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Damith Mohotti, P L N Fernando, Amir Zaghloul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to study the behaviour of a human head during the event of an impact of a cricket ball. While many recent incidents were reported in relation to head injuries caused by the impact of cricket balls, there is no clear information available in the published literature about the possible threat levels and the protection level of the current protective equipment. This research investigates the effects of an impact of a cricket ball on a human head and the level of protection offered by the existing standard cricket helmet...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Doug King, Patria A Hume, Natalie Hardaker, Cloe Cummins, Conor Gissane, Trevor Clark
OBJECTIVES: To provide epidemiological data and related costs for sport-related injuries of five sporting codes (cricket, netball, rugby league, rugby union and football) in New Zealand for moderate-to-serious and serious injury claims. METHODS: A retrospective analytical review using detailed descriptive epidemiological data obtained from the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) for 2012-2016. RESULTS: Over the 5 years of study data, rugby union recorded the most moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claims (25 226) and costs (New Zealand dollars (NZD$)267 359 440 (£139 084 749)) resulting in the highest mean cost (NZD$10 484 (£5454)) per moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claim...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Christopher T Brennan, David G Jenkins, Mark A Osborne, Michael Oyewale, Vincent G Kelly
This study examined the changes in running performance, maximal blood lactate concentrations and running kinematics between 85%BM anti-gravity (AG) running and normal over-ground (OG) running over an 8-week training period. Fifteen elite male developmental cricketers were assigned to either the AG or over-ground (CON) running group. The AG group (n = 7) ran twice a week on an AG treadmill and once per week over-ground. The CON group (n = 8) completed all sessions OG on grass. Both AG and OG training resulted in similar improvements in time trial and shuttle run performance...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Robert B Srygley, Laura B Senior
An ongoing biological debate concerns the difference in trait expression in continuous versus cycling temperature regimes, but are even daily cycling temperatures sufficient to generate natural expression of traits? We compared embryonic development and the duration of diapause for Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) eggs incubated in a daily cycling temperature constant in both amplitude and thermoperiod with those in a cycling temperature that was patterned after natural fluctuations in ambient temperature...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Jon S Patricios, Clare L Ardern, Michael David Hislop, Mark Aubry, Paul Bloomfield, Carolyn Broderick, Patrick Clifton, Ruben J Echemendia, Richard G Ellenbogen, Éanna Cian Falvey, Gordon Ward Fuller, Julie Grand, Dallas Hack, Peter Rex Harcourt, David Hughes, Nathan McGuirk, Willem Meeuwisse, Jeffrey Miller, John T Parsons, Simona Richiger, Allen Sills, Kevin B Moran, Jenny Shute, Martin Raftery
The 2017 Berlin Concussion in Sport Group Consensus Statement provides a global summary of best practice in concussion prevention, diagnosis and management, underpinned by systematic reviews and expert consensus. Due to their different settings and rules, individual sports need to adapt concussion guidelines according to their specific regulatory environment. At the same time, consistent application of the Berlin Consensus Statement's themes across sporting codes is likely to facilitate superior and uniform diagnosis and management, improve concussion education and highlight collaborative research opportunities...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Gabrielle A Gurule-Small, Robin M Tinghitella
Phenotypic plasticity facilitates survival and reproduction in rapidly changing and novel environments. Traffic noise spectrally overlaps with (i.e. masks) the sounds used by many acoustically signalling organisms to locate and secure mates. To determine if pre-reproductive exposure to noise improves adult performance in noisy environments, we reared field crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) in one of three noise environments: masking traffic noise, traffic noise from which frequencies that spectrally overlap with the crickets' song were removed (non-masking), or silence...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Esther González-Almela, Hugh Williams, Miguel A Sanz, Luis Carrasco
Animal viruses have evolved a variety of strategies to ensure the efficient translation of their mRNAs. One such strategy is the use of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements, which circumvent the requirement for some eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Much effort has been directed to unravel the precise mechanism of translation initiation by hepatitis C virus (HCV) mRNA. In the present study, we examined the involvement of several eIFs in HCV IRES-driven translation in human cells in a comparative analysis with mRNAs bearing the encephalomyocarditis virus or the Cricket paralysis virus IRES element...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Justyna Maliszewska, Bartosz Piechowicz, Gabriela Maciąga, Lech Zaręba, Sonia Marcinkowska
Many factors may affect pesticide effectiveness against pests. One of the factors that should be considered is circadian rhythmicity. In this study, we evaluated daily variations in pyrethroid susceptibility in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus L. Crickets were exposed to a standard dose of ß-cyfluthrin at different times of a day, and pesticide residue levels were evaluated using gas chromatography. Results demonstrate that the time of pyrethroid disappearance is correlated with the circadian clock, with the highest decomposition rate at night...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Jeremy P Koelmel, Christina M Jones, Candice Z Ulmer, Timothy J Garrett, Richard A Yost, Tracey B Schock, John A Bowden
AIM: To confidently determine lipid-based biomarkers, it is important to minimize variation introduced during preanalytical steps. We evaluated reducing variation associated with lipid measurements in invertebrate sentinel species using a state-of-the-art heat treatment technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Earthworms (Eisenia fetida), house crickets (Acheta domestica) and ghost shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) were euthanized either by flash freezing or heat treatment...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
Will T Schneider, Christian Rutz, Berthold Hedwig, Nathan W Bailey
The evolutionary loss of sexual traits is widely predicted. Because sexual signals can arise from the coupling of specialized motor activity with morphological structures, disruption to a single component could lead to overall loss of function. Opportunities to observe this process and characterize any remaining signal components are rare, but could provide insight into the mechanisms, indirect costs and evolutionary consequences of signal loss. We investigated the recent evolutionary loss of a long-range acoustic sexual signal in the Hawaiian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus Flatwing males carry mutations that remove sound-producing wing structures, eliminating all acoustic signalling and affording protection against an acoustically-orientating parasitoid fly...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Carl S Cloyed, Perri K Eason, Anthony I Dell
Stable isotopes are valuable tools in physiological and ecological research, as they can be used to estimate diet, habitat use, and resource allocation. However, in most cases a priori knowledge of two key properties of stable isotopes are required, namely their rate of incorporation into the body (incorporation rate) and the change of isotope values between consumers and resources that arises during incorporation of the isotope into the consumer's tissues (trophic discrimination). Previous studies have quantified these properties across species and tissue-types, but little is known about how they vary with temperature, a key driver of many biological rates and times...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Marlene Zuk, Nathan W Bailey, Brian Gray, John T Rotenberry
1.Sexual signals may be acquired or lost over evolutionary time, and are tempered in their exaggeration by natural selection. 2.In the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, a mutation ("flatwing") causing loss of the sexual signal, the song, spread in < 20 generations in two of three Hawaiian islands where the crickets have been introduced. Flatwing (as well as some normal-wing) males behave as satellites, moving towards and settling near calling males to intercept phonotactic females. 3.From 2005-2012, we surveyed crickets and their responses to conspecific song, noting the morph and number of males and females before and after experimental playbacks...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Wayne Spratford, Bruce Elliott, Marc Portus, Nicholas Brown, Jacqueline Alderson
With advances in technology, scientists are now able to more accurately measure elbow displacement changes during the cricket bowling action. This has led to the realisation that the majority of bowlers undergo some degree of elbow extension during the forward swing phase of bowling. Consequently, the International Cricket Council were obliged to revise the once zero tolerance for elbow extension threshold to a 15° range. However, it is still not understood if bowling with greater than 15° of elbow extension aids performance or alters other kinematic movements...
February 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dulce Santos, Niels Wynant, Stijn Van den Brande, Thomas-Wolf Verdonckt, Lina Mingels, Paulien Peeters, Anna Kolliopoulou, Luc Swevers, Jozef Vanden Broeck
The control of viral infections in insects is a current issue of major concern and RNA interference (RNAi) is considered the main antiviral immune response in this group of animals. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of key RNAi factors can help to protect insect cells against viral infections. In particular, we show that overexpression of Dicer2 and Argonaute2 in lepidopteran cells leads to improved defense against the acute infection of the Cricket Paralysis Virus (CrPV). We also demonstrate an important role of RNAi in the control of persistent viral infections, as the one caused by the Macula-like Latent Virus (MLV)...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristin R Duffield, Kylie J Hampton, Thomas M Houslay, John Hunt, James Rapkin, Scott K Sakaluk, Ben M Sadd
The terminal investment hypothesis proposes that decreased expectation of future reproduction (e.g., arising from a threat to survival) should precipitate increased investment in current reproduction. The level at which a cue of decreased survival is sufficient to trigger terminal investment (i.e., the terminal investment threshold) may vary according to other factors that influence expectation for future reproduction. We test whether the terminal investment threshold varies with age in male crickets, using heat-killed bacteria to simulate an immune-inducing infection...
February 1, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Robert A Keller, Anthony F De Giacomo, Julie A Neumann, Orr Limpisvasti, James E Tibone
CONTEXT: Current perception dictates that glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is a chronic adaptation that leads to an increased risk of pathologic conditions in the dominant shoulder or elbow of overhead athletes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adaptations in glenohumeral range of motion in overhead athletes lead to injuries of the upper extremity, specifically in the shoulder or elbow. DATA SOURCES: An electronic database search was performed using Medline, Embase, and SportDiscus from 1950 to 2016...
January 1, 2018: Sports Health
Santosh Kumar Mahapatra, Kundan Malhotra, Rohit Ganapatrao Mendke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to study the clinical features, visual outcome, management, and ocular complications of ocular injury, following trauma with tennis or cricket ball. METHODS: A prospective, noncomparative case study of patients having injury with tennis/cricket ball while playing cricket was conducted between January 2013 and April 2016. Seventy-six eyes of 76 patients were studied. Presenting vision, age, gender, time since injury, general and ocular examination, intraocular pressure, indirect ophthalmoscopy, B scan, and X-ray/computed tomography scan findings were noted...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Paule Chloé Lefebvre, Marvin Seifert, Andreas Stumpner
In bush-crickets the first stage of central auditory processing occurs in the prothoracic ganglion. About 15 to 50 different auditory dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM neurons) exist but they have not been studied in any detail. These DUM-neurons may be classified into seven different morphological types, although, there is only limited correlation between morphology and physiological responses. 97% of the stained neurons were local, 3% were intersegmental. About 90% project nearly exclusively into the auditory neuropile, and 45% into restricted areas therein...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sae-Geun Park, Yong-Cheol Jeong, Dae-Gun Kim, Min-Hyung Lee, Anna Shin, Geunhong Park, Jia Ryoo, Jiso Hong, Seohui Bae, Cheol-Hu Kim, Phill-Seung Lee, Daesoo Kim
As animals forage, they must obtain useful targets by orchestrating appropriate actions that range from searching to chasing, biting and carrying. Here, we reveal that neurons positive for the α subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKIIα) in the medial preoptic area (MPA) that send projections to the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) mediate these target-directed actions in mice. During photostimulation of the MPA-vPAG circuit, mice vigorously engaged with 3D objects and chased moving objects...
January 29, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Sadia Almas, Anna G Gibson, Steven M Presley
To determine potential intermediate hosts of Oxyspirura petrowi, a common nematode eyeworm of wild gallinaceous birds, various arthropod species including red harvester ants, beetles, wood cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, katydids, and desert termites were screened for the presence of O. petrowi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS2) of the eyeworm ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). This is the first study to investigate the intermediate hosts of O...
January 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
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