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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146150/the-effect-of-cold-acclimation-on-active-ion-transport-in-cricket-ionoregulatory-tissues
#1
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Soheila Khazraeenia, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini, Natalia G Li, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects defend ion and water transport function during cold exposure. We hypothesized that this is achieved via enhanced active transport. The Malpighian tubules and rectum are likely targets for such transport modifications, and recent transcriptomic studies indicate shifts in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (NKA) and V-ATPase expression in these tissues following cold acclimation. Here we quantify the effect of cold acclimation (one week at 12°C) on active transport in the ionoregulatory organs of adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus field crickets...
November 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133228/effects-of-cold-acclimation-on-rectal-macromorphology-ultrastructure-and-cytoskeletal-stability-in-gryllus-pennsylvanicus-crickets
#2
Lauren E Des Marteaux, Joseph R Stinziano, Brent J Sinclair
Cold-acclimated insects maintain ion and water balance in the cold, potentially by reducing permeability or increasing diffusion distance across ionoregulatory epithelia such as the rectum. We explored whether cold acclimation induces structural modifications that minimize water and ion diffusion across the rectum and maintain rectal cell integrity. We investigated rectal structure and cytoskeletal stability in chill-susceptible adult Gryllus pennsylvanicus crickets acclimated for one week to either warm (25°C) or cold (12°C) conditions...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127516/vision-and-visual-history-in-elite-near-elite-level-cricketers-and-rugby-league-players
#3
Brendan T Barrett, Jonathan C Flavell, Simon J Bennett, Alice G Cruickshank, Alex Mankowska, Julie M Harris, John G Buckley
BACKGROUND: The importance of optimal and/or superior vision for participation in high-level sports remains the subject of considerable clinical research interest. Here, we examine the vision and visual history of elite/near-elite cricketers and rugby-league players. METHODS: Stereoacuity (TNO), colour vision, and distance (with/without pinhole) and near visual acuity (VA) were measured in two cricket squads (elite/international-level, female, n = 16; near-elite, male, n = 23) and one professional rugby-league squad (male, n = 20)...
November 10, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127426/hearing-with-exceptionally-thin-tympana-ear-morphology-and-tympanal-membrane-vibrations-in-eneopterine-crickets
#4
Erik S Schneider, Heinrich Römer, Tony Robillard, Arne K D Schmidt
The receiver sensory system plays a crucial role in the evolution of new communication signals in insects. Among acoustic communicating crickets, the tribe Lebinthini (Eneopterinae) has evolved a unique communication system in that males produce exceptionally high-frequency calls and females respond with vibratory signals to guide males towards them. In this study, we describe nine species of Eneopterinae in which the sound receiving structures have undergone considerable morphological changes. We revealed that the anterior tympanal membrane (ATM) of the ear was extremely thin, as little as 0...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126249/the-encyclopedia-of-dna-elements-encode-data-portal-update
#5
Carrie A Davis, Benjamin C Hitz, Cricket A Sloan, Esther T Chan, Jean M Davidson, Idan Gabdank, Jason A Hilton, Kriti Jain, Ulugbek K Baymuradov, Aditi K Narayanan, Kathrina C Onate, Keenan Graham, Stuart R Miyasato, Timothy R Dreszer, J Seth Strattan, Otto Jolanki, Forrest Y Tanaka, J Michael Cherry
The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Data Coordinating Center has developed the ENCODE Portal database and website as the source for the data and metadata generated by the ENCODE Consortium. Two principles have motivated the design. First, experimental protocols, analytical procedures and the data themselves should be made publicly accessible through a coherent, web-based search and download interface. Second, the same interface should serve carefully curated metadata that record the provenance of the data and justify its interpretation in biological terms...
November 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123249/crickets-alter-wind-elicited-escape-strategies-depending-on-acoustic-context
#6
Matasaburo Fukutomi, Hiroto Ogawa
Acoustic signals trigger various behaviours in insects such as courtship or escape from predators. However, it remains unknown whether insects utilize acoustic signals to recognize environmental contexts. The cricket is a prominent model insect for neuroethological studies on acoustic behaviour because female crickets exhibit positive phonotaxis in response to male calling songs, and flying crickets display avoidance behaviour for high-frequency sounds such as echolocation call of bats. The carrier frequency of these sounds is a major factor in determining whether they initiate these acoustic behaviours...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121189/macular-horseshoe-shaped-tear-following-cricket-injury
#7
V G Madanagopalan, Meena Thotakura, Pankaja Dhoble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120037/independent-recruitment-of-a-novel-seed-dispersal-system-by-camel-crickets-in-achlorophyllous-plants
#8
Kenji Suetsugu
The seeds of most heterotrophic plants, commonly referred to as dust seeds, are typically dispersed in the air like dust particles. Therefore, little attention has been paid to how seeds of heterotrophic plants are dispersed, owing to the notion that wind dispersal is the dominant strategy. However, inconspicuous but fleshy, indehiscent fruit can be observed in distantly related plants that have independently evolved full heterotrophy. Here I investigated the seed dispersal system in three unrelated fully heterotrophic plants with fleshy, indehiscent fruits (Yoania amagiensis, Monotropastrum humile and Phacellanthus tubiflorus) by direct observation, a differential exclusion experiment of fruit feeders and investigation on seed viability through the digestive tract...
November 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114441/increasing-evidence-that-bats-actively-forage-at-wind-turbines
#9
Cecily F Foo, Victoria J Bennett, Amanda M Hale, Jennifer M Korstian, Alison J Schildt, Dean A Williams
Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112984/olfactory-signaling-of-aggressive-intent-in-male-male-contests-of-cave-crickets-troglophilus-neglectus-orthoptera-rhaphidophoridae
#10
Nataša Stritih, Alenka Žunič Kosi
In animal contests, communicating aggressive motivation is most often mediated by visual or acoustic signals, while chemical signals are not expected to serve such a function since they are less able to be modulated by the sender during the changing behavioral context. We describe a rare example of ephemeral olfactory signals in terrestrial animals, signals that are emitted via protrusive scent glands in male cave crickets Troglophilus neglectus (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae) to reflect the state of the signaler's aggression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111627/quantification-of-bowling-workload-and-changes-in-cognitive-function-in-elite-fast-bowlers-in-training-compared-with-twenty20-cricket
#11
Jamie Tallent, Matthew Higgins, Nick Parker, Mark Waldron, Eoin Bradford, James Keenan, Barry V O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Bowling overs are the primary recorded measure for workloads in cricket for youth through to professionals. However, the validity of this measure has never been tested. Additionally, despite the cognitive component of cricket being suggested to be very high, changes in psychomotor processing speed has again not been explored. METHODS: Eight professional English county cricket bowlers participated in the study. Participants wore global positioning systems with a tri-axial accelerometer during a Twenty20 match and training...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096008/satellite-dnas-are-conserved-and-differentially-transcribed-among-gryllus-cricket-species
#12
Octavio Manuel Palacios-Gimenez, Vanessa Bellini Bardella, Bernardo Lemos, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello
Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant class of non-coding repetitive DNA that is preferentially found as tandemly repeated arrays in gene-poor heterochromatin but is also present in gene-rich euchromatin. Here, we used DNA- and RNA-seq from Gryllus assimilis to address the content and transcriptional patterns of satDNAs. We also mapped RNA-seq libraries for other Gryllus species against the satDNAs found in G. assimilis and G. bimaculatus genomes to investigate their evolutionary conservation and transcriptional profiles in Gryllus...
October 31, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095501/effect-of-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus-flour-addition-on-physicochemical-and-textural-properties-of-meat-emulsion-under-various-formulations
#13
Hyun-Wook Kim, Derico Setyabrata, YongJae Lee, Owen G Jones, Yuan H Brad Kim
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093099/functional-insights-into-the-adjacent-stem-loop-in-honey-bee-dicistroviruses-that-promotes-ires-mediated-translation-and-viral-infection
#14
Hilda H T Au, Valentina M Elspass, Eric Jan
All viruses must successfully harness the host translational apparatus and divert it towards viral protein synthesis. Dicistroviruses use an unusual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism whereby the IRES adopts a three-pseudoknot structure that accesses the ribosome tRNA binding sites to directly recruit the ribosome and initiate translation from a non-AUG start site. A subset of dicistroviruses, including the honey bee Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), encode an extra stem-loop (SLVI) 5' -adjacent to the IGR IRES...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089641/roles-of-dopamine-neurons-in-mediating-the-prediction-error-in-aversive-learning-in-insects
#15
Kanta Terao, Makoto Mizunami
In associative learning in mammals, it is widely accepted that the discrepancy, or error, between actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs. The prediction error theory has been proposed to account for the finding of a blocking phenomenon, in which pairing of a stimulus X with an unconditioned stimulus (US) could block subsequent association of a second stimulus Y to the US when the two stimuli were paired in compound with the same US. Evidence for this theory, however, has been imperfect since blocking can also be accounted for by competitive theories...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089246/osteoarthritis-and-other-long-term-health-conditions-in-former-elite-cricketers
#16
Mary E Jones, Madeleine A M Davies, Kirsten M Leyland, Antonella Delmestri, Angus Porter, Jason Ratcliffe, Nick Peirce, Julia L Newton, Nigel K Arden
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and risk of chronic conditions in former elite cricketers compared to a normal population, and describe wellbeing in former elite cricketers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Former elite cricketers, recruited from the Professional Cricketers' Association, completed a self-report cross-sectional questionnaire. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) served as the normal population...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081438/two-spotted-cricket-as-an-animal-infection-model-of-human-pathogenic-fungi
#17
Yuto Kochi, Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Chikara Kaito
Invertebrate infection models that can be evaluated at human body temperature are limited. In this study, we utilized the two-spotted cricket, a heat-tolerant insect, as an animal infection model of human pathogenic fungi. Injection of human pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Cryptococcus neoformans killed crickets within 48 h at both 27˚C and 37˚C. The median lethal dose values (LD50 values) of C. albicans and C. glabrata against crickets were decreased at 37˚C compared to that at 27˚C, whereas the LD50 value of C...
October 29, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076151/linking-micro-and-macroevolutionary-perspectives-to-evaluate-the-role-of-quaternary-sea-level-oscillations-in-island-diversification
#18
Anna Papadopoulou, L Lacey Knowles
With shifts in island area, isolation, and cycles of island fusion-fission, the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations as drivers of diversification is complex and not well understood. Here we conduct parallel comparisons of population and species divergence between two island areas of equivalent size that have been affected differently by sea-level oscillations, with the aim to understand the micro- and macroevolutionary dynamics associated with sea-level change. Using genome-wide datasets for a clade of seven Amphiacusta ground cricket species endemic to the Puerto Rico Bank (PRB), we found consistently deeper interspecific divergences and higher population differentiation across the unfragmented Western PRB, in comparison to the currently fragmented Eastern PRB that has experienced extreme changes in island area and connectivity during the Quaternary...
October 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070604/khalid-khan-cricketer-in-chief
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051874/hamulus-stress-fracture-in-a-batsman-an-unusual-injury-in-cricket-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
M S Dhillon, Rakesh John, Himmat Dhillon, Sidak Dhillon, Sharad Prabhakar
INTRODUCTION: Hamulus fractures are uncommon injuries constituting 2-4% of carpal fractures and are usually reported in athletes. Stress fractures of hamulus are even rarer and very few cases have been reported till date. In this case report, we present the first documented case of stress fracture of hamulus in a cricket batsman and review the existing literature on hamulus fractures, both acute and stress fractures, in sportspersons in general. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old, right-handed, cricket batsman presented with pain in the hypothenar region of his left hand of 7 weeks duration...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
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