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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717598/development-rate-rather-than-social-environment-influences-cognitive-performance-in-australian-black-field-crickets-teleogryllus-commodus
#1
Caitlin L Anderson, Michael M Kasumovic
Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693882/bone-density-and-cross-sectional-geometry-of-the-proximal-femur-are-bilaterally-elevated-in-elite-cricket-fast-bowlers
#2
Matthew J Lees, Clive B Beggs, Matthew J Barlow, Zoe H Rutherford, Kunwar Bansil, Lisa Gannon, Karen Hind
The skeleton of a cricket fast bowler is exposed to a unique combination of gravitational and torsional loading in the form of substantial ground reaction forces delivered through the front landing foot, and anterior-posterior shear forces mediated by regional muscle contractions across the lumbo-pelvic region. The objectives of this study were to compare the hip structural characteristics of elite fast bowlers with recreationally active age-matched controls, and to examine unilateral bone properties in fast bowlers...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666960/analysis-of-virus-susceptibility-in-the-invasive-insect-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#3
Kwang-Zin Lee, Andreas Vilcinskas
The invasive insect pest Drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes massive agricultural damage in North America and Europe (Cini et al., 2012). Environmentally sustainable strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of this species, and entomopathogenic viruses offer one potential solution for global crop protection. Here we report the status of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the susceptibility of D. suzukii to three model insect viruses: Drosophila C virus, Cricket paralysis virus and Flock house virus...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664787/behavioral-tracing-demonstrates-dietary-nutrient-discrimination-in-two-spotted-crickets-gryllus-bimaculatus
#4
Keisuke Fukumura, Shinji Nagata
Animals select appropriate diets to meet their nutritional requirements. Here, we demonstrate the availability for analysis of feeding preference using an orthopteran, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. A time-course study of these insects, involving continuous recording and tracing behavior for 9 h, allowed us to monitor discrimination of diet that contained various nutrients.
June 30, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658073/monitoring-changes-in-power-speed-agility-and-endurance-in-elite-cricketers-during-the-off-season
#5
Chris Bishop, Ross Herridge, Anthony Turner
The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in power, speed, agility and endurance in elite cricketers during the 20-week off-season period. Fourteen elite male cricketers (age 26.2 ± 5.3years; height 180.8 ± 8.5cm; mass 83.5 ± 6.7kg) conducted a physical testing battery in week 1 and week 18 of the off-season period. The testing included a yoyo intermittent recovery test (yoyo IRT), bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), broad jump (BJ), drop jump (to calculate reactive strength index - [RSI]), pro agility and 5, 10, 20m sprint tests...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657116/short-term-atrazine-exposure-at-breeding-has-no-impact-on-blanchard-s-cricket-frog-acris-blanchardi-reproductive-success
#6
Tyler D Hoskins, Maria Dellapina, Michelle D Boone
Studies of endocrine-disrupting contaminants have focused on early-life exposures, but later exposures could impact fitness. We exposed adult frogs (Acris blanchardi) at reproduction to ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations (0, 1, or 10 µg/L) in outdoor arenas. We measured likelihood of breeding and number of resulting tadpoles. Atrazine did not impact probability of breeding nor tadpoles produced, suggesting anuran reproductive success may not be impacted by short-term exposure to low concentrations...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643262/genome-editing-in-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#7
Takahito Watanabe, Sumihare Noji, Taro Mito
Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal and include many beneficial and deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640400/little-evidence-for-intralocus-sexual-conflict-over-the-optimal-intake-of-nutrients-for-lifespan-and-reproduction-in-the-black-field-cricket-teleogryllus-commodus
#8
James Rapkin, Ruth C Archer, Charles E Grant, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Alastair J Wilson, John Hunt
There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on lifespan and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for lifespan and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus...
June 22, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637919/the-morphological-heterogeneity-of-cricket-flow-sensing-hairs-conveys-the-complex-flow-signature-of-predator-attacks
#9
Thomas Steinmann, Jérôme Casas
Arthropod flow-sensing hair length ranges over more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 5 mm. Previous studies repeatedly identified the longest hairs as the most sensitive, but recent studies identified the shortest hairs as the most responsive. We resolved this apparent conflict by proposing a new model, taking into account both the initial and long-term aspects of the flow pattern produced by a lunging predator. After the estimation of the mechanical parameters of hairs, we measured the flow produced by predator mimics and compared the predicted and observed values of hair displacements in this flow...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#10
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627293/new-evidence-of-relative-age-effects-in-super-elite-sportsmen-a-case-for-the-survival-and-evolution-of-the-fittest
#11
Benjamin D Jones, Gavin P Lawrence, Lew Hardy
The relative age effect (RAE) describes an overrepresentation of players born early (Q1) in a selection year and is highly prevalent within youth sport pathways. However, a dearth of research has investigated the RAE at the "super-elite" level. The present research assessed the presence of RAE in super-elite performers. Study 1 investigated RAEs in the world's best international Test cricketers (N = 262) over a 20-year period according to a robust and stringent "super-elite" criteria. Results revealed the RAE (Q1) when all disciplines were combined...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627055/cholelithiasis-in-adult-bearded-dragons-retrospective-study-of-nine-adult-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps-with-cholelithiasis-between-2013-and-2015-in-southern-germany
#12
A Gimmel, H Kempf, S Öfner, D Müller, A Liesegang
With an increased number of pet reptiles, many diseases occur due to nutritional disorders. Between 2013 and 2015, irregular gallbladder contents (sludge/choleliths) in adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were recorded in many of the routinely conducted necropsies at the reptile rescue station in Munich (Auffangstation für Reptilien, München e.V., Munich, Germany). Nine animals, six from the rescue station and three from an associated veterinary practice (Tierärztliche Praxis für Exoten, Augsburg, Germany), were studied...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620336/how-to-trick-your-opponent-a-review-article-on-deceptive-actions-in-interactive-sports
#13
REVIEW
Iris Güldenpenning, Wilfried Kunde, Matthias Weigelt
Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents' performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball) has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610385/complete-mitochondrial-genome-and-taxonomic-revision-of-cardiodactylus-muiri-otte-2007-gryllidae-eneopterinae-lebinthini
#14
Jiajia Dong, Natallia Vicente, Ioana C Chintauan-Marquier, Cahyo Ramadi, Agnès Dettai, Tony Robillard
In the present study, we report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the cricket Cardiodactylus muiri Otte, 2007. The mitogenome was sequenced using a long-PCR approach on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) for next generation sequencing technology. The total length of the amplified mitogenome is 16,328 bp, representing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and one noncoding region (D-loop region). The new sets of long-PCR primers reported here are invaluable resources for future comparative evolutionary genomic studies in Orthopteran insects...
May 15, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610217/a-new-genus-and-species-of-neotropical-nemobiinae-insecta-orthoptera-grylloidea-trigonidiidae-nemobiinae
#15
Fabiene Maria DE Jesus, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, Geanne Carla Ripani Rodrigues, Carlos Frankl Sperber
A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609930/first-record-of-the-ant-cricket-i-myrmecophilus-i-i-myrmecophilina-i-i-americanus%C3%A2-i-orthoptera-myrmecophilidae-in-mexico
#16
Aldo I Ortega-Morales, Quetzaly K Siller Rodríguez, Javier A Garza-Hernández, Adebiyi A Adeniran, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez
In September 2004, the New World ant cricket, Myrmecophilus americanus Saussure, 1877, was collected in association with longhorn crazy ants, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille. 1802), in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. We are reporting the DNA barcode using the mitochrondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I for this first record of M. americanus in Mexico.
April 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609858/new-data-on-the-bush-cricket-montana-medvedevi-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-critically-endangered-in-europe-eu-28-and-a-comparison-of-its-song-with-all-known-song-patterns-within-the-genus
#17
Slobodan Ivković, Ionuț Ștefan Iorgu, Laslo Horvat, Dragan Chobanov, Olga Korsunovskaya, Klaus-Gerhard Heller
Montana medvedevi is reported for the first time from Serbia. New information about the distribution, morphology and song of this species is discussed. The song of M. medvedevi is different from that of all other members of the genus, all figured for comparison. Montana is quite diverse regarding the amplitude pattern of the calling song of its members (known in 15 species). Surprisingly, some Montana species seem to have two song patterns, one produced during the day and one at night.
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607825/cranioplasty-indications-procedures-and-outcome-an-institutional-experience
#18
Syed M Andrabi, Arif H Sarmast, Altaf R Kirmani, Abdul R Bhat
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty, the repair of a skull vault defect by insertion of an object (bone or nonbiological materials such as metal or plastic plates), is a well-known procedure in modern neurosurgery. Brain protection and cosmetic aspects are the major indications of cranioplasty. A retroprospective study was conducted for evaluating the indications, materials used, complications, and outcome of cranioplasty. METHODS: This study was prospective from August 2013 to September 2015 and retrospective from August 2010 to July 2013...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596213/chamber-music-an-unusual-helmholtz-resonator-for-song-amplification-in-a-neotropical-bush-cricket-orthoptera-tettigoniidae
#19
Thorin Jonsson, Benedict D Chivers, Kate Robson Brown, Fabio A Sarria-S, Matthew Walker, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Animals use sound for communication, with high-amplitude signals being selected for attracting mates or deterring rivals. High amplitudes are attained by employing primary resonators in sound producing structures to amplify the signal (e.g., avian syrinx). Some species actively exploit acoustic properties of natural structures to enhance signal transmission by using these as secondary resonators (e.g., tree-hole frogs). Male bush-crickets produce sound by tegminal stridulation and often use specialised wing areas as primary resonators...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584393/adult-bacterial-exposure-increases-behavioral-variation-and-drives-higher-repeatability-in-field-crickets
#20
Nicholas DiRienzo, Petri T Niemelä, Ann V Hedrick, Raine Kortet
Among-individual differences in behavior are now a widely studied research-focus within the field of behavioral ecology. Furthermore, elements of an animal's internal state, such as energy or fat reserves, and infection status can have large impacts on behaviors. Despite this, we still know little regarding how state may affect behavioral variation. Recent exposure to pathogens may have a particularly large impact on behavioral expression given that it likely activates costly immune pathways, potentially forcing organism to make behavioral tradeoffs...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
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