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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102900/metabolic-theory-predicts-animal-self-thinning
#1
Tomas Jonsson
1.The Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. 2.Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#2
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098850/a-rare-exception-to-haldane-s-rule-are-x-chromosomes-key-to-hybrid-incompatibilities
#3
P A Moran, M G Ritchie, N W Bailey
The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system...
January 18, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#4
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096428/a-statistical-approach-to-understanding-reproductive-isolation-in-two-sympatric-species-of-tree-crickets
#5
Monisha Bhattacharya, Kavita Isvaran, Rohini Balakrishnan
In acoustically communicating animals, reproductive isolation between sympatric species is usually maintained through species-specific calls. This requires that the receiver be tuned to the conspecific signal. Mapping the response space of the receiver onto the signal space of the conspecific investigates this tuning. A combinatorial approach to investigating the response space is more informative as the influence on the receiver of the interactions between the features is also elucidated. However most studies have examined individual preference functions rather than the multivariate response space...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092208/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-cricket-relevant-performance-among-elite-players
#6
Daren Veness, Stephen David Patterson, Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron
This study investigated the effects of a mentally fatiguing test on physical tasks among elite cricketers. In a cross-over design, 10 elite male cricket players from a professional club performed a cricket run-two test, a Batak Lite reaction time test and a Yo-Yo-Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo-IR1) test, providing a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after completing a 30-min Stroop test (mental fatigue condition) or 30-min control condition. Perceived fatigue was assessed before and after the two conditions and motivation was measured before testing...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087896/eag-channels-expressed-in-microvillar-photoreceptors-are-unsuited-to-diurnal-vision
#7
Esa-Ville Immonen, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Mikko Vähäsöyrinki, Roman V Frolov
The principles underlying evolutionary selection of ion channels for expression in sensory neurons are unclear. Among species possessing microvillar photoreceptors the major ionic conductances have only been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila depolarization is provided by light-activated TRP channels with a minor contribution from TRPL channels, while repolarization is mediated by sustained voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels of the Shab family. Bright light stimulates Shab channels, further restricting depolarization and improving membrane bandwidth...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073352/you-are-what-you-eat-diet-shapes-body-composition-personality-and-behavioural-stability
#8
Chang S Han, Niels J Dingemanse
BACKGROUND: Behavioural phenotypes vary within and among individuals. While early-life experiences have repeatedly been proposed to underpin interactions between these two hierarchical levels, the environmental factors causing such effects remain under-studied. We tested whether an individual's diet affected both its body composition, average behaviour (thereby causing among-individual variation or 'personality') and within-individual variability in behaviour and body weight (thereby causing among-individual differences in residual within-individual variance or 'stability'), using the Southern field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus as a model...
January 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046065/infective-juveniles-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema-scapterisci-are-preferentially-activated-by-cricket-tissue
#9
Dihong Lu, Claudia Sepulveda, Adler R Dillman
Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031772/the-chronotype-of-elite-athletes
#10
Michele Lastella, Gregory D Roach, Shona L Halson, Charli Sargent
The aims of this study were (i) to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii) to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon) participated in this study. The participants' chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029711/the-complex-interplay-between-macronutrient-intake-cuticular-hydrocarbon-expression-and-mating-success-in-male-decorated-crickets
#11
James Rapkin, Kim Jensen, Clarissa M House, Scott K Sakaluk, John K Sakaluk, John Hunt
The condition-dependence of male sexual traits plays a central role in sexual selection theory. Relatively little, however, is known about the condition-dependence of chemical signals used in mate choice and their subsequent effects on male mating success. Furthermore, few studies have isolated the specific nutrient(s) responsible for condition-dependent variation in male sexual traits. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to determine the effect of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) expression and mating success in male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025314/cucumber-lure-trapping-of-zeugodacus-cucurbitae-diptera-tephritidae-in-hawaii-and-taiwan-longevity-and-nontargets-captures
#12
Eric B Jang, Lori A F N Carvalho, Chung-Chien Chen, Matthew S Siderhurst
The melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious pest of tropical horticulture, causing damage to cucurbits, tree fruits, and fruiting vegetables. Melon flies are especially attractive to freshly sliced cucumber, and this has led to the identification of a nine-compound kairomone lure that can be used to trap both female and male flies. In this study, a seven-compound lure, containing (Z)-6-nonenal, (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E)-2-nonenal, hexanal, and 1-hexanol, was formulated into PVC plugs (100 or 300 mg/plug) for field testing in wet traps...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024451/weathering-in-soil-increases-nanoparticle-cuo-bioaccumulation-within-a-terrestrial-food-chain
#13
Alia D Servin, Luca Pagano, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Roberto De la Torre-Roche, Joseph Hawthorne, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, René Loredo-Portales, Sanghamitra Majumdar, Jorge Gardea-Torresday, Om Parkash Dhankher, Jason C White
This study evaluates the bioaccumulation of unweathered (U) and weathered (W) CuO in NP, bulk and ionic form (0-400 mg/kg) by lettuce exposed for 70 d in soil co-contaminated with field incurred chlordane. To evaluate CuO trophic transfer, leaves were fed to crickets (Acheta domestica) for 15 d, followed by insect feeding to lizards (Anolis carolinensis). Upon weathering, the root Cu content of the NP treatment increased 214% (327 ± 59.1 mg/kg) over unaged treatment. Cu root content decreased in bulk and ionic treatments from 70-130 mg/kg to 13-26 mg/kg upon aging in soil...
December 26, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008292/incidence-and-prevalence-of-elite-male-cricket-injuries-using-updated-consensus-definitions
#14
John W Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims
BACKGROUND: T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over) cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances). International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket. METHODS: Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006-2007 to season 2015-2016 inclusive)...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003491/disruption-of-stress-granule-formation-by-the-multifunctional-cricket-paralysis-virus-1a-protein
#15
Anthony Khong, Craig H Kerr, Clarence Hl Yeung, Kathleen Keatings, Arabinda Nayak, Douglas W Allan, Eric Jan
: Stress granules (SGs) are cytosolic ribonucleoprotein aggregates that are induced during cellular stress. Several viruses modulate SG formation, suggesting that SGs have an impact on virus infection. However, the mechanisms and impact of modulating SG assembly in infected cells are not completely understood. In this study, we identify the dicistrovirus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) 1A protein that functions to inhibit SG assembly during infection. Moreover, besides inhibiting RNA interference, CrPV-1A also inhibits host transcription, which indirectly modulates SG assembly...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000283/maturational-and-social-factors-contributing-to-relative-age-effects-in-school-sports-data-from-the-london-youth-games
#16
K E Reed, D A Parry, G R H Sandercock
Few studies have investigated whether relative age effects (RAEs) exist in school sport. None have sought to test the competing maturational and social-agent hypotheses proposed to explain the RAE. We aimed to determine the presence of RAEs in multiple school sports and examine the contribution of maturational and social factors in commonplace school sports. We analyzed birth dates of n=10645 competitors (11-18 years) in the 2013 London Youth Games annual inter-school multisport competition and calculated odds ratio (OR) for students competing based on their yearly birth quarter (Q1-Q4)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999371/israeli-acute-paralysis-virus-infection-leads-to-an-enhanced-rna-interference-response-and-not-its-suppression-in-the-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris
#17
Kaat Cappelle, Guy Smagghe, Maarten Dhaenens, Ivan Meeus
RNA interference (RNAi) is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. In this work, we examined the effect of Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection on the RNAi process in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host's immune response. For this, a two-fold approach was used. Through a functional RNAi assay, we observed an enhancement of the RNAi system after IAPV infection instead of its suppression, despite only minimal upregulation of the genes involved in RNAi...
December 19, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998741/the-scolopidial-accessory-organ-in-the-jerusalem-cricket-orthoptera-stenopelmatidae
#18
Johannes Strauß
Multiple mechanosensory organs form the subgenual organ complex in orthopteroid insects, located in the proximal tibia. In several Ensifera (Orthoptera), a small chordotonal organ, the so-called accessory organ, is the most posterior part of this sensory complex. In order to document the presence of this accessory organ among the Ensifera, the chordotonal sensilla and their innervation in the posterior tibia of two species of Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus) is described. The sensory structures were stained by axonal tracing...
January 4, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982495/variation-in-malathion-sensitivity-among-populations-of-blanchard-s-cricket-frogs-acris-blanchardi-and-implications-for-risk-assessment
#19
Tyler D Hoskins, Michelle D Boone
Intraspecific variability in contaminant sensitivity could undermine risk assessments for non-target organisms like amphibians. To test how amphibian populations vary in tolerance to anticipated lethal and sublethal exposures to a pesticide, we exposed Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) from three populations across a broad portion of their range to the insecticide, malathion. Exposure in mesocosms to a nominal concentration of 1 mg/L (measured concentrations at 1 and 24-h post-addition of 0.160 and 0...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967283/do-fast-bowlers-fatigue-in-cricket-a-paradox-between-player-anecdotes-and-quantitative-evidence
#20
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Simeon P Cairns
The manifestations of fatigue during fast bowling in cricket were systematically evaluated using subjective/perceptual reports by cricket experts and quantitative data published from scientific studies. Narratives by international players/team physiotherapists were sourced from the internet using criteria for opinion-based evidence. Research articles were evaluated for high-level fast bowlers who delivered 5-12 over spells with at least one quantitative fatigue measure. Anecdotes indicate that a long-term loss of bowling speed, tiredness, mental fatigue and soreness occur...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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