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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225201/edible-insects-in-china-utilization-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Xiao-Ming Chen, Min Zhao, Zhao He, Long Sun, Cheng-Ye Wang, Wei-Feng Ding
The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than two thousand years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last twenty years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species, and some medicinal insects...
February 22, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#2
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208584/hybrid-visible-light-and-ultrasound-based-sensor-for-distance-estimation
#3
Jose Rabadan, Victor Guerra, Rafael Rodríguez, Julio Rufo, Martin Luna-Rivera, Rafael Perez-Jimenez
Distance estimation plays an important role in location-based services, which has become very popular in recent years. In this paper, a new short range cricket sensor-based approach is proposed for indoor location applications. This solution uses Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) between an optical and an ultrasound signal which are transmitted simultaneously, to estimate the distance from the base station to the mobile receiver. The measurement of the TDoA at the mobile receiver endpoint is proportional to the distance...
February 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205471/a-rare-case-of-primary-tuberculous-tenosynovitis-in-a-young-patient-with-an-acute-history
#4
Alistair J M Reed, Jeremy N Rodrigues, Sharif Al-Ghazal, Zakir Shariff
We present a rare case of primary tuberculous tenosynovitis in a young patient with an acute history of non-penetrating traumatic injury. The patient had recently visited Pakistan and presented with sudden onset pain at the base of their right fifth digit after trying to catch a cricket ball. A provisional diagnosis of haematoma was made; however, ultrasonography revealed a mass attached to the A2 pulley. Surgical excision followed by histological examination and culture identified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203351/pink-cricket-balls-may-be-visually-challenging-at-sunset
#5
Joshua M Adie, Derek H Arnold
Cricket is one of the world's most popular sports, followed by hundreds of millions of people. It can be dangerous, played with a hard ball flying at great velocities, and accidents have occasionally been fatal. Traditionally, cricket has been played during the day, using a dark red ball. Since the late 1970s, a shorter form of one-day cricket has been played both during the day and at night under floodlights. To overcome visibility issues, one-day cricket uses a white ball, and players wear coloured clothing...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187229/protein-deprivation-decreases-male-survival-and-the-intensity-of-sexual-antagonism-in-southern-field-crickets-gryllus-bimaculatus
#6
Chang S Han, Niels J Dingemanse
Recent theory predicts that the magnitude of sexual antagonism should depend on how well populations are adapted to their environment. We tested this idea experimentally by comparing intersexual genetic correlations for adult survival in pedigreed populations of Southern field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) raised on naturally balanced (free-choice) vs. imbalanced (protein-deprived) diets. We tested for 1) sex differences in nutritional intake and preference, 2) sex-specific effects of protein deprivation on survival and 3) diet-dependence of the level of sexual antagonism...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167146/are-males-more-scared-of-predators-differential-change-in-metabolic-rate-between-males-and-females-under-predation-risk
#7
Patricio A Lagos, Marie E Herberstein
The non-consumptive effects of predation contribute to reduce preys' fitness. In this way, predation imposes a cost to animals, not only through direct consumption, but also as an energetic cost. One way used to estimate this cost in the past has been to measure the production of CO2 to estimate the change in metabolic rate because of predation. It has been proposed that this change is mediated by the insect stress neurohormone octopamine. Here we study the change in metabolic rate of the black field cricket (Teleogryllus commodus), and how the production of CO2 varies when a chemical cue from a sympatric predator is added...
February 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164055/proximal-tibial-epiphysis-injury-flexion-type-salter-harris-type-1
#8
Pratik Israni, Mangesh Panat
INTRODUCTION: Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis rare. It has been estimated that fractures of the upper tibial epiphysis account for 0.5-3.1% of all epiphyseal injuries. Who had no neurovascular deficit, with fixed extension deformity at the left knee was treated early with closed reduction techniques. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 16-year-old boy who while playing cricket on the road was hit by a car. The patient presented in emergency room with extremely swollen knee and soft tissue swelling (hemarthrosis), he was unable to lift his leg actively due to severe pain because of hamstrings spasm, and he had no wound over his left knee and had no other associated injuries...
September 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161918/bowled-over-by-cricket-impact-of-tape-ball-injuries-on-the-eyes
#9
Salman Naveed Sadiq, Azam Ali, Bushra Usmani, Khabir Ahmad
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the type and severity of tape-ball cricket-related eye injuries seen at a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN: A descriptive case series. METHODS: This study included all cases of tape-ball cricket-related eye injuries presenting to the Section of Ophthalmology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to January 2015. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients with tape-ball cricket-related eye injuries were treated during this period...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159288/functional-properties-of-tropical-banded-cricket-gryllodes-sigillatus-protein-hydrolysates
#10
Felicia G Hall, Owen G Jones, Marguerite E O'Haire, Andrea M Liceaga
Recently, the benefits of entomophagy have been widely discussed. Due to western cultures' reluctance, entomophagy practices are leaning more towards incorporating insects into food products. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were hydrolyzed with alcalase at 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0% (w/w) for 30, 60, and 90min. Degree of hydrolysis (DH), amino acid composition, solubility, emulsion and foaming properties were evaluated. Hydrolysis produced peptides with 26-52% DH compared to the control containing no enzyme (5% DH)...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149348/influence-of-physiological-loading-on-the-lumbar-spine-of-national-level-athletes-in-different-sports
#11
Mansoorehossadat Rozan, Vahid Rouhollahi, Amit Rastogi, Dilip Kumar Dureha
The lumbar spine is subjected to considerable stress during many athletic efforts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of physiological loading on the lumbar spine in national male players of different games, which may be predictive of the future development of low back pain and injury symptoms. Thirty-four national players (12 cricket players, 12 field hockey players, and 10 basketball players) underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and selected geometric variables including intervertebral disc angles, the Farfan ratio, the lumbar body index, the compression deformity ratio, the biconcave deformity ratio and the anterior wedge deformity ratio were measured using KINOVEA-0...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140633/effects-of-various-diets-on-the-calcium-and-phosphorus-composition-of-mealworms-tenebrio-molitor-larvae-and-superworms-zophobas-morio-larvae
#12
La'Toya V Latney, Barbara D Toddes, Nicole R Wyre, Dorothy C Brown, Kathryn E Michel, Johanna A Briscoe
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the nutritive quality of Tenebrio molitor larvae and Zophobas morio larvae, which are commonly cultured as live food sources, is influenced by 4 commercially available diets used as nutritional substrates; identify which diet best improved calcium content of larvae; and identify the feeding time interval that assured the highest calcium intake by larvae. ANIMALS 2,000 Zophobas morio larvae (ie, superworms) and 7,500 Tenebrio molitor larvae (ie, mealworms). PROCEDURES Larvae were placed in control and diet treatment groups for 2-, 7-, and 10-day intervals...
February 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138065/dynamics-of-ires-mediated-translation
#13
REVIEW
Alex G Johnson, Rosslyn Grosely, Alexey N Petrov, Joseph D Puglisi
Viral internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are unique RNA elements, which use stable and dynamic RNA structures to recruit ribosomes and drive protein synthesis. IRESs overcome the high complexity of the canonical eukaryotic translation initiation pathway, often functioning with a limited set of eukaryotic initiation factors. The simplest types of IRESs are typified by the cricket paralysis virus intergenic region (CrPV IGR) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRESs, both of which independently form high-affinity complexes with the small (40S) ribosomal subunit and bypass the molecular processes of cap-binding and scanning...
March 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116049/variation-in-foraging-success-among-predators-and-its-implications-for-population-dynamics
#14
Toshinori Okuyama
The effects of the expected predation rate on population dynamics have been studied intensively, but little is known about the effects of predation rate variability (i.e., predator individuals having variable foraging success) on population dynamics. In this study, variation in foraging success among predators was quantified by observing the predation of the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata on the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus in the laboratory. A population model was then developed, and the effect of foraging variability on predator-prey dynamics was examined by incorporating levels of variation comparable to those quantified in the experiment...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115255/formation-of-the-acrosome-complex-in-the-bush-cricket-gampsocleis-gratiosa-orthoptera-tettigoniidae
#15
Cai Xia Su, Jie Chen, Fu Ming Shi, Ming Shen Guo, Yan Lin Chang
The acrosome complex plays an indispensable role in the normal function of mature spermatozoa. However, the dynamic process of acrosome complex formation in insect remains poorly understood. Gampsocleis gratiosa Brunner von Wattenwyl possesses the typical characteristic of insect sperms, which is tractable in terms of size, and therefore was selected for the acrosome formation study in this report. The results show the acrosome formation can be divided into six phases: round, rotating, rhombic, cylindrical, transforming and mature phase, based on the morphological dynamics of acrosome complex and nucleus...
January 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109904/immune-function-trade-offs-in-response-to-parasite-threats
#16
Lucas J Kirschman, Adam H Quade, Anthony J Zera, Robin W Warne
Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102900/metabolic-theory-predicts-animal-self-thinning
#17
Tomas Jonsson
1.The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. 2.Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#18
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#19
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#20
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
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