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Laurel B Symes, Rafael L Rodríguez, Gerlinde Höbel
Many organisms share communication channels, generating complex signaling environments that increase the risk of signal interference. Variation in abiotic conditions, such as temperature, may further exacerbate signal interference, particularly in ectotherms. We tested the effects of temperature on the pulse rate of male signals in a community of Oecanthus tree crickets, and for one focal species we also assessed its effect on female pulse rate preferences and motivation to seek mates. We confirm prior findings of temperature-dependent signals that result in increasing signal similarity at lower temperatures...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jun Kyun Oh, Spencer T Behmer, Richelle Marquess, Cengiz Yegin, Ethan A Scholar, Mustafa Akbulut
This study investigates the structural properties of the hind leg femur-tibia joint in adult katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), including its tribological and mechanical properties. It is of particular interest because the orthopteran (e.g., grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids) hind leg is highly specialized for jumping. We show that the katydid hind leg femur-tibia joint had unique surfaces and textures, with a friction coefficient (μ) at its coupling surface of 0.053 ± 0.001. Importantly, the sheared surfaces at this joint showed no sign of wear or damage, even though it had undergone thousands of external shearing cycles...
August 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Gary Te Lau, Ali Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
Takuya Kosumi, Makio Takeda
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism.Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets.Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland...
August 8, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Ionuţ Ştefan Iorgu, Elena Iulia Iorgu, Gergely Szövényi, Kirill Márk Orci
A new, morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterine bush-crickets is described from the grasslands of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians. Despite the morphological and acoustic similarities with the recently described Isophya nagyi Szövényi, Puskás & Orci, I. bucovinensissp. n. is characterized by a peculiar male calling song, with faster syllable repetition rate (160-220 syllables per minute, at 22-27°C) and less complex syllable structure (composed of only two elements instead of three observable in I...
2017: ZooKeys
Peter Kaňuch, Martina Dorková, Andrey P Mikhailenko, Oleg A Polumordvinov, Benjamín Jarčuška, Anton Krištín
Phylogenetic analysis and assessment of the species status of mostly isolated populations of Pholidoptera frivaldszkyi in south-western Russia occurring far beyond the accepted area of the species distribution in the Carpathian-Balkan region were performed. Using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment, we found a very low level of genetic diversity in these populations. Phylogeographic reconstruction did not support recent introduction events but rather historical range fragmentation...
2017: ZooKeys
Laure Desutter-Grandcolas, Lauriane Jacquelin, Sylvain Hugel, Renaud Boistel, Romain Garrouste, Michel Henrotay, Ben H Warren, Ioana C Chintauan-Marquier, Patricia Nel, Philippe Grandcolas, André Nel
When the same complex trait is exhibited by closely related species, a single evolutionary origin is frequently invoked. The complex stridulatory apparatus present in the forewings of extant crickets, mole crickets, katydids, and prophalangopsids, is currently interpreted as sharing a single common origin due to their similarity and unique function. An alternative hypothesis of convergent evolution in these ensiferan groups has challenged this common view, but remained controversial because of competing interpretations of wing venation...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Olivier Bugaud, Nathalie Barbier, Hélène Chommy, Nicolas Fiszman, Antoine Le Gall, David Dullin, Matthieu Saguy, Nathalie Westbrook, Karen Perronet, Olivier Namy
Protein synthesis is a complex multi-step process involving many factors that need to interact in a coordinated manner to properly translate the messenger RNA. As translating ribosomes cannot be synchronized over many elongation cycles, single molecule studies have been introduced to bring a deeper understanding of prokaryotic translation dynamics. Extending this approach to eukaryotic translation is very appealing, but initiation and specific labelling of the ribosomes are much more complicated. Here we use a non-canonical translation initiation based on internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and we monitor the passage of individual, unmodified mammalian ribosomes at specific fluorescent milestones along mRNA...
August 2, 2017: RNA
A Warren, S Williams, S McCaig, G Trewartha
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to explore the relationship between acute (1 week) and chronic (4-week average) bowling workloads and injury risk in National Development Programme fast bowlers, and to investigate individual differences in the relationship between acute:chronic workloads and injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Bowling workloads and injury data were collected prospectively for 29 male fast bowlers (age range 15-18) on a National Programme over two years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Joshua Isaacson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Stephanie R Filbay, Felicity Bishop, Nicholas Peirce, Mary E Jones, Nigel K Arden
OBJECTIVES: Retired professional cricketers shared unique experiences and may possess specific psychological attributes with potential to influence quality of life (QOL). Additionally, pain and osteoarthritis can be common in retired athletes which may negatively impact QOL. However, QOL in retired athletes is poorly understood. This study explores the following questions from the personal perspective of retired cricketers: How do retired cricketers perceive and experience musculoskeletal pain and function in daily life? Are there any psychological attributes that might enhance or hinder retired cricketers' QOL? DESIGN: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were subject to inductive, thematic analysis...
July 26, 2017: BMJ Open
Aaron J Beach, René E D Ferdinands, Peter J Sinclair
The techniques of spin bowling in cricket have been largely formulated from the collective intuitions of past players. A standard model of bowling technique has been generally prescribed for both off-spin and leg-spin bowlers, but there has been no biomechanics research to validate this approach. This study measured 20 Type-2 off-spin and 15 Type-2 leg-spin bowlers using a 3D Cortex motion analysis system. Correlation coefficients between segmental kinematic variables and spin rate in the off-spin and leg-spin bowlers revealed that off-spin bowling was associated with an earlier movement time of the thorax, whereas leg-spin bowling was associated with a greater magnitude and earlier movement time of pelvis rotation, as well as a greater magnitude of pelvis-shoulder separation movement...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Summon Chomchai, Chulathida Chomchai
BACKGROUND: Insect consumption is a common practice in the Asian culture and all over the world. We are reporting an outbreak investigation of histamine poisoning from ingestion of fried insects. METHODS: On 24 July 2014, a group of students at a seminar presented to Angthong Provincial Hospital, Thailand, with pruritic rash after ingesting snacks consisting of fried insects from a vendor. We initiated an outbreak investigation with retrospective cohort design and collected samples of remaining foods for analyses...
July 27, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz, Paulina Furmaniak, Edyta Bieszczad-Bedrejczuk, Grzegorz Bartosz, Rafał Głowacki
Main thiols and disulfides were determined in the hemolymph of the Jamaican field cricket Gryllus assimilis at various developmental stages. On the basis of these data, redox potentials of the glutathione, cysteine and homocysteine redox systems were calculated. The concentrations of all thiols studied decreased during development (at a stage of 6 molts) with respect to young crickets, and increased again in adult insects. Redox potentials of the glutathione and cysteine systems increased from values of -131...
July 27, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Leonie V Webster, James Hardy, Lew Hardy
While organizational psychology attests to the multidimensional nature of team effectiveness, insight regarding the most important factors contributing to the effectiveness of sports teams, especially elite teams, is lacking. An abductive method of qualitative enquiry was adopted to capture participants' construal of team effectiveness, drawing on the extant literature in both sport and organizational psychology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 players, coaches, and psychologists involved in elite cricket, with resultant data analyzed inductively initially, before being reanalyzed deductively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Octavio Manuel Palacios-Gimenez, Guilherme Borges Dias, Leonardo Gomes de Lima, Gustavo Campos E Silva Kuhn, Érica Ramos, Cesar Martins, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello
Satellite DNAs (satDNAs) constitute large portion of eukaryote genomes, comprising non-protein-coding sequences tandemly repeated. They are mostly found in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes such as around centromere or near telomeres, in intercalary heterochromatin, and often in non-recombining segments of sex chromosomes. We examined the satellitome in the cricket Eneoptera surinamensis (2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y, males) to characterize the molecular evolution of its neo-sex chromosomes. To achieve this, we analyzed illumina reads using graph-based clustering and complementary analyses...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew R Nealon, Jill L Cook
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the past incidence of side strain injury and its associated factors in first-class cricket fast bowlers in Australia and England. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Professional cricket. PARTICIPANTS: Cricket fast bowlers who were professionally contracted full time at first-class level in Australia and England in 2011. All bowlers were male and aged 18 or older. A bowler was defined as a fast bowler if the wicketkeeper would take their stance back from the stumps...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Caitlin L Anderson, Michael M Kasumovic
Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling...
2017: PeerJ
Matthew J Lees, Clive B Beggs, Matthew J Barlow, Zoe H Rutherford, Kunwar Bansil, Lisa Gannon, Karen Hind
The skeleton of a cricket fast bowler is exposed to a unique combination of gravitational and torsional loading in the form of substantial ground reaction forces delivered through the front landing foot, and anterior-posterior shear forces mediated by regional muscle contractions across the lumbo-pelvic region. The objectives of this study were to compare the hip structural characteristics of elite fast bowlers with recreationally active age-matched controls, and to examine unilateral bone properties in fast bowlers...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Kwang-Zin Lee, Andreas Vilcinskas
The invasive insect pest Drosophila suzukii infests ripening fruits and causes massive agricultural damage in North America and Europe (Cini et al., 2012). Environmentally sustainable strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of this species, and entomopathogenic viruses offer one potential solution for global crop protection. Here we report the status of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the susceptibility of D. suzukii to three model insect viruses: Drosophila C virus, Cricket paralysis virus and Flock house virus...
September 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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