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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#1
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627293/new-evidence-of-relative-age-effects-in-super-elite-sportsmen-a-case-for-the-survival-and-evolution-of-the-fittest
#2
Benjamin D Jones, Gavin P Lawrence, Lew Hardy
The relative age effect (RAE) describes an overrepresentation of players born early (Q1) in a selection year and is highly prevalent within youth sport pathways. However, a dearth of research has investigated the RAE at the "super-elite" level. The present research assessed the presence of RAE in super-elite performers. Study 1 investigated RAEs in the world's best international Test cricketers (N = 262) over a 20-year period according to a robust and stringent "super-elite" criteria. Results revealed the RAE (Q1) when all disciplines were combined...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627055/cholelithiasis-in-adult-bearded-dragons-retrospective-study-of-nine-adult-bearded-dragons-pogona-vitticeps-with-cholelithiasis-between-2013-and-2015-in-southern-germany
#3
A Gimmel, H Kempf, S Öfner, D Müller, A Liesegang
With an increased number of pet reptiles, many diseases occur due to nutritional disorders. Between 2013 and 2015, irregular gallbladder contents (sludge/choleliths) in adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were recorded in many of the routinely conducted necropsies at the reptile rescue station in Munich (Auffangstation für Reptilien, München e.V., Munich, Germany). Nine animals, six from the rescue station and three from an associated veterinary practice (Tierärztliche Praxis für Exoten, Augsburg, Germany), were studied...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620336/how-to-trick-your-opponent-a-review-article-on-deceptive-actions-in-interactive-sports
#4
REVIEW
Iris Güldenpenning, Wilfried Kunde, Matthias Weigelt
Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents' performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball) has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610385/complete-mitochondrial-genome-and-taxonomic-revision-of-cardiodactylus-muiri-otte-2007-gryllidae-eneopterinae-lebinthini
#5
Jiajia Dong, Natallia Vicente, Ioana C Chintauan-Marquier, Cahyo Ramadi, Agnès Dettai, Tony Robillard
In the present study, we report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the cricket Cardiodactylus muiri Otte, 2007. The mitogenome was sequenced using a long-PCR approach on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) for next generation sequencing technology. The total length of the amplified mitogenome is 16,328 bp, representing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and one noncoding region (D-loop region). The new sets of long-PCR primers reported here are invaluable resources for future comparative evolutionary genomic studies in Orthopteran insects...
May 15, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610217/a-new-genus-and-species-of-neotropical-nemobiinae-insecta-orthoptera-grylloidea-trigonidiidae-nemobiinae
#6
Fabiene Maria DE Jesus, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, Geanne Carla Ripani Rodrigues, Carlos Frankl Sperber
A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609930/first-record-of-the-ant-cricket-i-myrmecophilus-i-i-myrmecophilina-i-i-americanus%C3%A2-i-orthoptera-myrmecophilidae-in-mexico
#7
Aldo I Ortega-Morales, Quetzaly K Siller Rodríguez, Javier A Garza-Hernández, Adebiyi A Adeniran, Luis M Hernández-Triana, Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez
In September 2004, the New World ant cricket, Myrmecophilus americanus Saussure, 1877, was collected in association with longhorn crazy ants, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille. 1802), in the state of Coahuila, Mexico. We are reporting the DNA barcode using the mitochrondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I for this first record of M. americanus in Mexico.
April 27, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609858/new-data-on-the-bush-cricket-montana-medvedevi-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-critically-endangered-in-europe-eu-28-and-a-comparison-of-its-song-with-all-known-song-patterns-within-the-genus
#8
Slobodan Ivković, Ionuț Ștefan Iorgu, Laslo Horvat, Dragan Chobanov, Olga Korsunovskaya, Klaus-Gerhard Heller
Montana medvedevi is reported for the first time from Serbia. New information about the distribution, morphology and song of this species is discussed. The song of M. medvedevi is different from that of all other members of the genus, all figured for comparison. Montana is quite diverse regarding the amplitude pattern of the calling song of its members (known in 15 species). Surprisingly, some Montana species seem to have two song patterns, one produced during the day and one at night.
May 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607825/cranioplasty-indications-procedures-and-outcome-an-institutional-experience
#9
Syed M Andrabi, Arif H Sarmast, Altaf R Kirmani, Abdul R Bhat
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty, the repair of a skull vault defect by insertion of an object (bone or nonbiological materials such as metal or plastic plates), is a well-known procedure in modern neurosurgery. Brain protection and cosmetic aspects are the major indications of cranioplasty. A retroprospective study was conducted for evaluating the indications, materials used, complications, and outcome of cranioplasty. METHODS: This study was prospective from August 2013 to September 2015 and retrospective from August 2010 to July 2013...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596213/chamber-music-an-unusual-helmholtz-resonator-for-song-amplification-in-a-neotropical-bush-cricket-orthoptera-tettigoniidae
#10
Thorin Jonsson, Benedict D Chivers, Kate Robson Brown, Fabio A Sarria-S, Matthew Walker, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Animals use sound for communication, with high-amplitude signals being selected for attracting mates or deterring rivals. High amplitudes are attained by employing primary resonators in sound producing structures to amplify the signal (e.g., avian syrinx). Some species actively exploit acoustic properties of natural structures to enhance signal transmission by using these as secondary resonators (e.g., tree-hole frogs). Male bush-crickets produce sound by tegminal stridulation and often use specialised wing areas as primary resonators...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584393/adult-bacterial-exposure-increases-behavioral-variation-and-drives-higher-repeatability-in-field-crickets
#11
Nicholas DiRienzo, Petri T Niemelä, Ann V Hedrick, Raine Kortet
Among-individual differences in behavior are now a widely studied research-focus within the field of behavioral ecology. Furthermore, elements of an animal's internal state, such as energy or fat reserves, and infection status can have large impacts on behaviors. Despite this, we still know little regarding how state may affect behavioral variation. Recent exposure to pathogens may have a particularly large impact on behavioral expression given that it likely activates costly immune pathways, potentially forcing organism to make behavioral tradeoffs...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576094/frequency-and-phase-synchronization-in-large-groups-low-dimensional-description-of-synchronized-clapping-firefly-flashing-and-cricket-chirping
#12
Edward Ott, Thomas M Antonsen
A common observation is that large groups of oscillatory biological units often have the ability to synchronize. A paradigmatic model of such behavior is provided by the Kuramoto model, which achieves synchronization through coupling of the phase dynamics of individual oscillators, while each oscillator maintains a different constant inherent natural frequency. Here we consider the biologically likely possibility that the oscillatory units may be capable of enhancing their synchronization ability by adaptive frequency dynamics...
May 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573026/non-invasive-biophysical-measurement-of-travelling-waves-in-the-insect-inner-ear
#13
Fabio A Sarria-S, Benedict D Chivers, Carl D Soulsbury, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Frequency analysis in the mammalian cochlea depends on the propagation of frequency information in the form of a travelling wave (TW) across tonotopically arranged auditory sensilla. TWs have been directly observed in the basilar papilla of birds and the ears of bush-crickets (Insecta: Orthoptera) and have also been indirectly inferred in the hearing organs of some reptiles and frogs. Existing experimental approaches to measure TW function in tetrapods and bush-crickets are inherently invasive, compromising the fine-scale mechanics of each system...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553263/spatial-structure-of-the-mormon-cricket-gut-microbiome-and-its-predicted-contribution-to-nutrition-and-immune-function
#14
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Frank Healy, Karthikeyan Swaminath, Ulrich G Mueller
The gut microbiome of insects plays an important role in their ecology and evolution, participating in nutrient acquisition, immunity, and behavior. Microbial community structure within the gut is heavily influenced by differences among gut regions in morphology and physiology, which determine the niches available for microbes to colonize. We present a high-resolution analysis of the structure of the gut microbiome in the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex, an insect known for its periodic outbreaks in the western United States and nutrition-dependent mating system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539524/song-pattern-recognition-in-crickets-based-on-a-delay-line-and-coincidence-detector-mechanism
#15
Berthold Hedwig, Edith Julieta Sarmiento-Ponce
Acoustic communication requires filter mechanisms to process and recognize key features of the perceived signals. We analysed such a filter mechanism in field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus), which communicate with species-specific repetitive patterns of sound pulses and chirps. A delay-line and coincidence-detection mechanism, in which each sound pulse has an impact on the processing of the following pulse, is implicated to underlie the recognition of the species-specific pulse pattern. Based on this concept, we hypothesized that altering the duration of a single pulse or inter-pulse interval in three-pulse chirps will lead to different behavioural responses...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535739/consistency-of-kinematic-and-kinetic-patterns-during-a-prolonged-spell-of-cricket-fast-bowling-an-exploratory-laboratory-study
#16
Andrew Schaefer, Nicholas O'dwyer, René E D Ferdinands, Suzi Edwards
Due to the high incidence of lumbar spine injury in fast bowlers, international cricket organisations advocate limits on workload for bowlers under 19 years of age in training/matches. The purpose of this study was to determine whether significant changes in either fast bowling technique or movement variability could be detected throughout a 10-over bowling spell that exceeded the recommended limit. Twenty-five junior male fast bowlers bowled at competition pace while three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected for the leading leg, trunk and bowling arm...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532284/does-performance-level-affect-initial-ball-flight-kinematics-in-finger-and-wrist-spin-cricket-bowlers
#17
Wayne Spratford, David Whiteside, Bruce Elliott, Marc Portus, Nicholas Brown, Jacqueline Alderson
Spin bowling plays a fundamental role within the game of cricket yet little is known about the initial ball kinematics in elite and pathway spin bowlers or their relationship to performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to record three-dimensional ball kinematics in a large and truly high level cohort of elite and pathway finger-spin (FS) and wrist-spin (WS) bowlers, identifying potential performance measures that can be subsequently used in future research. A 22-camera Vicon motion analysis system captured retro-reflective markers placed on the seam (static) and ball (dynamic) to quantify ball kinematics in 36 FS (12 elite and 24 pathway) and 20 WS (eight elite and 12 pathway) bowlers...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522639/definition-of-a-rack1-interaction-network-in-drosophila-melanogaster-using-swath-ms
#18
Lauriane Kuhn, Karim Majzoub, Evelyne Einhorn, Johana Chicher, Julien Pompon, Jean-Luc Imler, Philippe Hammann, Carine Meignin
Receptor for Activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is a scaffold protein that has been found in association with several signaling complexes, and with the 40S subunit of the ribosome. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we recently showed that RACK1 is required at the ribosome for IRES-mediated translation of viruses. Here, we report a proteomic characterization of the interactome of RACK1 in Drosophila S2 cells. We carried out Label-Free quantitation using both Data-Dependent and Data-Independent Acquisition and observed a significant advantage for the Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) method both in terms of identification of interactants and quantification of low abundance proteins...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508338/fluid-balance-in-team-sport-athletes-and-the-effect-of-hypohydration-on-cognitive-technical-and-physical-performance
#19
REVIEW
Ryan P Nuccio, Kelly A Barnes, James M Carter, Lindsay B Baker
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions...
May 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507370/a-comparative-study-of-dynamic-soft-tissue-mobilization-vs-passive-stretching-technique-to-improve-the-flexibility-of-hamstrings-in-cricket-players
#20
Mohsin Abbas, Muhammad Salman Bashir, Rabiya Noor
Different therapies are available for correcting the tightness of hamstring muscles. Objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Dynamic Soft Tissue Mobilization DSTM technique and Passive Stretching PS to improve the flexibility of tight hamstrings in cricket players. A total of 120 cricket players having tightness of hamstrings were enrolled and randomized into two groups A and B using lottery method. Group-A was treated with DSTM and group-B with PS to improve the flexibility of hamstrings...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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