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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919967/comparative-analysis-of-chromosomes-in-the-palaearctic-bush-crickets-of-tribe-pholidopterini-orthoptera-tettigoniinae
#1
Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, Beata Grzywacz, Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Dragan P Chobanov
The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in four genera of the tribe Pholidopterini: Eupholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Parapholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Pholidoptera Wesmaël, 1838, Uvarovistia Mařan, 1953. Chromosomes were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG) n telomeric probes, and classical techniques, such as C-banding, silver impregnation and fluorochrome DAPI/CMA3 staining. Most species retained the ancestral diploid chromosome number 2n = 31 (male) or 32 (female), while some of the taxa, especially a group of species within genus Pholidoptera, evolved a reduced chromosome number 2n = 29...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918745/coupling-of-translation-initiation-and-termination-does-not-depend-on-the-mode-of-initiation
#2
E A Sogorin, G K Selikhanov, S Ch Agalarov
Recently we described a novel phenomenon observed during eukaryotic translation in a cell-free system: the coupling of initiation and termination on different mRNA molecules. Here we show that the phenomenon does not depend on a special mode of initiation. The mRNAs with certain leader sequences known to require different determinants for successful initiation were examined. Even in a case of using the intergenic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of cricket paralysis virus RNA as the leader sequence, while no initiation factors are required, the effect of coupling is well expressed, including trials in the presence of hippuristanol as an inhibitor of eIF4A...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916147/microbial-associates-of-the-southern-mole-cricket-scapteriscus-borellii-are-highly-pathogenic
#3
Sudarshan K Aryal, Derreck Carter-House, Jason E Stajich, Adler R Dillman
We report the isolation and identification of seven bacterial strains and one fungal strain from dead and diseased Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets collected from a golf course in southern California. Using 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis we identified the microbes as Serratia marcescens (red), S. marcescens (white), S. marcescens (purple), Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Chryseobacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Tsukamurella tryosinosolvens, and Beauveria bassiana. We performed a dose response curve for each of these cricket-associated microbial strains (except T...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912647/accelerometery-and-heart-rate-responses-of-professional-fast-medium-bowlers-in-one-day-and-multi-day-cricket
#4
James A Johnstone, Gerwyn Hughes, Andrew C Mitchell, Paul A Ford, Tim Watson, Rob Duffield, Dan Gordon, Justin D Roberts, Andrew T Garrett
The physical demands of fast-medium bowling are increasingly being recognised, yet comparative exploration of the differing demands between competitive formats (i.e. one-day [OD] versus multi-day [MD] matches) remain minimal. The aim of this study was to describe in-match physiological profiles of professional fast-medium bowlers from England across different versions of competitive matches using a multivariable wearable monitoring device. Seven professional cricket fast-medium bowlers wore the Bioharness(TM) monitoring device during matches, over three seasons (>80 hours in-match)...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911115/the-ires5-utr-of-the-dicistrovirus-cricket-paralysis-virus-is-a-type-iii-ires-containing-an-essential-pseudoknot-structure
#5
Lauriane Gross, Quentin Vicens, Evelyne Einhorn, Audrey Noireterre, Laure Schaeffer, Lauriane Kuhn, Jean-Luc Imler, Gilbert Eriani, Carine Meignin, Franck Martin
Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) is a dicistrovirus. Its positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome contains two internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). The 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) IRES5'UTR mediates translation of non-structural proteins encoded by ORF1 whereas the well-known intergenic region (IGR) IRESIGR is required for translation of structural proteins from open reading frame 2 in the late phase of infection. Concerted action of both IRES is essential for host translation shut-off and viral translation...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910319/chronic-social-defeat-induces-long-term-behavioral-depression-of-aggressive-motivation-in-an-invertebrate-model-system
#6
Jacqueline Rose, Jan Rillich, Paul A Stevenson
Losing a fight against a conspecific male (social defeat) induces a period of suppressed aggressiveness and general behaviour, often with symptoms common to human psychiatric disorders. Agonistic experience is also discussed as a potential cause of consistent, behavioral differences between individuals (animal "personality"). In non-mammals, however, the impact of single agonistic encounters typically last only hours, but then again studies of repeated intermittent defeat (chronic social defeat) are seldom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904180/females-can-solve-the-problem-of-low-signal-reliability-by-assessing-multiple-male-traits
#7
Abigail K Wegehaupt, William E Wagner
Male signals that provide information to females about mating benefits are often of low reliability. It is thus not clear why females often express strong signal preferences. We tested the hypothesis that females can distinguish between males with preferred signals that provide lower and higher quality direct benefits. In the field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females usually prefer higher male chirp rates, but chirp rate is positively correlated with the fecundity benefits females will receive from males only for males that have experienced low quality diets...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904103/surface-electrodes-record-and-label-brain-neurons-in-insects
#8
Konstantinos Kostarakos, Berthold Hedwig
We used suction electrodes to reliably record the activity of identified ascending auditory interneurons from the anterior surface of the brain in crickets. Electrodes were gently attached to the sheath covering the projection area of the ascending interneurons and the ring-like auditory neuropil in the protocerebrum. The specificity and selectivity of the recordings were determined by the precise electrode location, which could easily be changed without causing damage to the tissue. Different non-auditory fibres were recorded at other spots of the brain surface; stable recordings lasted for several hours...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902470/female-fecundity-and-offspring-survival-are-not-increased-through-sexual-cannibalism-in-the-spider-larinioides-sclopetarius
#9
S A Deventer, M E Herberstein, D Mayntz, J C O'Hanlon, J M Schneider
Many hypotheses explaining the evolution and maintenance of sexual cannibalism incorporate the nutritional aspect of the consumption of males. Most studies have focused on a fecundity advantage through consumption of a male, however recent studies have raised the intriguing possibility that consumption of a male may also affect offspring quality. In particular, recent studies suggest prolonged survival for offspring from sexually cannibalistic females. Here we measured the protein and lipid content of males compared to insect prey (crickets), quantified female nutrient intake of both prey types, and finally assessed how sexual cannibalism affects female fecundity and spiderling quality in the orb-web spider Larinioides sclopetarius...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902461/behavioral-responses-of-pest-mole-crickets-neoscapteriscus-spp-orthoptera-gryllotalpidae-to-selected-insecticides
#10
Olga S Kostromytska, Michael E Scharf, Eileen A Buss
BACKGROUND: Mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus spp.) consume turfgrasses and pasture grasses and uproot plants by their tunneling, which decreases turf aesthetics and decreases forage quantity and quality. Insecticides are frequently used to prevent damage. In typical field trials, damage symptoms, not percent of mortality or achieved level of control, are used to assess treatment efficacy. Here however, we evaluated the direct effect of key insecticides on Neoscapteriscus mole cricket behavior...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888768/assessment-of-a-cricket-acheta-domesticus-bioassay-for-chequa-iflavirus-and-bunya-like-virus-from-redclaw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#11
Kitikarn Sakuna, Jennifer Elliman, Leigh Owens
Chequa iflavirus and a bunya-like virus infect redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and they may cause mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks after a stress event. To complete River's postulates for viruses, virus-free animals are needed. Due to a lack of chequa iflavirus and bunya-like virus-free crayfish (testing shows>85% infection rate) coupled with the facts that iflavirus and bunyaviruses are found in insects and that crickets had been successful alternate hosts for crustacean viruses before, Acheta domesticus was trialled asa bioassay animal...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881263/metagenetic-analysis-of-the-bacterial-communities-of-edible-insects-from-diverse-production-cycles-at-industrial-rearing-companies
#12
D Vandeweyer, S Crauwels, B Lievens, L Van Campenhout
Despite the continuing development of new insect-derived food products, microbial research on edible insects and insect-based foods is still very limited. The goal of this study was to increase the knowledge on the microbial quality of edible insects by comparing the bacterial community composition of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domesticus and Gryllodes sigillatus) from several production cycles and rearing companies. Remarkable differences in the bacterial community composition were found between different mealworm rearing companies and mealworm production cycles from the same company...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879571/risk-factors-for-non-contact-injury-in-adolescent-cricket-pace-bowlers-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Mitchell R L Forrest, Jeffrey J Hebert, Brendan R Scott, Stefano Brini, Alasdair R Dempsey
BACKGROUND: Adolescent cricket pace bowlers are prone to injury. Recognising the risk factors for non-contact injury in this population will aid future injury prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for non-contact injury in adolescent cricket pace bowlers. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Embase, and the South African Journal of Sports Medicine to identify all experimental and observational studies reporting risk factors for non-contact injuries in pace bowlers (aged 12-19 years)...
September 6, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879516/the-influence-of-temperature-on-chytridiomycosis-in-vivo
#14
Julia M Sonn, Scott Berman, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Chytridiomycosis, an amphibian disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an ideal system for studying the influence of temperature on host-pathogen relationships because both host and pathogen are ectothermic. Studies of Bd in culture suggest that optimal growth occurs between 17 and 23°C, and death of the fungus occurs above 29 or below 0°C. Amphibian immune systems, however, are also temperature dependent and often more effective at higher temperatures. We therefore hypothesized that pathogen load, probability of infection and mortality in Bd-exposed frogs would peak at a lower temperature than that at which Bd grows best in vitro...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877774/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-bamboo-grasshopper-ceracris-fasciata-and-the-phylogenetic-analyses-and-divergence-time-estimation-of-caelifera-orthoptera
#15
S Gao, J J Chen, G F Jiang
The bamboo grasshopper Ceracris fasciata is regarded as a major pest species because of the damage it causes to bamboo, and its classification within the families and subfamilies of the suborder Caelifera remains unclear. Thus, we attempted to resolve these questions using molecular biology methods and analyses. Our results are as follows: (1) the complete mitochondrial genome of C. fasciata is 15,569 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region in the same order as those of the other analysed Caeliferan species...
September 7, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869499/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-hydrolysates-and-peptide-fractions-obtained-by-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-selected-heat-treated-edible-insects
#16
Ewelina Zielińska, Barbara Baraniak, Monika Karaś
This study investigated the effect of heat treatment of edible insects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of peptides obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and absorption process thereof. The antioxidant potential of edible insect hydrolysates was determined as free radical-scavenging activity, ion chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH(•) (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) was noted for a peptide fraction from baked cricket Gryllodes sigillatus hydrolysate (IC50 value 10...
September 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864301/the-scolopidial-accessory-organs-and-nebenorgans-in-orthopteroid-insects-comparative-neuroanatomy-mechanosensory-function-and-evolutionary-origin
#17
REVIEW
Johannes Strauß
Scolopidial sensilla in insects often form large sensory organs involved in proprioception or exteroception. Here the knowledge on Nebenorgans and accessory organs, two organs with scolopidial sensory cells, is summarised. These organs are present in some insects which are model organisms for the physiology of mechanosensory systems (cockroaches and tettigoniids). Recent comparative studies documented the accessory organ in several taxa of Orthoptera (bushcrickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets) and the Nebenorgan in related insects (Mantophasmatodea)...
August 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860450/indirect-genetic-effects-a-key-component-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-behaviour
#18
Francesca Santostefano, Alastair J Wilson, Petri T Niemelä, Niels J Dingemanse
Behavioural ecology research increasingly focuses on why genetic behavioural variation can persist despite selection. Evolutionary theory predicts that directional selection leads to evolutionary change while depleting standing genetic variation. Nevertheless, evolutionary stasis may occur for traits involved in social interactions. This requires tight negative genetic correlations between direct genetic effects (DGEs) of an individual's genes on its own phenotype and the indirect genetic effects (IGEs) it has on conspecifics, as this could diminish the amount of genetic variation available to selection to act upon...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855372/socially-cued-seminal-fluid-gene-expression-mediates-responses-in-ejaculate-quality-to-sperm-competition-risk
#19
Leigh W Simmons, Maxine Lovegrove
There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829390/perceived-injury-risk-among-junior-cricketers-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Prasanna J Gamage, Lauren V Fortington, Caroline F Finch
Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11-14 years, boys) perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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