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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917558/multivariate-sexual-selection-on-male-tegmina-in-wild-populations-of-sagebrush-crickets-cyphoderris-strepitans-orthoptera-haglidae
#1
G D Ower, J Hunt, S K Sakaluk
Although the strength and form of sexual selection on song in male crickets have been studied extensively, few studies have examined selection on the morphological structures that underlie variation in males' song, particularly in wild populations. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to measure sexual selection on the shape, size and symmetry of both top and bottom tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908059/parameter-study-of-time-delay-magnification-in-a-biologically-inspired-mechanically-coupled-acoustic-sensor-array
#2
Ming Yang, Xinlei Zhu, Yaqiong Zhang, Na Ta, Zhushi Rao
Sound source localization uses interaural time difference (ITD) or interaural intensity difference cues, and most of the methods based on ITD are limited by the aperture of array. However, a kind of parasitoid fly called Ormia ochracea with coupled ears has a remarkable ability to localize calling of crickets regardless of the fly's small body size. The structure of fly's ear is generalized, and a multi-dimensional coupled system with an acoustic sensor array is proposed. The magnification factor of the phase difference in this system, which can be used to describe the ITD changes of signals from the coupled system, is chosen as the kernel parameter to measure the effect of coupling...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905147/reduced-nondominant-lumbar-multifidi-cross-sectional-area-is-a-precursor-of-low-back-injury-in-cricket-fast-bowlers
#3
B Olivier, N Gillion, A V Stewart, W McKinon
Asymmetry in the lumbar multifidi muscle (LM) cross-sectional area (CSA) is associated with low back injury. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the symmetry of the CSA of LM at L3, L4, and L5, in the context of simultaneous injury monitoring. Injury free, male, right-handed cricket fast bowlers playing at a nonprofessional level participated in this study. LM CSA at L3, L4, and L5 vertebral levels was measured through the use of ultrasound imaging in prone. The primary outcome measure of the study was the incidence of an injury during a cricket season of eight-month duration...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904505/composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-aqueous-extracts-of-three-scleractinian-corals-from-the-mexican-caribbean-pseudodiploria-strigosa-porites-astreoides-and-siderastrea-siderea
#4
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900189/novel-coaching-cricket-bat-can-it-be-used-to-enhance-the-backlift-and-performance-of-junior-cricket-batsmen
#5
M Habib Noorbhai, Russell C Woolmer, Timothy D Noakes
BACKGROUND: In the current literature, it is questionable whether cricket bats in their current form and dimensions allow a young cricketer to hit the ball effectively. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a novel coaching cricket bat among junior cricket batsmen with regard to enhancing performance and the direction of the backlift. METHODS: A cross-sectional research study with analytical research methods was employed, in which 2 groups (coached: n=12 and uncoached: n=35) of participants (ages 9-13) took part in a pilot and intervention study...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900183/severity-and-pattern-of-injuries-caused-by-the-traditional-swiss-team-sport-hornussen-first-retrospective-study-at-a-level-i-trauma-centre-in-switzerland
#6
Volkmar Waterkamp, Meret Ricklin, Benoît Schaller, Konstantinos Katsoulis, Aristomenis Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: This article addresses typical injury patterns related to the traditional Swiss team sport of Hornussen. A small plastic disk is struck with a special elastic racket and then intercepted in the field. Severe injuries have occasionally been reported. We present a systematic review of all cases of Hornussen injuries treated in the University Hospital of Bern from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: To assess the frequency, type and outcome of Hornussen injuries, we performed a database search of all inpatient and outpatient cases related to Hornussen and that were admitted to and/or treated in Bern University Hospital from 2000 to 2014...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894162/partitioning-the-effects-of-mating-and-nuptial-feeding-on-the-microbiome-in-gift-giving-insects
#7
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Emma I Dietrich, Ulrich G Mueller
Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction with the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that differ in nuptial gift size, the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex and the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus, with the expectation that larger gifts are more likely to affect the gut microbiome. Surprisingly, mating, but not nuptial gift consumption, affected the structure of bacterial communities in the gut, and only in Mormon crickets...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889142/the-microbiota-of-marketed-processed-edible-insects-as-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#8
Cristiana Garofalo, Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Manuela Taccari, Federica Cardinali, Lucia Aquilanti, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Francesca Clementi
Entomophagy has been linked to nutritional, economic, social and ecological benefits. However, scientific studies on the potential safety risks in eating edible insects need to be carried out for legislators, markets and consumers. In this context, the microbiota of edible insects deserves to be deeply investigated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the microbial species occurring in some processed marketed edible insects, namely powdered small crickets, whole dried small crickets (Acheta domesticus), whole dried locusts (Locusta migratoria), and whole dried mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), through culture-dependent (classical microbiological analyses) and -independent methods (pyrosequencing)...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868309/an-examination-of-how-alcohol-brands-use-sport-to-engage-consumers-on-social-media
#9
Kate Westberg, Constantino Stavros, Aaron C T Smith, Geoff Munro, Kevin Argus
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To examine how alcohol brands use sport in their communication activities on social media. Despite extensive research exploring alcohol advertising and sponsorship through sport, minimal attention has been given to digital platforms. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study undertakes a qualitative content analysis to examine the social media activity of alcohol brands sponsoring the three largest spectator sports in Australia: Australian rules football, rugby league and cricket...
November 20, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863329/microbial-counts-of-mealworm-larvae-tenebrio-molitor-and-crickets-acheta-domesticus-and-gryllodes-sigillatus-from-different-rearing-companies-and-different-production-batches
#10
D Vandeweyer, S Crauwels, B Lievens, L Van Campenhout
The rising interest in insects for human consumption and the changing regulations in Europe require a profound insight into the food safety of insects reared and sold in Western society. The microbial quality of edible insects has only been studied occasionally. This study aimed at generating an overview of intrinsic parameters (pH, water activity and moisture content) and microbial quality of fresh mealworm larvae and crickets for several rearing companies and for several batches per rearer. In total, 21 batches obtained from 7 rearing companies were subjected to analysis of intrinsic parameters, a range of plate counts and presence-absence tests for Salmonella spp...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863033/dna-barcoding-of-crickets-katydids-and-grasshoppers-orthoptera-from-central-europe-with-focus-on-austria-germany-and-switzerland
#11
O Hawlitschek, J Morinière, G U C Lehmann, A W Lehmann, M Kropf, A Dunz, F Glaw, M Detcharoen, S Schmidt, A Hausmann, N U Szucsich, S A Caetano-Wyler, G Haszprunar
We present a DNA barcoding study on the insect order Orthoptera that was generated in collaboration between four barcoding projects in three countries, viz. Barcoding Fauna Bavarica (Germany), German Barcode of Life, Austrian Barcode of Life, and Swiss Barcode of Life. Our dataset includes 748 COI sequences from 127 of the 162 taxa (78.4%) recorded in the three countries involved. 93 of these 122 species (76.2%, including all Ensifera), can be reliably identified using DNA barcodes. The remaining 26 caeliferan species (families Acrididae and Tetrigidae) form ten clusters that share barcodes among up to five species, in three cases even across different genera, and in six cases even sharing individual barcodes...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853311/molecular-analysis-of-the-factorless-internal-ribosome-entry-site-in-cricket-paralysis-virus-infection
#12
Craig H Kerr, Zi Wang Ma, Christopher J Jang, Sunnie R Thompson, Eric Jan
The dicistrovirus Cricket Paralysis virus contains a unique dicistronic RNA genome arrangement, encoding two main open reading frames that are driven by distinct internal ribosome entry sites (IRES). The intergenic region (IGR) IRES adopts an unusual structure that directly recruits the ribosome and drives translation of viral structural proteins in a factor-independent manner. While structural, biochemical, and biophysical approaches have provided mechanistic details into IGR IRES translation, these studies have been limited to in vitro systems and little is known about the behavior of these IRESs during infection...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820868/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-field-cricket-calling-behaviour-implications-for-female-mate-search-and-mate-choice
#13
Diptarup Nandi, Rohini Balakrishnan
Amount of calling activity (calling effort) is a strong determinant of male mating success in species such as orthopterans and anurans that use acoustic communication in the context of mating behaviour. While many studies in crickets have investigated the determinants of calling effort, patterns of variability in male calling effort in natural choruses remain largely unexplored. Within-individual variability in calling activity across multiple nights of calling can influence female mate search and mate choice strategies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807640/do-high-school-students-in-india-gamble-a-study-of-problem-gambling-and-its-correlates
#14
T S Jaisoorya, K V Beena, M Beena, K Ellangovan, K Thennarassu, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Vivek Benegal, Sanju George
Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807265/multivariate-female-preference-tests-reveal-latent-perceptual-biases
#15
D A Gray, E Gabel, T Blankers, R M Hennig
The question of why males of many species produce elaborate mating displays has now been largely resolved: females prefer to mate with males that produce such displays. However, the question of why females prefer such displays has been controversial, with an emerging consensus that such displays often provide information to females about the direct fitness benefits that males provide to females and/or the indirect fitness benefits provided to offspring. Alternative explanations, such as production of arbitrarily attractive sons or innate pre-existing female sensory or perceptual bias, have also received support in certain taxa...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788347/busy-nights-high-seed-dispersal-by-crickets-in-a-neotropical-forest
#16
Flávia Delgado Santana, Fabricio Beggiato Baccaro, Flávia Regina Capellotto Costa
Among invertebrates, ants are the most abundant and probably most important seed dispersers in both temperate and tropical environments. Crickets, also abundant in tropical forests, are omnivores and commonly attracted to fruits on the forest floor. However, their capability to remove seeds has been reported only once. We compared Marantaceae seed removal by crickets and ants to assess the role of crickets as secondary seed dispersers in Amazonia. Compared with ants, crickets dispersed an equivalent number of seeds and tended to disperse larger seeds farther...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788340/alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-context-how-demography-ecology-and-behavior-affect-male-mating-success
#17
John T Rotenberry, Marlene Zuk
Exploitation of sexual signals by predators or parasites increases costs to signalers, creating opportunities for establishment of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). In field crickets, males calling may attract acoustically orienting parasitoid flies. Alternatively, males behaving as satellites forgo calling and attempt to intercept females attracted to callers. We modeled the contribution of calling versus satellite behavior to male reproductive success in the larger context of variation in ecology (parasitism rate, background mortality), demography (density, sex ratio), and female behavior (phonotaxis, mating choosiness)...
November 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780045/mechanosensation-and-adaptive-motor-control-in-insects
#18
REVIEW
John C Tuthill, Rachel I Wilson
The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776492/australian-black-field-crickets-show-changes-in-neural-gene-expression-associated-with-socially-induced-morphological-life-history-and-behavioral-plasticity
#19
Michael M Kasumovic, Zhiliang Chen, Marc R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Ecological and evolutionary model organisms have provided extensive insight into the ecological triggers, adaptive benefits, and evolution of life-history driven developmental plasticity. Despite this, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying genetic changes that occur during shifts towards different developmental trajectories. The goal of this study is to determine whether we can identify underlying gene expression patterns that can describe the different life-history trajectories individuals follow in response to social cues of competition...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774776/biased-dispersal-of-metrioptera-bicolor-a-wing-dimorphic-bush-cricket
#20
Ina Monika Margret Heidinger, Silke Hein, Heike Feldhaar, Hans-Joachim Poethke
In the highly fragmented landscape of central Europe, dispersal is of particular importance as it determines the long-term survival of animal populations. Dispersal not only secures the re-colonization of patches where populations went extinct, it may also rescue small populations and thus prevent local extinction events. As dispersal involves different individual fitness costs, the decision to disperse should not be random but context-dependent and often will be biased towards a certain group of individuals (e...
October 24, 2016: Insect Science
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