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hepatitis C new treatments

Lydia M Le Page, Daniel R Ball, Vicky Ball, Michael S Dodd, Jack J Miller, Lisa C Heather, Damian J Tyler
Understanding and assessing diabetic metabolism is vital for monitoring disease progression and improving treatment of patients. In vivo assessments, using MRI and MRS, provide non-invasive and accurate measurements, and the development of hyperpolarized (13) C spectroscopy in particular has been demonstrated to provide valuable metabolic data in real time. Until now, studies have focussed on individual organs. However, diabetes is a systemic disease affecting multiple tissues in the body. Therefore, we have developed a technique to simultaneously measure metabolism in both the heart and liver during a single acquisition...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
L Lafferty, C Treloar, J Guthrie, G M Chambers, T Butler
Prisoner populations are characterized by high rates of hepatitis C (HCV), up to thirty times that of the general population in Australia. Within Australian prisons, less than 1% of eligible inmates access treatment. Public health strategies informed by social capital could be important in addressing this inequality in access to HCV treatment. Twenty-eight male inmates participated in qualitative interviews across three correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia. All participants had recently tested as HCV RNA positive or were receiving HCV treatment...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Emmanuel Fortier, Maryam Alavi, Julie Bruneau, Michelle Micallef, Jacinta Perram, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Adrian J Dunlop, Annie C Balcomb, Carolyn A Day, Carla Treloar, Nicky Bath, Paul S Haber, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress and associated sociodemographic factors among people living with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with a history of injecting drug use and to assess the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress and HCV treatment intent, specialist assessment, or treatment uptake. METHODS: The Enhancing Treatment for Hepatitis C in Opioid Substitution Settings was an observational cohort study evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from 9 community health centers and opioid substitution therapy (OST) clinics (New South Wales, Australia)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Feng Su, Pamela K Green, Kristin Berry, George N Ioannou
: Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon (IFN)-based treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection whereas Asian race was associated with higher SVR rates compared to white patients. We aimed to describe the association between race/ethnicity and effectiveness of new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system nationally. We identified 21,095 HCV-infected patients (11,029 [52%] white, 6,171 [29%] black, 1,187 [6%] Hispanic, 348 [2%] Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native [Asian/PI/AI/AN] and 2,360 [11%] declined/missing race or ethnicity) who initiated antiviral treatment with regimens containing sofosbuvir (SOF), simeprevir + sofosbuvir (SMV+SOF), ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) or paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/dasabuvir (PrOD), during the 18-month period from 01/01/2014 to 06/30/2015...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
María Luján Cuestas
Since the British scientist Michael Houghton along with George Kuo, Qui-Lim Choo (Chiron Corporation Emeryville), and Daniel W. Bradley (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) co-discovered the causative agent of hepatitis C in 1989, so much progress has been made for the screening of blood donors and management of this chronic liver disease. In this regard, direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have emerged as the potential "cure" of this slowly progressing and devastating disease. However, improvements are still clearly required since the anti-hepatitis C drugs currently available in the market are so extremely expensive (i...
October 19, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Rebecca J Winter, Bethany White, Stuart A Kinner, Mark Stoové, Rebecca Guy, Margaret E Hellard
OBJECTIVES: Testing is the first step in treatment and care for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As new treatments for viral hepatitis emerge, it is important to document effective models for BBV/STI testing. A nurse-led intervention was implemented across three prisons in Victoria to improve BBV/STI testing. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on BBV/STI testing rates and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination for reception prisoners. METHODS: BBV/STI testing and HBV vaccination data were collected from the medical files of 100 consecutive reception prisoners at three prisons (n=300) prior to and after the intervention was implemented...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
A Bonhomme, E Fréling, M Reigneau, C Poreaux, A Valois, F Truchetet, A Barbaud, J-L Schmutz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the vaccine coverage of psoriasis patients prior to initiating or changing immunosuppressant therapy, and to verify that the prescribed vaccines have been administered. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a bi-centre, observational, cross-sectional study over 9 months. Psoriasis patients in whom immunosuppressant therapy (comprising cyclosporine, methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or ustekinumab) was indicated were included. Medical history, previous treatments, vaccination status, viral serology results (for hepatitis B, measles, and chickenpox), and reasons for non-vaccination were assessed via questionnaire...
October 19, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Rossella Letizia Mancusi, Massimo Andreoni, Daniela d'Angela, Cesare Sarrecchia, Federico Spandonaro
Between western European countries, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic is highest in Italy. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the endemic diffusion of hepatitis C at the national level and by geographical area, with an extrapolation at the regional level and by uniform cohorts of subjects (by sex and year of birth). The secondary objective is a stratification by gravity of the estimated statistical figures to provide an overview of possible targets of the new anti-HCV treatments.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant Italian populations studies regarding HCV prevalence...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Heather Bailey, Anna Turkova, Claire Thorne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) has experienced large-scale epidemics of syphilis, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV over the past few decades. Here, we review recent evidence on the epidemiology of and the response to these intersecting epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV epidemic in EECA continues to expand, with new infections increasing by more than 50% between 2010 and 2015. HCV is now in the top 10 causes of death in EECA, with Russia accounting for more than half of the global burden of HCV infections, but access to direct-acting antivirals remains a major obstacle for control of the epidemic...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Dick C Chan, P Hugh R Barrett, Gerald F Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism leads to increased plasma concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. We highlight the findings from recent studies of the effect of lipid-regulating therapies on apolipoprotein metabolism in humans employing endogenous labelling with stable isotopically labelled isotopomers. RECENT FINDINGS: Fish oil supplementation and niacin treatment both reduce fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels by decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB-100 (apoB) and apoB-48-containing chylomicron particles in obese and/or type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
L Benítez-Gutiérrez, C de Mendoza, I Baños, A Duca, A Arias, A Treviño, S Requena, M J Citores, V Cuervas-Mons
New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have dramatically improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Although the safety of these agents has been very good in registration trials, unexpected side effects have been reported after much broader use of DAAs on marketing. We retrospectively examined all liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C that received sofosbuvir-based regimens at our clinic. A total of 24 liver transplant recipients with recurrent chronic hepatitis C had received sofosbuvir up to April 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Zobair M Younossi, Haesuk Park, Douglas Dieterich, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Stuart C Gordon
BACKGROUND: New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. AIM: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. DESIGN: A decision-analytic Markov model...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Evelyn Stelzl, Hannah M Appel, Rochak Mehta, Ed G Marins, Jörg Berg, Christian Paar, Hanna Zurl, Brigitte I Santner, Harald H Kessler
BACKGROUND: Determination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and discrimination between HCV subtypes 1a and 1b is still mandatory prior to anti-HCV treatment initiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the recently introduced cobas® HCV GT assay (Roche) and to compare it to two comparator assays. METHODS: The cobas® HCV GT assay is based on primer-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For comparison, the TRUGENE® HCV 5'NC Genotyping Kit (Siemens) and the VERSANT® HCV Genotype 2...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Maria Stepanova, Trevor Locklear, Nila Rafiq, Alita Mishra, Chapy Venkatesan, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Chronic HCV infection is often considered a contraindication for receiving a heart transplantation. METHODS: From the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we selected all adults with and without HCV infection who underwent a single organ heart transplantation in 1995-2013; the mortality status was updated in September 2015. RESULTS: A total of 32,812 heart transplant recipients were included; N=756 (2.30%) HCV-positive...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Christoph Sarrazin, Vasily Isakov, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Charlotte Hedskog, Ross Martin, Krishna Chodavarapu, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Jean-Michel Molina, Mark S Sulkowski
BACKGROUND:  Development of direct-acting antivirals in recent years has dramatically enhanced rates of viral eradication to >90% in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine true treatment efficacy and to define the most appropriate retreatment, it is important to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection where patients who achieve HCV eradication during treatment become infected with a new HCV strain posttreatment. METHODS:  Here, we investigated prevalence of late recurrent viremia (patients who achieved SVR12 but had detectable HCV RNA at follow up week 24) and used refined phylogenetic analysis of multiple HCV genes to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
W Kievit, F A C Berden, J P H Drenth
Pharmaceutical companies are under increasing scrutiny because of their strategy for gaining market access and reimbursement authorisation for novel drugs. The tool most often used is that of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in a highly selected population that has a high chance of responding on the treatment but a low chance of developing side effects. This population differs to a large extent from real-life patients, who have diverging characteristics that can influence effectiveness and safety; these include co-morbidity, age and disease severity...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Anne-Laure Mouterde, François Bocquet, Isabelle Fusier, Pascal Paubel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Agostino Colli, Mirella Fraquelli, Daniele Prati, Alessia Riva, Alessandra Berzuini, Dario Conte, Alessio Aghemo, Massimo Colombo, Giovanni Casazza
INTRODUCTION: In a perspective of economic constraints the prioritizing of patients to IFN-free regimens is mainly based on the determination of liver stiffness by transient elastography (TE). Being a continuous variable the interpretation of TE results requires the identification of cut-off values, to date set to maximize diagnostic accuracy even if such values should be better based on more helpful outcome prediction endpoints. AIM: To define the TE cut-off values in different clinical scenarios, including new IFN-free regimens, and to balance the clinical benefits versus harms in treated and untreated patients...
2016: PloS One
Kerstin Herzer, Guido Gerken
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the primary causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation (LT). Graft loss due to hepatitis C (HCV) recurrence is a serious problem after LT. Thus, the approval of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens has important implications in the LT setting. The findings of controlled trials have confirmed the safety and the excellent efficacy of most DAA combinations, and these findings have been confirmed by reports of high rates of sustained virologic response in the real-life setting...
August 2016: Visc Med
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