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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329944/-evolutionary-characteristics-and-positive-selection-site-of-hepatitis-c-virus-isolated-in-intravenous-drug-users-in-pudong-new-district-shanghai
#1
Y Wang, H Y Wu, X C Zhao, W P Zhu, Q Wan, Y H Lu, Q W Jiang
Objective: To understand the genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulating in intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Pudong new district, Shanghai, and explore the population growth and selection pressure of the HCV strains isolated. Methods: A total of 200 serum specimens sampled from IDUs in local methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Pudong were used for amplification of a HCV NS5B 377-nt partial sequence. Mean evolutionary rate and effective number of infections were estimated based on the 377-nt partial sequences of the HCV strains isolated from IDUs and isolated contemporarily from local voluntary blood donors, men who have sex with men and reported hepatitis C cases by using BEAST software...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322919/evaluation-of-preclinical-antimalarial-drugs-which-can-overcome-direct-acting-antivirals-resistant-hepatitis-c-viruses-using-the-viral-reporter-assay-systems
#2
Youki Ueda, Hiromichi Dansako, Shinya Satoh, Hye-Sook Kim, Yusuke Wataya, Hiroyuki Doi, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a major global health problem. Recently developed treatments with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have largely improved the sustained virologic response rate of patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, this approach is still hindered by its great expense and the problem of drug resistance. Using our cell-based HCV assay systems, we reported that the preclinical antimalarial drugs N-89 and N-251 exhibited potent anti-HCV activities...
March 18, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321272/future-of-liver-disease-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c
#3
REVIEW
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Francesca Mangiola, Cecilia Binda, Maria Assunta Zocco, Massimo Siciliano, Antonio Grieco, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a global health problem for decades, due to the high number of infected people and to the lack of effective and well-tolerated therapies. In the last 3 years, the approval of new direct acting antivirals characterized by high rates of virological clearance and excellent tolerability has dramatically improved HCV infection curability, especially for patients with advanced liver disease and for liver transplant recipients. Long-term data about the impact of the new direct acting antivirals on liver fibrosis and liver disease-related outcomes are not yet available, due to their recent introduction...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321170/diabetes-mellitus-insulin-resistance-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-contemporary-review
#4
Anne-Claire Desbois, Patrice Cacoub
AIM: To summarise the literature data on hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients concerning the prevalence of glucose abnormalities and associated risk. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search and selected all studies found with the key words "HCV" or "hepatitis C virus" and "diabetes" or "insulin resistance". We included only comparative studies written in English or in French, published from January 2000 to April 2015. We collected the literature data on HCV-infected patients concerning the prevalence of glucose abnormalities [diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR)] and associated risk [i...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315743/treatment-with-peg-ifn-and-ribavirin-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-low-grade-of-hepatic-fibrosis-genotype-1-and-4-and-favorable-ifnl3-genotype-a-pharmacogenetic-prospective-study
#5
Lucio Boglione, Chiara Simona Cardellino, Jessica Cusato, Amedeo De Nicolò, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
The new direct-acting antivirals agents (DAAs) rapidly changed the treatment approach in chronic hepatitis C (CHC); however, the interferon (IFN)-free therapies availability is currently different in some countries, due to higher costs of these drugs. Naïve treated patients, who are not eligible for IFN-free therapies, could be selected for standard dual treatment with pegylated (PEG)-IFN and ribavirin (RBV), through IFN lambda 3 gene polymorphisms and fibrosis stage evaluation. Inclusion criteria were: naïve treated CHC patients with GT1 or GT4, without major contraindication to PEG-IFN or RBV, with fibrosis stage F0-F2 and IFNL3 rs8099917/rs12979860 TT/CC genotypes...
March 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#6
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306188/protein-modelling-to-understand-fgb-mutations-leading-to-congenital-hypofibrinogenaemia
#7
A Casini, R Vilar, Y Beauverd, D Aslan, K Devreese, V Mondelaers, L Alberio, C Gubert, P de Moerloose, M Neerman-Arbez
INTRODUCTION: Congenital hypofibrinogenaemia is a quantitative fibrinogen disorder characterized by proportionally decreased levels of functional and antigenic fibrinogen. Mutations accounting for quantitative fibrinogen disorders are relatively frequent in the conserved COOH-terminal globular domains of the γ and Bβ chains. The latter mutations are of particular interest since the Bβ-chain is considered the rate-limiting chain in the hepatic production of the fibrinogen hexamer. AIM: The aim of this study was to study the molecular pattern of four patients with congenital hypofibrinogenaemia...
March 17, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295920/importin-%C3%AE-1-targeting-by-hepatitis-c-virus-ns3-4a-protein-restricts-irf3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-of-ifnb1-antiviral-response
#8
Bridget Gagné, Nicolas Tremblay, Alex Y Park, Martin Baril, Daniel Lamarre
In this study, newly identified host interactors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins were assessed for a role in modulating innate immune response. The analysis revealed enrichment for components of the nuclear transport machinery and the crucial interaction with NS3/4A protein in suppression of interferon-β (IFNB1) induction. Using a comprehensive microscopy-based high-content screening approach combined to the gene silencing of nuclear transport factors, we showed that NS3/4A-interacting proteins control the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and NF-κB p65 upon Sendai virus (SeV) infection...
March 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295785/improving-support-and-education-of-low-income-baby-boomers-diagnosed-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-through-universal-screening
#9
Barbara J Turner, Kathryn Craig, Vidhi S Makanji, Bertha E Flores, Ludivina Hernandez
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify support needs of low income baby boomers recently diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. BACKGROUND: The United States Preventive Services Task Force has endorsed one-time screening of all baby boomers (born 1945 to 1965) for hepatitis C because 75% of the estimated 2 to 3 million persons with chronic infection are in this age range. We hypothesized that persons diagnosed by routine screening would have significant psycho-emotional, cognitive, and health care challenges that need to be met by collaborative care and services from nurses and other health care personnel...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289523/pcsk9-inhibitors-a-new-era-of-lipid-lowering-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Rahul Chaudhary, Jalaj Garg, Neeraj Shah, Andrew Sumner
Hyperlipidemia is a well-established risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The recent American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines on lipid management emphasize treatment of individuals at increased risk for developing CVD events with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) at doses proven to reduce CVD events. However, there are limited options for patients who are either intolerant to statin therapy, develop CVD despite being on maximally tolerated statin therapy, or have severe hypercholesterolemia...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288626/hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-new-generation-antivirals
#11
REVIEW
Thomas F Baumert, Frank Jühling, Atsushi Ono, Yujin Hoshida
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Interferon has been the major antiviral treatment, yielding viral clearance in approximately half of patients. New direct-acting antivirals substantially improved the cure rate to above 90%. However, access to therapies remains limited due to the high costs and under-diagnosis of infection in specific subpopulations, e.g., baby boomers, inmates, and injection drug users, and therefore, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is predicted to increase in the next decades even in high-resource countries...
March 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286567/grazoprevir-elbasvir-combination-therapy-for-hcv-infection
#12
REVIEW
Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Stanislas Pol
Interferon-free regimens combine different second-wave direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), which target the main viral proteins involved in the replication cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV): NS3/4A protease inhibitors (simeprevir or paritaprevir boosted by ritonavir), NS5B nucleos(t)idic (sofosbuvir) and nonnucleos(t)idic (dasabuvir) polymerase inhibitors, NS5A replication complex inhibitors (daclatasvir, ledipasvir, elbasvir, velpatasvir). Combinations of two or three DAAs, given for 8-24 weeks reach sustained virology response (SVR) rates greater than 90% with good tolerance...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277812/considerations-on-bringing-warehoused-hcv-patients-into-active-care-following-interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-drug-approval
#13
Aleksandra Palak, Christine Livoti, Céline Audibert
OBJECTIVES: Until recently, lack of efficacious and tolerable hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments prompted patient warehousing until better treatment options became available. We investigated whether the introduction of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir precipitated patient return to clinics, thereby changing HCV clinic dynamics. METHODS: Online questionnaire responses indicated the volume of HCV patients followed, the proportion of warehoused patients and those who were proactively offered new options, methods for identifying and contacting patients, and insurance authorization/reimbursement-related information...
March 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277143/profile-of-roche-s-cobas%C3%A2-hcv-tests
#14
Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl
Molecular assays for detection and accurate quantitation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA have been important for identification and management of the hepatitis C. Furthermore, the HCV genotype should be assessed prior to treatment initiation. Recently, Roche developed the cobas® HCV tests for use on the cobas® 6800/8800 Systems and the cobas® 4800 System and the cobas® HCV genotyping (GT) test for use on the cobas® 4800 System. Areas covered: The analytic and clinical performance of the newly-developed tests is described according to the currently existing literature...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263467/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-drug-drug-interactions
#15
David J Greenblatt
Medications used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections present a special challenge with respect to the management of potential and actual drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The HIV and HCV treatments may interact with each other, and also interact with drugs of abuse and/or with medications used to treat substance abuse. Possible mechanisms of these DDIs generally include induction or inhibition of activity/expression of human cytochromes P450, glucuronosyl transferases, or energy-dependent transport proteins...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263100/decreased-serum-dnase1-activity-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#16
Nikolaos K Gatselis, Aigli G Vakrakou, Kalliopi Zachou, Theodoros Androutsakos, Kalliopi Azariadis, Gregorios Hatzis, Menelaos N Manoussakis, George N Dalekos
Deoxyribonuclease1 (DNase1) is involved in chromatin degradation of apoptotic cells. Its deficiency results in accumulation of self-DNA, which in turn may induce inflammation and autoimmunity. We assessed for the first time serum DNase1-activity in a large consecutive cohort of treatment-naïve patients with autoimmune liver diseases (ALD). DNase1-activity was determined by single radial enzyme-diffusion (SRED) at diagnosis of 224 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), 249 with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and 36 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)...
March 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261822/systematic-review-interferon-free-regimens-for-patients-with-hcv-related-child-c-cirrhosis
#17
REVIEW
M Guarino, F Morisco, M R Valvano, A M Ippolito, M Librandi, N Andriulli, M Greco, A Amoruso, A Iacobellis, G Niro, N Caporaso, A Andriulli
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the efficacy and long-term outcome of treating patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive cirrhosis with the new protease inhibitors will extend to those with Child C cirrhosis. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the interferon-free regimens in Child C cirrhotic patients with HCV infection. METHODS: A systematic Medline search was conducted to retrieve studies describing the treatment of Child C patients with direct-acting agents...
March 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256406/microwave-ablation-in-the-spleen-versus-partial-splenic-artery-embolisation-a-new-technique-for-hypersplenism-in-cirrhosis
#18
Fathia Assal, Mohamed El Kassas, Eslam Esmail, Amr A Elbadry, Sabry Abousaif, Reem Mahdy, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Splenectomy has been associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Partial splenic artery embolisation (PSE) was found to be an effective and safer method but with numerous complications. Local thermal ablative techniques such as microwave ablation (MWA) have been tried and were found to be safe and effective alternatives. This randomised controlled study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of MWA versus PSE in the treatment of hypersplenism in patients with post-hepatitis C cirrhosis...
February 28, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256027/ongoing-incident-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-with-a-history-of-injecting-drug-use-in-an-australian-prison-setting-2005-2014-the-hits-p-study
#19
Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Harjarizadeh, Neil A Bretana, Janaki Amin, Brigid Betz-Stablein, Gregory J Dore, Fabio Luciani, Suzy Teutsch, Kate Dolan, Andrew R Lloyd, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is high in prisons. This study investigated trends in HCV incidence and associated factors among a cohort of prisoners with a history of injecting drug use in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: Data were available from the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) from 2005-2014. Temporal trends in HCV incidence were evaluated. Factors associated with time to HCV seroconversion among people with ongoing injecting was assessed using Cox proportional hazards...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253838/predictors-and-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
Nicholas A Medland, Eric P F Chow, Catriona S Bradshaw, Timothy H R Read, Joseph J Sasadeusz, Christopher K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and its interaction with HIV status, sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour is poorly understood. We assessed the incidence and predictors of HCV infection in HIV positive MSM. METHODS: The electronic medical record and laboratory results from HIV positive MSM in care at a large urban public specialist HIV clinic embedded in a sexual health centre in Melbourne Australia were collected...
March 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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