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Ina Monika Margret Heidinger, Silke Hein, Heike Feldhaar, Hans-Joachim Poethke
In the highly fragmented landscape of central Europe, dispersal is of particular importance as it determines the long-term survival of animal populations. Dispersal not only secures the re-colonization of patches where populations went extinct, it may also rescue small populations and thus prevent local extinction events. As dispersal involves different individual fitness costs, the decision to disperse should not be random but context-dependent and often will be biased towards a certain group of individuals (e...
October 24, 2016: Insect Science
Nivan Weerakkody, Trevor Allen
The impact that muscle fatigue and taping have on proprioception in an applied sporting context remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate disturbances in position sense at the shoulder joint, and asses the effectiveness of adhesive tape in preventing injury and improving performance, after a bout of cricket fast bowling. Among amateur cricket players (N = 14), shoulder position sense, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force and bowling accuracy was assessed before and immediately after a fatiguing exercise bout of fast bowling...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
G O Latunde-Dada, W Yang, M Vera Aviles
Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. As knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects, is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Viktor Ulicsni, Ingvar Svanberg, Zsolt Molnár
BACKGROUND: There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. METHODS: We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Steven K Schwartz, William E Wagner, Eileen A Hebets
In a number of species, males are cannibalized by females after mating (reviewed in [1, 2]), and some males actually appear to facilitate their own cannibalism (reviewed in [3]). Such self-sacrifice can evolve if being eaten sufficiently enhances either fertilization success (mating effort) or offspring number or fitness (paternal effort). While there is some support for the mating-effort hypothesis, few studies have found support for paternal effort. We used two experiments to test the paternal-effort hypothesis in the dark fishing spider, Dolomedes tenebrosus...
October 4, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Robert Sturm
The study presents new results with regard to the morphometric and ultrastructural development of the accessory glands in females of the three cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus assimilis, and Acheta domesticus. Furthermore, possible age-dependence of secretory productivity of single organs was analyzed by application of the ligature technique introduced in a previous contribution. Within the first 12 days of the adult phase, the accessory glands of all investigated cricket species exhibit a significant increase in length and width which assumes values between 50 and 100%...
October 17, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Mingxiang Teng, Michael I Love, Carrie A Davis, Sarah Djebali, Alexander Dobin, Brenton R Graveley, Sheng Li, Christopher E Mason, Sara Olson, Dmitri Pervouchine, Cricket A Sloan, Xintao Wei, Lijun Zhan, Rafael A Irizarry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Genome Biology
Seigo Sugimachi, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami, Jiro Okada
Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Laure Desutter-Grandcolas, Sylvain Hugel
The occurrence of Nemobiinae crickets (Grylloidea, Trigonidiidae) in the Lesser Antilles is attested here for the first time, by the descriptions of three new species of Absonemobius Desutter-Grandcolas, 1993 from Guadeloupe, St. Lucia and St. Vincent: Absonemobius septentrion n. sp., Absonemobius lucensis n. sp. and Absonemobius vincenti n. sp., and the discovery of Hygronemobius Hebard, 1913 in Guadeloupe. The generic attribution of several nemobiine species described from the Caribbean and from Southern Central America are also reviewed: Nemobius elegans Otte, 2006 from Costa Rica and Pteronemobius sanaco Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009 described from Belize are transferred to Hygronemobius; Hygronemobius darienicus Hebard, 1913 described from Panama is transferred to Absonemobius Desutter-Grandcolas, 1993; Hygronemobius epia Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009 does not belong to Hygronemobius, but is temporarily kept in this genus as incertae sedis...
September 15, 2016: Zootaxa
Jun-Jie Gu, Yanli Yue, Fuming Shi, He Tian, Dong Ren
Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, the Ensifera (katydids, crickets and mole crickets) and the Caelifera (grasshoppers and pygmy mole crickets). The earliest definitive caeliferans are those found in the Triassic (Bethoux & Ross 2005). The extinct caeliferan families, such as Locustopsidae and Locustavidae, may prove to be stem groups to some of the modern superfamilies (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Locustopsidae is known from the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, consisting of two subfamilies (Gorochov et al...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
Rocco Labadessa, Simone Todisco
Ecological proclivities of the tree cricket Oecanthus dulcisonans, which has been recently separated from the well known O. pellucens, have been poorly investigated. Moreover, studies on the patterns driving niche segregation between these related species are still needed. This study aims to explore the role of macro-habitat in shaping the distribution of O. dulcisonans and O. pellucens in southern Italy. Occurrence data were sampled by means of a rapid acoustic survey scheme at a regional scale. The significance of difference in ecological and habitat parameters was tested between the two species...
September 21, 2016: Zootaxa
Elisa Machado Milach, Maria Kátia Matiotti Da Costa, Luciano De Pinho Martins, Lorena Andrade Nunes, Daniela Santos Martins Silva, Flávio Roberto Mello Garcia, Elliott Centeno De Oliveira, Edison Zefa
A new species of the genus Oecanthus Serville, 1831 from Reserva Natural Vale, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil is described. The new species differs from other of this genus in characteristics of the pseudepiphallus main lobe, endophallic sclerites, posterior median lobe of the metanotal gland and black spots on the femora and tibiae. The chromosome number is 2n=16+XY♂=18 and 2n=16+XX♀=18, and this complement present one pair of autosomes less than the other five cytological studied species.
October 4, 2016: Zootaxa
Anthony J Zera, Rebecca Clark, Spence Behmer
The influence of variable nutritional input on life history adaptation is a central, but incompletely understood aspect of life history physiology. The wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, has been extensively studied with respect to the biochemical basis of life history adaptation, in particular, modification of lipid metabolism that underlies the enhanced accumulation of lipid flight fuel in the dispersing morph [LW(f)=long wings with functional flight muscles] relative to the flightless (SW=short-winged) morph...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Thorin Jonsson, Fernando Montealegre-Z, Carl D Soulsbury, Kate A Robson Brown, Daniel Robert
The ear of the bush-cricket, Copiphora gorgonensis, consists of a system of paired eardrums (tympana) on each foreleg. In these insects, the ear is backed by an air-filled tube, the acoustic trachea (AT), which transfers sound from the prothoracic acoustic spiracle to the internal side of the eardrums. Both surfaces of the eardrums of this auditory system are exposed to sound, making it a directionally sensitive pressure difference receiver. A key feature of the AT is its capacity to reduce the velocity of sound propagation and alter the acoustic driving forces at the tympanum...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Robert B Quast, Biljana Ballion, Marlitt Stech, Andrei Sonnabend, Balázs R Varga, Doreen A Wüstenhagen, Péter Kele, Stefan M Schiller, Stefan Kubick
Cell-free protein synthesis systems represent versatile tools for the synthesis and modification of human membrane proteins. In particular, eukaryotic cell-free systems provide a promising platform for their structural and functional characterization. Here, we present the cell-free synthesis of functional human epidermal growth factor receptor and its vIII deletion mutant in a microsome-containing system derived from cultured Sf21 cells. We provide evidence for embedment of cell-free synthesized receptors into microsomal membranes and asparagine-linked glycosylation...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Klaus-Gerhard Heller, Horst Bohn, Fabian Haas, Fer Willemse, Yde de Jong
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Eileen Gabel, David A Gray, R Matthias Hennig
In crickets acoustic communication serves mate selection. Female crickets have to perceive and integrate male cues relevant for mate choice while confronted with several different signals in an acoustically diverse background. Overall female decisions are based on the attractiveness of the temporal pattern (informative about the 'what') and on signal intensity (informative about the 'where') of male calling songs. Here, we investigated how the relevant cues for mate choice are integrated during the decision process by females of five different species of chirping and trilling field crickets...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese, Karen Grimmer
Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) are common physical impairments in overhead sports, such as baseball, cricket and tennis.(1-4)) PST is clinically measured by passive shoulder horizontal adduction with scapula stabilized in supine or side lying.(5),(6)) GIRD is generally characterised as concurrent deficits of internal rotation (IR) and total arc of motion in dominant side.(7),(8)) Although the mechanisms of PST and GIRD are not clear, it is speculated that they derive from tight posterior glenohumeral capsule and posterior muscles, such as posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and teres minor muscles...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Candice Martin, Benita Olivier, Natalie Benjamin
CONTEXT: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) has been found to be a valid pre-participation screening tool in the prediction of injury among various athletes in different sports. The validity thereof in the prediction of injury among adolescent cricketers is yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a pre-season FMS total score is a valid predictor of in-season injury among adolescent pace bowlers. DESIGN: Prospective observational quantitative study...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Matt Greig, Philip Nagy
CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies highlight a prevalence of lumbar vertebrae injuries in cricket fast bowlers, with governing bodies implementing rules to reduce exposure. Analysis typically requires complex and laboratory-based biomechanical analyses, lacking ecological validity. Developments in GPS micro-technologies facilitate on-field measures of mechanical intensity, facilitating screening toward prevention and rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of using GPS-mounted tri-axial accelerometers to quantify accumulated body 'load', and to investigate the effect of GPS unit placement in relation to epidemiological observations...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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