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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331069/cellular-membrane-trafficking-machineries-utilized-by-the-hepatitis-viruses
#1
REVIEW
Jun Inoue, Masashi Ninomiya, Tooru Shimosegawa, Mark A McNiven
While the life cycles of hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses) have been modestly characterized, recent intensive studies have provided new insights. Because these viruses 'hijack' the membrane trafficking of the host cell machinery during replicative propagation, it is essential to determine and understand these specific cellular pathways. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are well known as a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While substantial inroads toward treating HCV patients have recently been made, patients with HBV continue to require life-long treatment, which makes a thorough understanding of the HBV life cycle essential...
January 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325275/-qualitative-pathological-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-regression-after-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#2
Y M Sun, J L Zhou, L Wang, X N Wu, Y P Chen, H X Piao, L G Lu, W Jiang, Y Q Xu, B Feng, Y M Nan, W Xie, G F Chen, H W Zheng, H Li, H G Ding, H Liu, F D Lyu, C Shao, T L Wang, X J Ou, B Q Wang, S Y Chen, H You, J D Jia
Objective: To investigate the methods for qualitative pathological assessment of dynamic changes in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), since antiviral therapy can partially reverse liver fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B and semi-quantitative, rather than qualitative, pathological assessment is often used for the research on liver fibrosis regression. Methods: Previously untreated CHB patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were enrolled, and liver biopsy was performed before treatment and at 78 weeks after the antiviral therapy based on entecavir...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316747/immunotherapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#3
REVIEW
Antonio Bertoletti, Nina Le Bert
While new therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus infection have delivered remarkable cure rates, curative therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain a distant goal. Although current direct antiviral therapies are very efficient in controlling viral replication and limiting the progression to cirrhosis, these treatments require lifelong administration due to the frequent viral rebound upon treatment cessation, and immune modulation with interferon is only effective in a subgroup of patients...
January 11, 2018: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316001/directly-observed-therapy-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-people-who-inject-drugs-at-risk-for-non-adherence-to-direct-acting-antivirals
#4
Angelika Schütz, Stephan Moser, Cornelia Schwanke, Raphael Schubert, Julian Luhn, Enisa Gutic, Tobias Lang, Michael Schleicher, Hans Haltmayer, Michael Gschwantler
An important subgroup of people who inject drugs (PWID) receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT), cannot be treated in the setting of a hepatology center and would not regularly ingest their medication when handed to them for self-administration. Our hypothesis was that chronic hepatitis C in these patients could be ideally managed if modern, interferon-free regimens were administered together with OAT under direct observation of a physician or nurse at a low-threshold facility. In this open-label, non-interventional, proof-of-concept study (ClinicalTrials...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312973/critical-appraisal-of-chinese-2017-guideline-on-the-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Di-Yang Xie, Zheng-Gang Ren, Jian Zhou, Jia Fan, Qiang Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common and the third most lethal cancer in China. An updated version of consensus-based recommendations on the management of HCC has been recently published by a multidisciplinary group of Chinese experts including liver surgeons, hepatic oncologists, radiologists and pathologists. Major changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria. In addition to dynamic multi-detector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are added to the diagnostic imaging tests...
December 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312527/global-elimination-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-progresses-and-the-remaining-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Today, with the introduction of interferon-free direct-acting antivirals and outstanding progresses in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the elimination of HCV infection seems more achievable. A further challenge is continued transmission of HCV infection in high-risk population specially injecting drug users (IDUs) as the major reservoir of HCV infection. Considering the fact that most of these infections remain undiagnosed, unidentified HCV-infected IDUs are potential sources for the rapid spread of HCV in the community...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290826/a-cell-penetrating-whole-molecule-antibody-targeting-intracellular-hbx-suppresses-hepatitis-b-virus-via-trim21-dependent-pathway
#7
Jun-Fang Zhang, Hua-Long Xiong, Jia-Li Cao, Shao-Juan Wang, Xue-Ran Guo, Bi-Yun Lin, Ying Zhang, Jing-Hua Zhao, Ying-Bin Wang, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Jun Zhang, Ning-Shao Xia
Rationale: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) mostly targeting extracellular or cell surface molecules have been widely used in the treatment of various diseases. However, mAbs cannot pass through the cell membrane as efficiently as small compounds, thus limiting their use against intracellular targets. Methods to shuttle antibodies into living cells may largely expand research and application in areas based on mAbs. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is an important intracellular multi-functional viral protein in the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290649/retreatment-of-patients-with-treatment-failure-of-direct-acting-antivirals-focus-on-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b
#8
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kanda, Kazushige Nirei, Naoki Matsumoto, Teruhisa Higuchi, Hitomi Nakamura, Hiroaki Yamagami, Shunichi Matsuoka, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
The recent development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, with shorter treatment durations and fewer adverse events compared with regimens that include interferon. However, a relatively small proportion of patients cannot achieve SVR in the first treatment, including DAAs with or without peginterferon and/or ribavirin. Although retreatment with a combination of DAAs should be conducted for these patients, it is more difficult to achieve SVR when retreating these patients because of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) or treatment-emergent substitutions...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288595/inpatient-hospital-burden-of-hepatitis-c-diagnosed-patients-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#9
Scott A McDonald, Hamish A Innes, Esther Aspinall, Peter C Hayes, Maryam Alavi, Heather Valerio, David J Goldberg, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To describe the burden on inpatient hospital resources over time from patients diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and who have reached the decompensated stage of cirrhosis (DC), as existing estimates of hospital stay in these patients are limited. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal dataset was formed via record-linkage between the national HCV diagnosis database and inpatient/daycase hospitalisation and death registers in Scotland...
December 30, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288470/assessing-racial-disparities-in-hcv-infection-and-care-outcomes-in-a-southern-urban-population
#10
Keanan McGonigle, Tess Carley, Clarissa Hoff
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed racial disparities in access to healthcare services, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure, and retention in a treatment cascade in two indigent populations in an urban center in the Southern US. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: Opt-in HCV antibody screening was offered at two large homeless centers and three residential substance abuse treatment centers (SATCs) in New Orleans, LA. Five hundred ninety-four participants experiencing homelessness and 342 residents of SATCs were assessed for previous access/perceived barriers to healthcare services and high-risk behaviors associated with HCV exposure...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283325/emerging-trends-in-non-interferon-based-genotype-specific-antiviral-agents-pharmaceutical-perspectives
#11
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Matloob Ahmed, Tahsin Gulzar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents a serious global health threat. Initially, the health-care community mainly focused on interferon (IFN)-based therapeutic options to eradicate HCV, but with the passage of time, these applications became unsuitable due to some serious side effects related to the use of IFN. In recent years, research conducted on different phases of HCV's life cycle has opened a new gateway for the use of a direct-acting new generation of anti-HCV agents. Their safer and ultrarapid response has made possible the introduction of triple therapy and use of IFN-free therapeutic treatment strategies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274889/new-onset-autoimmune-hepatitis-during-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-treatment-in-children
#12
Amanda Ricciuto, Binita M Kamath, Thomas D Walters, Karen Frost, Nicholas Carman, Peter C Church, Simon C Ling, Anne M Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a large anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) following presentation of an index case with suspected DILI with autoimmune features after infliximab exposure. To characterize the incidence, natural history, and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation with anti-TNF use. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the index case and performed a retrospective cohort study of 659 children receiving anti-TNF therapy between 2000 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260183/mobilization-of-iron-from-ferritin-new-steps-and-details
#13
A La, T Nguyen, K Tran, E Sauble, D Tu, A Gonzalez, T Z Kidane, C Soriano, J Morgan, M Doan, K Tran, C-Y Wang, M D Knutson, M C Linder
Much evidence indicates that iron stored in ferritin is mobilized through protein degradation in lysosomes, but concerns about this process have lingered, and the mechanistic details of its aspects are lacking. In the studies presented here, 59Fe-labeled ferritin was induced by preloading hepatic (HepG2) cells with radiolabeled Fe. Placing these cells in a medium containing desferrioxamine resulted in the loss of ferritin-59Fe, but adding high concentrations of reducing agents or modulating the internal GSH concentration failed to alter the rates of ferritin-59Fe release...
December 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259601/preclinical-development-and-production-of-virus-like-particles-as-vaccine-candidates-for-hepatitis-c
#14
REVIEW
Makutiro Ghislain Masavuli, Danushka K Wijesundara, Joseph Torresi, Eric J Gowans, Branka Grubor-Bauk
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects 2% of the world's population and is the leading cause of liver disease and liver transplantation. It poses a serious and growing worldwide public health problem that will only be partially addressed with the introduction of new antiviral therapies. However, these treatments will not prevent re-infection particularly in high risk populations. The introduction of a HCV vaccine has been predicted, using simulation models in a high risk population, to have a significant effect on reducing the incidence of HCV...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248714/foxq1-ndrg1-axis-exacerbates-hepatocellular-carcinoma-initiation-via-enhancing-crosstalk-between-fibroblasts-and-tumor-cells
#15
Qin Luo, Chao-Qun Wang, Lu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Mei Gao, Hao-Ting Sun, Yu Zhang, Kai-Li Zhang, Ying Zhu, Yan Zheng, Yuan-Yuan Sheng, Lu Lu, Hu-Liang Jia, Wen-Qiang Yu, Jie Liu, Qiong-Zhu Dong, Lun-Xiu Qin
Cancer associated fibroblast (CAF) is a well-known microenvironment contributor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while forkhead box proteins are also critical to exacerbate HCC malignancy. However, whether FOX proteins are involved in the crosstalk between CAFs and HCC cells remains unclear. In the present study, we reveal that CAFs induce forkhead box Q1 (FOXQ1) expression, and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is therefore trans-activated to enhance HCC initiation. Intriguingly, pSTAT6/C-C motif chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26) signaling is induced by FOXQ1/NDRG1 axis, thus recruiting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main cellular source of CAFs, to the tumor microenvironment...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239718/new-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-subtype-naturally-harbouring-resistance-associated-mutations-to-ns5a-inhibitors
#16
Laura Ordeig, Damir Garcia-Cehic, Josep Gregori, Maria Eugenia Soria, Leonardo Nieto-Aponte, Celia Perales, Meritxell Llorens, Qian Chen, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Maria Buti, Rafael Esteban, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Josep Quer
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly divergent virus currently classified into seven major genotypes and 86 subtypes (ICTV, June 2017), which can have differing responses to therapy. Accurate genotyping/subtyping using high-resolution HCV subtyping enables confident subtype identification, identifies mixed infections and allows detection of new subtypes. During routine genotyping/subtyping, one sample from an Equatorial Guinea patient could not be classified into any of the subtypes. The complete genomic sequence was compared to reference sequences by phylogenetic and sliding window analysis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228983/characterization-of-interactions-between-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5b-polymerase-annexin-a2-and-rna-effects-on-ns5b-catalysis-and-allosteric-inhibition
#17
Sara M Ø Solbak, Eldar Abdurakhmanov, Anni Vedeler, U Helena Danielson
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) provide efficient hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy and clearance for a majority of patients, but are not available or effective for all patients. They risk developing HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which the mechanism remains obscure and therapy is missing. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been reported to co-precipitate with the non-structural (NS) HCV proteins NS5B and NS3/NS4A, indicating a role in HCC tumorigenesis and effect on DAA therapy...
December 11, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227418/development-and-validation-of-surveillance-based-algorithms-to-estimate-hepatitis-c-treatment-and-cure-in-new-york-city
#18
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Lizeyka Jordan, Emily McGibbon, Jay K Varma, Ann Winters, Fabienne Laraque
CONTEXT: Treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have improved in recent years. The burden of HCV in New York City (NYC) is high. Measuring treatment and cure among NYC residents with HCV infection will allow the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to appropriately plan interventions, allocate resources, and identify disparities to combat the hepatitis C epidemic in NYC. OBJECTIVE: To validate algorithms designed to estimate treatment and cure of HCV using RNA test results reported through routine surveillance...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226102/timing-of-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-in-liver-transplant-candidates-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#19
REVIEW
George Cholankeril, Mairin Joseph-Talreja, Brandon J Perumpail, Andy Liu, Eric R Yoo, Aijaz Ahmed, Aparna Goel
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States. While most patients with chronic HCV infection remain asymptomatic, up to one-third develop progressive liver disease resulting in cirrhosis. LT is often the only curative treatment once significant hepatic decompensation develops. However, antiviral therapy for HCV infection has advanced markedly in the past 5 years with the discovery and approval of direct-acting antiviral agents. These new regimens are well tolerated, of short duration and highly effective, unlike the traditional treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224865/effects-of-supplementation-with-ruminally-protected-choline-on-performance-of-multiparous-holstein-cows-did-not-depend-upon-prepartum-caloric-intake
#20
M G Zenobi, R Gardinal, J E Zuniga, A L G Dias, C D Nelson, J P Driver, B A Barton, J E P Santos, C R Staples
Objectives were to evaluate the effect of prepartum energy intake on performance of dairy cows supplemented with or without ruminally protected choline (RPC; 0 or 17.3 g/d of choline chloride; 0 or 60 g/d of ReaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). At 47 ± 6 d before the expected calving date, 93 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fed energy to excess [EXE; 1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter (DM)] or to maintenance (MNE; 1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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