Thompson, Colin R Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521616/a-10-gene-classifier-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-development-and-multicenter-accuracy-study
#8
Hernan E Gonzalez, Jose R Martínez, Sergio Vargas, Antonieta Solar, Loreto Pamela Véliz, Francisco Cruz, Tatiana Arias, Soledad Loyola, Eleonora Horvath, Hernán Tala, Eufrosina Traipe, Manuel Meneses, Luis Marin, Nelson Wohllk, Rene Eduardo Diaz, Jesús Véliz, Pedro Pineda, Patricia Arroyo, Natalia Mena, Milagros Bracamonte, Giovanna Miranda, Elsa Bruce, Soledad Urra
BACKGROUND: In most of the world, diagnostic surgery remains as the most frequent approach for indeterminate thyroid cytology. Although several molecular tests are available for central-lab testing in the US, there are no available kits for local laboratory testing. The aim of this study was to develop a prototype in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) gene classifier for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid cytology. METHODS: In a first stage, the expression of 18 genes was determined by qPCR in a broad histopathological spectrum of fresh tissue biopsies (114)...
May 18, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508528/competing-risks-model-in-screening-for-preeclampsia-in-twin-pregnancies-by-maternal-characteristics-and-medical-history
#9
Carla Francisco, David Wright, Zsófia Benkő, Argyro Syngelaki, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: A survival-time regression model for the gestational age at delivery with preeclampsia (PE) in singleton pregnancies using maternal demographic characteristics and medical history was previously reported. The objective of this paper is to extend this model for dichorionic (DC) and monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies. METHODS: The study population included 1,789 DC and 430 MC twin pregnancies and 93,297 singleton pregnancies. A survival-time model for the gestational age at delivery with PE was developed from variables of maternal characteristics and history...
May 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485630/estimation-of-diagnostic-performance-of-dementia-screening-tests-mini-mental-state-examination-mini-cog-clock-drawing-test-and-ascertain-dementia-8-questionnaire
#10
Li Yang, Jing Yan, Xiaoqing Jin, Yu Jin, Wei Yu, Shanhu Xu, Haibin Wu, Ying Xu, Caixia Liu
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is one of the leading causes of dependence in the elderly. This study was conducted to estimate diagnostic performance of dementia screening tests including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) by Bayesian models. METHOD: A total of 2015 participants aged 65 years or more in eastern China were enrolled. The four screening tests were administered and scored by specifically trained psychiatrists...
May 9, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435311/application-of-bayesian-decision-making-to-laboratory-testing-for-lyme-disease-and-comparison-with-testing-for-hiv
#11
Michael J Cook, Basant K Puri
In this study, Bayes' theorem was used to determine the probability of a patient having Lyme disease (LD), given a positive test result obtained using commercial test kits in clinically diagnosed patients. In addition, an algorithm was developed to extend the theorem to the two-tier test methodology. Using a disease prevalence of 5%-75% in samples sent for testing by clinicians, evaluated with a C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the probability of infection given a positive test ranged from 26...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408468/avoidance-of-voiding-cystourethrography-in-infants-younger-than-3-months-with-escherichia-coli-urinary-tract-infection-and-normal-renal-ultrasound
#12
Jean-Yves Pauchard, Hassib Chehade, Chafika Zohra Kies, Eric Girardin, Francois Cachat, Mario Gehri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents the most common bacterial infection in infants, and its prevalence increases with the presence of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). However, voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is invasive, and its indication in infants <3 months is not yet defined. This study aims to investigate, in infants aged 0-3 months, if the presence of Escherichia coli versus non-E. coli bacteria and/or normal or abnormal renal ultrasound (US) could avoid the use of VCUG...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386994/a-comparison-of-bayesian-and-monte-carlo-sensitivity-analysis-for-unmeasured-confounding
#13
Lawrence C McCandless, Paul Gustafson
Bias from unmeasured confounding is a persistent concern in observational studies, and sensitivity analysis has been proposed as a solution. In the recent years, probabilistic sensitivity analysis using either Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis (MCSA) or Bayesian sensitivity analysis (BSA) has emerged as a practical analytic strategy when there are multiple bias parameters inputs. BSA uses Bayes theorem to formally combine evidence from the prior distribution and the data. In contrast, MCSA samples bias parameters directly from the prior distribution...
April 6, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384335/data-processing-of-qualitative-results-from-an-interlaboratory-comparison-for-the-detection-of-flavescence-dor%C3%A3-e-phytoplasma-how-the-use-of-statistics-can-improve-the-reliability-of-the-method-validation-process-in-plant-pathology
#14
Aude Chabirand, Marianne Loiseau, Isabelle Renaudin, Françoise Poliakoff
A working group established in the framework of the EUPHRESCO European collaborative project aimed to compare and validate diagnostic protocols for the detection of "Flavescence dorée" (FD) phytoplasma in grapevines. Seven molecular protocols were compared in an interlaboratory test performance study where each laboratory had to analyze the same panel of samples consisting of DNA extracts prepared by the organizing laboratory. The tested molecular methods consisted of universal and group-specific real-time and end-point nested PCR tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369334/nebcon-protein-contact-map-prediction-using-neural-network-training-coupled-with-na%C3%A3-ve-bayes-classifiers
#15
Baoji He, S M Mortuza, Yanting Wang, Hong-Bin Shen, Yang Zhang
Motivation: Recent CASP experiments have witnessed exciting progress on folding large-size non-humongous proteins with the assistance of co-evolution based contact predictions. The success is however anecdotal due to the requirement of the contact prediction methods for the high volume of sequence homologs that are not available to most of the non-humongous protein targets. Development of efficient methods that can generate balanced and reliable contact maps for different type of protein targets is essential to enhance the success rate of the ab initio protein structure prediction...
March 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367080/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-comorbidities-among-hypertensive-patients-in-china
#16
Jiaojiao Wang, Jian James Ma, Jiaqi Liu, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Cynthia Song, Zhidong Cao
Hypertension is a severe threat to human being's health due to its association with many comorbidities. Many research works have explored hypertension's prevalence and treatment. However, few considered impact of patient's socioeconomic status and geographical disparities. We intended to fulfill that research gap by analyzing the association of the prevalence of hypertension and three important comorbidities with various socioeconomic and geographical factors. We also investigated the prevalence of those comorbidities if the patient has been diagnosed with hypertension...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298358/identification-of-%C3%AE-catenin-interacting-proteins-in-nuclear-fractions-of-native-rat-collecting-duct-cells
#17
Jacqueline R Hwang, Chung-Lin Chou, Barbara Medvar, Mark A Knepper, Hyun Jun Jung
The gene encoding the aquaporin-2 water channel is regulated transcriptionally in response to vasopressin. In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin stimulates the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation (at Ser552) of β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that acts as a transcriptional co-regulator in the nucleus. The purpose of this study was to identify β-catenin interacting proteins that may be involved in transcriptional regulation in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells using both experimental and computational approaches...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295782/multicenter-screening-for-pre-eclampsia-by-maternal-factors-and-biomarkers-at-11-13-weeks-gestation-comparison-with-nice-guidelines-and-acog-recommendations
#18
N O'Gorman, D Wright, L C Poon, D L Rolnik, A Syngelaki, M de Alvarado, I F Carbone, V Dutemeyer, M Fiolna, A Frick, N Karagiotis, S Mastrodima, C de Paco Matallana, G Papaioannou, A Pazos, W Plasencia, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of screening for pre-eclampsia (PE) based on risk factors from medical history, as recommended by NICE and ACOG, with the method proposed by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF), which uses Bayes' theorem to combine the a-priori risk from maternal factors, derived by a multivariable logistic model, with the results of various combinations of biophysical and biochemical measurements. METHODS: This was a prospective multicenter study of screening for PE in 8775 singleton pregnancies at 11-13 weeks' gestation...
June 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247184/bayesian-methods-for-calibrating-health-policy-models-a-tutorial
#19
Nicolas A Menzies, Djøra I Soeteman, Ankur Pandya, Jane J Kim
Mathematical simulation models are commonly used to inform health policy decisions. These health policy models represent the social and biological mechanisms that determine health and economic outcomes, combine multiple sources of evidence about how policy alternatives will impact those outcomes, and synthesize outcomes into summary measures salient for the policy decision. Calibrating these health policy models to fit empirical data can provide face validity and improve the quality of model predictions. Bayesian methods provide powerful tools for model calibration...
June 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225651/robotic-surgery-a-solution-in-search-of-a-problem-a-bayesian-analysis-of-343-robotic-procedures-performed-by-a-single-surgical-team
#20
REVIEW
Simona Manciu, Mihnea Dragomir, Fabiana Curea, Catalin Vasilescu
BACKGROUND: Despite the obvious technical advantages, the value of robotic surgery is highly debated and its cost-effectiveness has been questioned. The aim of this article is to provide an evaluation of the outcomes of robotic surgery in comparison to conventional laparoscopy. METHODS: A decision analysis based on the Bayes' theorem and the decision tree was used. The robotic approach was compared with the laparoscopic approach for each of the pathologies discussed in this study...
April 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
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