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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239909/ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-is-effective-and-well-tolerated-in-post-kidney-transplant-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus
#1
Amilcar L Morales, Luz Liriano-Ward, Amber Tierney, Michelle Sang, Alexander Lalos, Mohamed Hassan, Vinay Nair, Thomas Schiano, Rohit Satoskar, Coleman Smith
Patients with end stage renal diseases on hemodialysis have a high prevalence of hepatitis C infection (HCV). In most patients treatment for HCV is delayed until post renal transplant. We assessed the effectiveness and tolerance of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in 32 post-kidney transplant patients infected with HCV. The group was composed predominantly of treatment naïve (75%) African American (68.75%) males (75%) infected with genotype 1a (62.5%). Most patients received a deceased donor kidney graft (78...
February 26, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239880/long-term-use-of-oral-nucleos-t-ide-analogues-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-does-not-increase-cancer-risk-a-cohort-study-of-44-494-subjects
#2
G L-H Wong, Y-K Tse, T C-F Yip, H L-Y Chan, K K-F Tsoi, V W-S Wong
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) need long-term antiviral treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Animal studies suggest that some NA may increase cancer risk, but human data are lacking. AIM: To investigate cancer risks in patients with or without NA treatment. METHODS: We conducted a territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. The diagnosis of CHB and various malignancies was based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes between 2000 and 2012...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239817/does-the-margin-width-influence-recurrence-rate-in-liver-surgery-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-smaller-than-5-cm
#3
C Lazzara, G Navarra, S Lazzara, A Barbera, C Saitta, G Raimondo, S Latteri, G Currò
OBJECTIVE: Liver surgery is considered a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but the importance of resection margin width remains controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of 5-10 mm surgical margin width on post-operative recurrence and overall survival after resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed recurrence rate and overall survival rate of 72 patients who underwent curative hepatic resection for HCC smaller than 5 cm with 5-10 mm surgical margin width between January 2005 and December 2014...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239568/expression-of-hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigens-induces-defective-gonad-phenotypes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Yi-Yin Chen, Li-Wei Lee, Wei-Ning Hong, Szecheng J Lo
AIM: To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS: Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms...
February 12, 2017: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239368/connection-of-nicotine-to-diet-induced-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-cellular-and-mechanistic-insights
#5
REVIEW
Amiya P Sinha-Hikim, Indrani Sinha-Hikim, Theodore C Friedman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) poses a serious health hazard affecting 20-40% of adults in the general population in the USA and over 70% of the obese and extremely obese people. In addition to obesity, nicotine is recognized as a risk factor for NAFLD, and it has been reported that nicotine can exaggerate obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. The development of NAFLD has serious clinical complications because of its potential progression from simple hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239319/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-viral-infections-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-north-india
#6
Parnita Harsh, Vipin Gupta, Saurabh Kedia, Sawan Bopanna, Sucharita Pilli, Surendernath, Govind Kumar Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions and therefore are at a high risk of contracting infections due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of these infections in patients with IBD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 908 consecutive patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis [UC], n=581; Crohn's disease [CD], n=327) who were receiving care at a tertiary care center...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239021/needs-assessment-of-hcv-infected-individuals-experiencing-homelessness-and-implications
#7
Marguerite Beiser, Casey Leon, Jessie M Gaeta
The advent of tolerable, efficacious therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) creates an opportunity to provide HCV treatment for individuals experiencing homelessness. A federally-qualified community health center serving individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston conducted an anonymous needs assessment survey of a sample of HCV-infected patients in order to inform development of an HCV treatment program (N = 240). Primary care providers (PCPs) were identified as the chief source of HCV education. Main motivators to consider HCV treatment were identified as "taking care of your health" (73...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238958/real-world-effectiveness-and-safety-of-oral-combination-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-infection
#8
Javier Crespo, Jose Luis Calleja, Inmaculada Fernández, Begoña Sacristan, Belén Ruiz-Antorán, Javier Ampuero, Marta Hernández-Conde, Javier García-Samaniego, Francisco Gea, Maria Buti, Joaquin Cabezas, Sabela Lens, Rosa Maria Morillas, Jose Ramon Salcines, Juan Manuel Pascasio, Juan Turnes, Federico Sáez-Royuela, Juan Arenas, Diego Rincón, Martin Prieto, Francisco Jorquera, Juan Jose Sanchez Ruano, Carmen A Navascués, Esther Molina, Adolfo Gallego Moya, José Maria Moreno-Planas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238896/comparison-of-the-predictability-of-human-hepatic-clearance-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-oatp-substrate-drugs-between-different-in-vitro-in-vivo-extrapolation-approaches
#9
Saki Izumi, Yoshitane Nozaki, Takafumi Komori, Osamu Takenaka, Maeda Kazuya, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Yuichi Sugiyama
Prediction of human pharmacokinetic profiles of drug candidates is an essential step towards first-in-human studies. However, it remains difficult to quantitatively predict hepatic clearance, particularly when hepatic uptake is mediated by transporter(s). Using 15 organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrate drugs, we tested 3 in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approaches to predict overall hepatic intrinsic clearance in vivo (CLint,all,vivo). IVIVE approaches involved metabolic intrinsic clearance in human liver microsomes (CLint,met) with or without hepatocyte-to-buffer maximum unbound concentration ratio (Kp,uu,max) correction and uptake intrinsic clearance at 37°C (PSinf,37°C) in human hepatocyte suspensions...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238888/decrease-in-regulatory-t-cell-function-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-receiving-pegylated-interferon-plus-ribavirin
#10
Kuo-Chih Tseng, Yun-Che Ho, Chi-Wei Tseng, Ling-Huei Tseng, Yu-Hsi Hsieh, Ting-Tsung Chang, Shu-Fen Wu
OBJECTIVES: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Pegylated interferon is the standard therapy for CHC patients in Asian countries. This study aims to evaluate the frequency and function of Tregs in CHC patients receiving combination therapy. METHODS: CHC patients (n=30) who had elevated alanine aminotransferase and underwent combination therapy were included. Clinical data and Tregs function were checked at baseline, 12 weeks after treatment, end of treatment, and at the end of a 24-week follow-up...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238877/current-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-the-role-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#11
REVIEW
Guangdi Li, Erik De Clercq
One of the most exciting developments in antiviral research has been the discovery of the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that effectively cure chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Based on more than 100 clinical trials and real-world studies, we provide a comprehensive overview of FDA-approved therapies and newly discovered anti-HCV agents with a special focus on drug efficacy, mechanisms of action, and safety. We show that HCV drug development has advanced in multiple aspects: (i) interferon-based regimens were replaced by interferon-free regimens; (ii) genotype-specific drugs evolved to drugs for all HCV genotypes; (iii) therapies based upon multiple pills per day were simplified to a single pill per day; (iv) drug potency increased from moderate (∼60%) to high (>90%) levels of sustained virologic responses; (v) treatment durations were shortened from 48 to 12 or 8 weeks; and (vi) therapies could be administered orally regardless of prior treatment history and cirrhotic status...
February 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238841/vitamin-a-status-affects-the-plasma-parameters-and-regulation-of-hepatic-genes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Yang Li, Yang Liu, Guoxun Chen
Vitamin A (VA) status regulates metabolism in rats. Whether VA status and availability of retinoic acid (RA) contribute to the insulin-regulated hepatic gene expression remains to be determined. Zucker lean rats with VA sufficient (VAS) or VA deficient (VAD) status were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin-dependent diabetes. They were treated with saline (STZ-VAS-C or STZ-VAD-C), RA (STZ-VAS-RA or STZ-VAD-RA), insulin (STZ-VAS-INS or STZ-VAD-INS), or insulin + RA (STZ-VAS-INS+RA or STZ-VAD-INS+RA) for 3 hours...
February 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238722/hormetic-modulation-of-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#13
Nelly T Fabre, Karina Thieme, Karolline S Silva, Sérgio Catanozi, Ana Mercedes Cavaleiro, Danilo A C Pinto, Maristela M Okamoto, Mychel Raony P T Morais, Bárbara Falquetto, Telma M Zorn, Ubiratan F Machado, Marisa Passarelli, Maria Lúcia Correa-Giannella
Because of the paucity of information regarding metabolic effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on liver, we evaluated effects of AGEs chronic administration in (1) insulin sensitivity; (2) hepatic expression of genes involved in AGEs, glucose and fat metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation and; (3) hepatic morphology and glycogen content. Rats received intraperitoneally albumin modified (AlbAGE) or not by advanced glycation for 12 weeks. AlbAGE induced whole-body insulin resistance concomitantly with increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, evidenced by activation of AKT, inactivation of GSK3, increased hepatic glycogen content, and decreased expression of gluconeogenesis genes...
February 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238504/evaluation-of-sera-with-a-low-signal-to-cut-off-ratio-using-two-chemiluminescent-assays-for-detecting-hepatitis-c-virus-and-their-correlation-with-the-detection-of-viral-rna
#14
M ª Fátima López-Fabal, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, José Luis Gómez-Garcés
OBJECTIVE: All commercial assays used to measure the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies set cut-off points to categorise the results, but the problem of false positive results in screening hepatitis C sera is well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results obtained by two chemiluminescent assays in selected sera, and compare these results with the detection of viral RNA in the specimens studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred reactive sera (positive) were selected, although with a low signal to cut-off ratio (S/CO), were selected, using two chemiluminescent assays and were then subjected to genome amplification...
February 23, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238486/spatial-variation-in-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-in-barrow-s-goldeneye-bucephala-islandica-in-coastal-british-columbia
#15
Megan Willie, Daniel Esler, W Sean Boyd, Philip Molloy, Ronald C Ydenberg
Barrow's goldeneyes are sea ducks that winter throughout coastal British Columbia (BC). Their diet consists primarily of intertidal blue mussels, which can accumulate PAHs; accordingly, goldeneyes may be susceptible to exposure through contaminated prey. In 2014/15, we examined total PAH concentrations in mussels from undeveloped and developed coastal areas of BC. At those same sites, we used EROD to measure hepatic CYP1A induction in goldeneyes. We found higher mussel PAH concentrations at developed coastal sites...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237980/application-of-hemoadsorption-in-a-case-of-liver-cirrhosis-and-alcohol-related-steatohepatitis-with-preexisting-hepatitis-c-infection
#16
Stefan Büttner, Sammy Patyna, Benjamin Koch, Fabian Finkelmeier, Helmut Geiger, Christoph Sarrazin, Harald Farnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237722/dapper1-attenuates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-and-lipogenesis-by-activating-pi3k-akt-signaling
#17
Jian-Ren Kuang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Wei-Ling Leng, Xiao-Tian Lei, Zi-Wen Liang
Studies have shown that hepatic insulin resistance, a disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism, plays a vital role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To clarify the function of Dapper1 in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver, we investigated the relationships between Dapper1 and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and Ca(2+)-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt. We observed a reduction in hepatic Dapper1 in db/db (mice that are homozygous for a spontaneous diabetes mutation) and HFD-induced diabetic mice with T2D. Hepatic overexpression of Dapper1 improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver...
February 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237603/embryonic-only-arsenic-exposure-in-killifish-fundulus-heteroclitus-reduces-growth-and-alters-muscle-igf-levels-one-year-later
#18
Dana B Szymkowicz, Kaleigh C Sims, Noemi M Castro, William C Bridges, Lisa J Bain
Arsenic is a contaminant of drinking water and crops in many parts of the world. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to decreased birth weight, weight gain, and proper skeletal muscle function. The goal of this study was to use killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) as a model to determine the long-term effects of embryonic-only arsenic exposure on muscle growth and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway. Killifish embryos were exposed to 0, 50, 200 or 800ppb As(III) from fertilization until hatching...
February 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237587/hepatic-mrna-expression-for-genes-related-to-somatotropic-axis-glucose-and-lipid-metabolisms-and-inflammatory-response-of-periparturient-dairy-cows-treated-with-recombinant-bovine-somatotropin
#19
P R B Silva, W J Weber, B A Crooker, R J Collier, W W Thatcher, R C Chebel
Objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment of periparturient dairy cows on hepatic mRNA expression for genes related to the somatotropic axis, insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment at 253 ± 3 d of gestation and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: untreated control (n = 53), 87.5 mg of rbST (n = 56; rbST87.5), and 125 mg of rbST (n = 57; rbST125). Cows in the rbST87...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#20
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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