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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424559/bayesian-latent-class-analysis-tutorial
#1
Yuelin Li, Jennifer Lord-Bessen, Mariya Shiyko, Rebecca Loeb
This article is a how-to guide on Bayesian computation using Gibbs sampling, demonstrated in the context of Latent Class Analysis (LCA). It is written for students in quantitative psychology or related fields who have a working knowledge of Bayes Theorem and conditional probability and have experience in writing computer programs in the statistical language R . The overall goals are to provide an accessible and self-contained tutorial, along with a practical computation tool. We begin with how Bayesian computation is typically described in academic articles...
February 9, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402826/when-to-screen-ischaemic-stroke-patients-for-cancer
#2
Henriette Aurora Selvik, Anna Therese Bjerkreim, Lars Thomassen, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Halvor Naess, Christopher Elnan Kvistad
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke can be the first manifestation of cancer and it is therefore important to ascertain which stroke patients should be considered for cancer-diagnostic investigations. We aimed to determine the frequency of active cancer in patients with acute ischemic stroke and to compare clinical findings in stroke patients with active cancer to ischemic stroke patients with no history of cancer. Finally, we aimed to develop a predictive and feasible score for clinical use to uncover underlying malignancy...
January 9, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389938/skill-or-lack-thereof-of-data-model-fusion-techniques-to-provide-an-early-warning-signal-for-an-approaching-tipping-point
#3
Riddhi Singh, Julianne D Quinn, Patrick M Reed, Klaus Keller
Many coupled human-natural systems have the potential to exhibit a highly nonlinear threshold response to external forcings resulting in fast transitions to undesirable states (such as eutrophication in a lake). Often, there are considerable uncertainties that make identifying the threshold challenging. Thus, rapid learning is critical for guiding management actions to avoid abrupt transitions. Here, we adopt the shallow lake problem as a test case to compare the performance of four common data assimilation schemes to predict an approaching transition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327266/social-targets-improve-body-based-and-environment-based-strategies-during-spatial-navigation
#4
Esther Kuehn, Xiaoli Chen, Pia Geise, Jan Oltmer, Thomas Wolbers
Encoding the position of another person in space is vital for everyday life. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific navigational strategies associated with encoding the position of another person in the wider spatial environment. We asked two groups of participants to learn the location of a target (person or object) during active navigation, while optic flow information, a landmark, or both optic flow information and a landmark were available in a virtual environment. Whereas optic flow information is used for body-based encoding, such as the simulation of motor movements, landmarks are used to form an abstract, disembodied representation of the environment...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322097/toward-a-leading-indicator-of-catastrophic-shifts-in-complex-systems-assessing-changing-conditions-in-nation-states
#5
Leisha Vance, Tarsha Eason, Heriberto Cabezas, Michael E Gorman
The 20th century was characterized by substantial change on a global scale. There were multiple wars and unrest, social and political transitions, technological innovation and widespread development that impacted every corner of the earth. In order to assess the sustainability implications of these changes, we conducted a study of three advanced nations particularly affected during this time: France, Germany and the United States (USA). All three nation states withstood these changes and yet continued to thrive, which speaks to their resilience...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242838/a-dirichlet-multinomial-bayes-classifier-for-disease-diagnosis-with-microbial-compositions
#6
Xiang Gao, Huaiying Lin, Qunfeng Dong
Dysbiosis of microbial communities is associated with various human diseases, raising the possibility of using microbial compositions as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. We have developed a Bayes classifier by modeling microbial compositions with Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, which are widely used to model multicategorical count data with extra variation. The parameters of the Dirichlet-multinomial distributions are estimated from training microbiome data sets based on maximum likelihood. The posterior probability of a microbiome sample belonging to a disease or healthy category is calculated based on Bayes' theorem, using the likelihood values computed from the estimated Dirichlet-multinomial distribution, as well as a prior probability estimated from the training microbiome data set or previously published information on disease prevalence...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217989/bayesian-inference-of-metal-oxide-ultrathin-film-structure-based-on-crystal-truncation-rod-measurements
#7
Masato Anada, Yoshinori Nakanishi-Ohno, Masato Okada, Tsuyoshi Kimura, Yusuke Wakabayashi
Monte Carlo (MC)-based refinement software to analyze the atomic arrangements of perovskite oxide ultrathin films from the crystal truncation rod intensity is developed on the basis of Bayesian inference. The advantages of the MC approach are (i) it is applicable to multi-domain structures, (ii) it provides the posterior probability of structures through Bayes' theorem, which allows one to evaluate the uncertainty of estimated structural parameters, and (iii) one can involve any information provided by other experiments and theories...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209139/bayes-theorem-the-roc-diagram-and-reference-values-definition-and-use-in-clinical-diagnosis
#8
REVIEW
Anders Kallner
Medicine is diagnosis, treatment and care. To diagnose is to consider the probability of the cause of discomfort experienced by the patient. The physician may face many options and all decisions are liable to uncertainty to some extent. The rational action is to perform selected tests and thereby increase the pre-test probability to reach a superior post-test probability of a particular option. To draw the right conclusions from a test, certain background information about the performance of the test is necessary...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156414/schizophrenia-heterogeneity-revisited-clinical-cognitive-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-statistically-derived-negative-symptoms-subgroups
#9
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154079/clinical-performance-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-assay-thyroseq-v2-in-the-evaluation-of-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules
#10
Aida Taye, Dillon Gurciullo, Brett A Miles, Ashita Gupta, Randall P Owen, William B Inabnet, Jessica N Beyda, Jennifer L Marti
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing with the Thyroseq v2 next generation sequencing panel ("Thyroseq") is used to estimate the risk of cancer in indeterminate thyroid nodules. METHODS: We analyzed 156 indeterminate thyroid nodules evaluated with Thyroseq, across 3 institutions. Thyroseq data and surgical pathology were matched via pathologic re-review. A result was considered Thyroseq positive if molecular alterations were annotated on the report with malignancy probability >30%...
November 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153481/what-is-the-error-margin-of-your-signature-analysis
#11
Raymond Marquis, Liv Cadola, Williams David Mazzella, Tacha Hicks
In our experience, it seems to become more and more common for mandating authorities or parties to ask forensic signature examiners to quantify the degree of certainty of their conclusion regarding a signature analysis. This paper reports the likelihood ratio approach followed by examiners to answer such a question, in a case where the Court asked whether a questioned signature was written, or not, by Mr Jones. The Court also required an assessment of the error margin of the signature analysis. This question was answered using Bayes' theorem (i...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132741/model-predictive-controller-based-multi-model-control-system-for-longitudinal-stability-of-distributed-drive-electric-vehicle
#12
Ke Shi, Xiaofang Yuan, Liang Liu
Distributed drive electric vehicle(DDEV) has been widely researched recently, its longitudinal stability is a very important research topic. Conventional wheel slip ratio control strategies are usually designed for one special operating mode and the optimal performance cannot be obtained as DDEV works under various operating modes. In this paper, a novel model predictive controller-based multi-model control system (MPC-MMCS) is proposed to solve the longitudinal stability problem of DDEV. Firstly, the operation state of DDEV is summarized as three kinds of typical operating modes...
November 10, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092890/association-between-monoallelic-tshr-mutations-and-congenital-hypothyroidism-a-statistical-approach
#13
Kiyomi Abe, Satoshi Narumi, Ayuko Suzuki Suwanai, Masanori Adachi, Koji Muroya, Yumi Asakura, Keisuke Nagasaki, Takayuki Abe, Tomonobu Hasegawa
Objective: Biallelic TSHR mutations cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Serum TSH levels of monoallelic TSHR mutation carriers range from normal to mildly elevated, and thus the size of its effect remains unclear. The objectives were to examine the association between monoallelic TSHR mutations and positivity at newborn screening (NBS) for CH, and to test whether the association was modified by another genetic factor. Subjects and methods: We enrolled 395 patients that had a positive result in NBS, and sequenced TSHR Monoallelic TSHR mutation carriers were further sequenced for DUOX2 Molecular functions of the mutations were verified in vitro The frequency of the mutations in the study subjects was compared with a theoretical value in the Japanese general population...
November 1, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053466/classification-of-single-cell-gene-expression-trajectories-from-incomplete-and-noisy-data
#14
Alireza Karbalayghareh, Ulisses Braga-Neto, Edward Russell Dougherty
This paper studies classification of gene-expression trajectories coming from two classes, healthy and mutated (cancerous) using Boolean networks with perturbation (BNps) to model the dynamics of each class at the state level. Each class has its own BNp, which is partially known based on gene pathways. We employ a Gaussian model at the observation level to show the expression values of the genes given the hidden binary states at each time point. We use expectation maximization (EM) to learn the BNps and the unknown model parameters, derive closed-form updates for the parameters, and propose a learning algorithm...
October 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977045/estimation-of-a-closed-population-size-of-tadpoles-in-temporary-pond
#15
M S C S Lima, J Pederassi, C A S Souza
The practice of capture-recapture to estimate the diversity is well known to many animal groups, however this practice in the larval phase of anuran amphibians is incipient. We aimed at evaluating the Lincoln estimator, Venn diagram and Bayes theorem in the inference of population size of a larval phase anurocenose from lotic environment. The adherence of results was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The marking of tadpoles for later recapture and methods measurement was made with eosin methylene blue...
September 28, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963900/development-and-small-scale-validation-of-a-novel-pigeon-associated-mitochondrial-dna-source-tracking-marker-for-the-detection-of-fecal-contamination-in-harvested-rainwater
#16
M Waso, S Khan, W Khan
The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958571/-evaluation-correction-and-impact-of-non-response-in-studies-of-childhood-obesity
#17
María Isolina Santiago-Pérez, Mónica Pérez-Ríos, Alberto Malvar, Jorge Suanzes, Xurxo Hervada
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and correct the impact of non-response in the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children aged 6 to 15 years old using silhouette scales. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2013 among 8,145 Galician schoolchildren aged 6-15 years old. The students who agreed to participate were weighed and measured and, based on body mass index, the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was estimated. Teachers rated all students using silhouette scales...
September 25, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844288/generalisability-of-prognostic-factor-research-further-analysis-of-data-from-the-iipcos2-study
#18
Anjali Miglani, Lex Rutten, Raj K Manchanda
Prognostic factor research is important as it helps in refining diagnosis, taking clinical and therapeutic decisions, enhances the design and analysis of intervention trials and helps to identify targets for new interventions that aim to modify the course of a disease. Prognostic factor research in homeopathy can be done by applying Bayes' theorem. This paper considers Bayes' theorem; Likelihood Ratio, conditional probability and research in subpopulations of a condition with examples. We analysed the likelihood ratios for 11 homeopathic medicines for the symptom 'cough' and other upper respiratory tract symptoms, based on data from the IIPCOS2 study...
August 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780393/sample-size-for-tablet-compression-and-capsule-filling-events-during-process-validation
#19
Naseem Ahmad Charoo, Mark Durivage, Ziyaur Rahman, Mohamad Haitham Ayad
During solid dosage form manufacturing, the uniformity of dosage units (UDU) is ensured by testing samples at 2 stages, that is, blend stage and tablet compression or capsule/powder filling stage. The aim of this work is to propose a sample size selection approach based on quality risk management principles for process performance qualification (PPQ) and continued process verification (CPV) stages by linking UDU to potential formulation and process risk factors. Bayes success run theorem appeared to be the most appropriate approach among various methods considered in this work for computing sample size for PPQ...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746950/-bayes-theorem-and-base-rate-error-on-the-predictive-value-of-risk-factors-and-screening-tests
#20
Markus Antonius Wirtz
Regularly, risk assessments or decisions are based on dichotomous characteristics or measures. For instance, critical high values in screening tests may indicate an enhanced risk of having a disease. The prevalence of a risk factor (e. g. high blood pressure, depression) may indicate the need of a medical treatment or the occurrence of a negative consequence (e. g. early retirement). In such situations risk assessments are typically based on conditional event rates or conditional event probabilities: What is the risk of having a disease under the condition of having a symptom, risk factor or a critical screening indication? The valid interpretation of conditional event rates poses a considerable challenge for practitioners as well as for rehabilitation patients...
July 26, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
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