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Peter A Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Judith E Risse, Michael G Ritchie, Nathan W Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology
David A Gray, Scherezade Hormozi, Fritz R Libby, Randy W Cohen
Vestigial morphological traits are common and well known in a variety of taxa. Identification of vestigial genes has illustrated the potential for evolutionary reversals and the re-expression of atavistic traits. Here we induce expression of a behavioural sexual signal, male calling song, in a cricket species, Gryllus ovisopis, which lacks a functional calling song. We successfully used acetylcholine injections in the frontal space of the head of male crickets to activate cerebral command neurons for cricket calling, and we recorded calling songs with a temporal chirp pattern similar to that of G...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Samuel J Callaghan, Robert G Lockie, Warren A Andrews, Robert F Chipchase, Sophia Nimphius
This study assessed the reliability and validity of segment measured accelerations in comparison to front foot contact (FFC) ground reaction force (GRF) during the delivery stride for cricket pace bowlers. Eleven recreational bowlers completed a 30-delivery bowling spell. Trunk- and tibia-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) were used to measure accelerations, converted to force, for comparisons to force plate GRF discrete measures. These measures included peak force, impulse and the continuous force-time curve in the vertical and braking (horizontal) planes...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Soon Hwee Ng, Michael Stat, Michael Bunce, Leigh W Simmons
The extent to which diet and environment influence gut community membership (presence or absence of taxa) and structure (individual taxon abundance) is the subject of growing interest in microbiome research. Here, we examined the gut bacterial communities of three cricket groups: (1) wild caught field crickets, (2) laboratory-reared crickets fed cat chow, and (3) laboratory-reared crickets fed chemically defined diets. We found that both environment and diet greatly altered the structure of the gut bacterial community...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Felicia Hall, Philip E Johnson, Andrea Liceaga
Food-derived bioactive peptides have gained attention for their role in preventing chronic diseases. Edible insects are viable sources of bioactive peptides owing to their high protein content and sustainable production. In this study, whole crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were alcalase-hydrolyzed to a degree of hydrolysis (DH) ranging from 15 to 85%. Antioxidant activity, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV)- inhibition of the cricket protein hydrolysates (CPH) were evaluated before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD)...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Candice Jo-Anne Christie, Bronwyn Sheppard, David Goble, Lee Pote, Timothy D Noakes
Christie CJ, Sheppard B, Goble D, Pote L, and Noakes TD. Strength and sprint time changes in response to repeated shuttles between the wickets during batting in cricket. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-No studies have investigated the impact of repeated sprints between the wickets on lower-limb strength and sprint performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess changes in knee extensor (EXT) and flexor (FLEX) strength after repeated sprints between the wickets and to relate these to changes in sprint times...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mariko Ikeda, Masami Yoshino
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling pathway has been suggested to be important in the formation of olfactory memory in insects. However, the molecular targets of the NO signaling cascade in the central neurons associated with olfactory learning and memory have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on single voltage-dependent Na+ channels in intrinsic neurons, called Kenyon cells, in the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Step depolarization on cell-attached patch membranes induces single-channel currents with fast-activating and -inactivating brief openings at the beginning of the voltage steps followed by more persistently recurring brief openings all along the 150-ms pulses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Timothy George Bayley, Berthold Hedwig
The integration of stimuli of different modalities is fundamental to information processing within the nervous system. A descending interneuron in the cricket brain, with prominent dendrites in the deutocerebrum, receives input from three sensory modalities: touch of the antennal flagellum, strain of the antennal base, and visual stimulation. Using calcium imaging, we demonstrate that each modality drives a Ca2+ increase in a different dendritic region. Moreover, touch of the flagellum is represented in a topographic map along the neuron's dendrites...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Cricket Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Ming Kai Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan
The orthopterans, comprised of the grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids, are often considered as infamous agricultural pests that eat and destroy crops. While orthopterans can provide mutualistic ecological services including seed dispersal (Duthie et al. 2006; Suetsugu 2018), they are rarely considered capable of pollination (Micheneau et al. 2010). There are, however, some orthopterans which preferentially feed on flowers. These floriphilic orthopterans include a Phaneropterinid katydid, Phaneroptera brevis (Serville, 1838) which can be found frequently among flowers in Southeast Asia (Tan et al...
April 29, 2018: Ecology
Simon A Feros, Warren B Young, Brendan J OʼBrien
Feros, SA, Young, WB, and O'Brien, BJ. Relationship between selected physical qualities, bowling kinematics, and pace bowling skill in club-standard cricketers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Although strength and conditioning of cricket pace bowlers has become more specialized in recent times, little is understood about the interplay between physical capacities, pace bowling kinematics, and pace bowling skill measures. This study sought to determine these interrelationships. Thirty-one male club-standard pace bowlers completed 3 test sessions on separate occasions 4-7 days apart...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Ariana Zavala-Moreno, Yadira Rufino-González, Martha Ponce-Macotela, Alejandro García-Arredondo, Miguel Cuevas-Cruz, Saúl Gómez-Manzo, Jaime Marcial-Quino, Barbarín Arreguín-Lozano, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa
Background: Cnidarian venoms and extracts have shown a broad variety of biological activities including cytotoxic, antibacterial and antitumoral effects. Most of these studied extracts were obtained from sea anemones or jellyfish. The present study aimed to determine the toxic activity and assess the antitumor and antiparasitic potential of Palythoa caribaeorum venom by evaluating its in vitro toxicity on several models including human tumor cell lines and against the parasite Giardia intestinalis ...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Olga Korsunovskaya, Bruno Massa, Ionuț Ștefan Iorgu
To find a mate, male and female bush-crickets of the family Phaneropteridae typically engage in duets. The male sings and the female responds. For mutual recognition, the amplitude pattern of the male song and the species-specific timing of the female response have been shown to be very important. In the seven studied species, belonging to the genera Leptophyes and Andreiniimon , these duets are extremely fast and nearly completely in the ultrasonic range. The females produce very short sounds by fast closing movements of the tegmina...
2018: ZooKeys
Zhu-Qing He, Hui Lu, Yu-Qing Liu, Han-Qiang Wang, Kai Li
A new species, Ornebius apterus sp. nov., is described from Guangdong, China. This wingless species is monophyletic with Ornebius spp., which are all singing species. The type specimens are deposited in East China Normal University, Biology of History Museum (ECNU).
March 6, 2018: Zootaxa
Tony Robillard, You Ning Su
A monograph concerning the Australian crickets was published in 1983 by Otte Alexander, but this territory still harbors many undiscovered, undescribed treasures. Both existing species of Australian Lebinthus prove to belong to the tribe Eurepini. Our study results in the following new combinations: Salmanites miripara (Otte Alexander, 1983) n. comb. and Eurepa bifasciata (Chopard, 1951) n. comb. In the meantime, newly collected material from northern Queensland allows us to describe two new lineages of brachypterous Lebinthini from northern Australia, the species Macrobinthus kutini n...
March 8, 2018: Zootaxa
Ranjana Jaiswara, Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Lucas Denadai De Campos, Darlan R RedÜ, Francisco de A G De Mello, Laure Desutter-Grandcolas
Titanogryllus, a new genus and three new species T. salgado n. gen. n. sp., T. oxossi n. gen. n. sp., and T. oxente n. gen. n. sp. from subfamily Gryllinae (Grylloidea, Gryllidae) are described from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This genus is characterized by its very large size, and establishes a new record for the largest known cricket from Neotropical Region. The new taxa are characterized by their external morphology and male and female genitalia.
March 29, 2018: Zootaxa
D C F Rentz, You Ning Su
During the course of preparation of the Guidebook to Australian Crickets, we have become aware of the incorrect identification and subsequent placement of Apterogryllus kimberleyanus Baehr. In addition, we make two changes in the tribal placement of two other genera.
April 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Ming Kai Tan, Rodzay Bin Haji Abdul Wahab
There are now more than 28,000 described orthopterans globally (Cigliano et al., 2018) and this figure is likely to increase in the future. The same is true for Southeast Asia, where we are still at a stage of discovering species new to science, and this is partly an artefact of incomplete sampling (Tan et al., 2017a). In one of the most popular biodiversity hotspots, i.e., Borneo, is the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre. It is located in the primary lowland and ridge dipterocarp forests of the Ulu Temburong National Park, Brunei Darussalam...
April 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Zhu-Qing He
A checklist of Chinese crickets, including Taiwan, is offered. Presently 331 species or subspecies have been reported including true crickets, scale crickets, ant crickets and mole crickets belonging to 6 families, 16 subfamilies and 83 genera. Modicogryllus (Modicogryllus) maculatus (Shiraki, 1930) is moved to Comidoblemmus as C. maculatus (Shiraki, 1930) comb. nov. Velarifictorus (Velarifictorus) koshunensis (Shiraki, 1911) is moved to Turanogryllus as T. koshunensis (Shiraki, 1911) comb. nov. Qingryllus Chen Zheng, 1995 syn...
January 7, 2018: Zootaxa
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