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Biz R Turnell, Kerry L Shaw, H Kern Reeve
Two major challenges exist when empirically testing the predictions of sperm allocation theory. First, the study species must adhere to the assumptions of the model being tested. Unfortunately, the common assumption of sperm allocation models that females mate a maximum of once or twice does not hold for many, if not most, multiply and sequentially mating animals. Second, a model's parameters, which dictate its predictions, must be measured in the study species. Common examples of such parameters, female mating frequency and sperm precedence patterns, are unknown for many species used in empirical tests...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Yi Jun Zhou, Keisuke Fukumura, Shinji Nagata
Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) regulates energy homeostasis in insects by mobilizing lipid and carbohydrate from the fat body. Here, using RNA sequencing data, we identified cDNAs encoding AKH (GbAKH) and its highly homologous hormone AKH/corazonin-related peptide (GbACP) in the corpora cardiaca of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. RT-PCR revealed that GbAKH and GbACP are predominantly expressed in the corpora cardiaca and corpora allata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the identified GbAKH and GbACP belong to the clades containing other AKHs and ACPs, respectively...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Andrew Reid, David J W Hardie, David Mackie, Joseph C Jackson, James F C Windmill
Underwater acoustic transducers, particularly at low frequencies, are beset by problems of scale and inefficiency due to the large wavelengths of sound in water. In insect mating calls, a high call volume is usually desirable, increasing the range of signal transmission and providing a form of advertisement of the signaller's quality to a potential mate; however, the strength of the call is constrained by body size and by the need to avoid predators who may be listening in. Male crickets and water boatmen avoid some of the limitations of body size by exploiting resonant structures, which produce sharply tuned species-specific songs, but call frequency and volume remain linked to body size...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Arda Cem Kuyucu, Mehmet Kursat Sahin, Selim Sualp Caglar
According to the thermal melanism hypothesis, darker coloured melanic individuals heat up faster and to higher temperatures than lighter coloured individuals due to lower skin reflectance. Consequently, it is assumed that darker melanic types may be advantageous compared to light coloured types in colder regions. As temperature gradually decreases with elevation and latitude the degree of melanism is expected to increase along these gradients in ectothermic species. Isophya rizeensis, a colour polymorphic bush cricket species endemic to Northeastern Turkey is an interesting case since the degree of melanism decreases with elevation, contrary to the thermal melanism hypothesis...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Motoki Nose, Atsushi Tokuoka, Tetsuya Bando, Kenji Tomioka
The timeless2 (tim2) gene is an insect orthologue of the mammalian clock gene Timeless (mTim). Although its functional role has been extensively studied in mammals, little is known regarding its role in insects. In the present study, we obtained tim2 cDNA (Gb'tim2) from the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and characterized its functional role in embryonic development, egg production, and circadian rhythms. Gb'tim2 gave rise to a 1432 amino acid protein, and showed approximately 65% homology to that of Drosophila melanogaster...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Nirmala Kanthi Panagodage Perera, Corey Joseph, Joanne Lyn Kemp, Caroline Frances Finch
BACKGROUND: Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. METHODS: This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
Zhuqing He, Xiaoyin Wang, Yuqing Liu, Kai Li
Crickets of the genus Teleogryllus belong to Gryllidae, Orthoptera. Teleogryllus emma (Ohmachi and Matsumura) and T. occipitalis (Serville) are widely distributed in east Asia, but their distribution and life history have not been reported from China. We studied the seasonal and geographical adaptation by rearing these crickets and measuring specimens. The main results are as follows: T. emma belongs to short-day type, which means nymphs grow rapidly in short day conditions (LD 12:12); T. occipitalis belongs to long-day type, which means nymphs grow rapidly in long day conditions (LD 16:8)...
October 24, 2017: Zootaxa
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Kailash Chandra
Gryllacris durgensis sp. nov. is described from the Durg district, Chhattisgarh, India. The detailed morphological characters of adult male, female and nymph are provided.
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Lucas Denadai DE Campos, Francisco DE Assis Ganeo DE Mello
A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) are described from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil and Colombia. Desutterella manauara n. gen. n. sp. and D. colombiana n. gen. n. sp. are described based in characters of external morphology and genitalia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of reduced and pubescent male forewings, with stridulatory vein visible but other areas for sound production and propagation absent, and file teeth very reduced, vestigial. Regarding the male genitalia, Desutterella n...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Ranjana Jaiswara, Laure Desutter-Grandcolas
Gryllinae are one of the most diverse and widely distributed cricket groups. However, in South America they are known only from 10 genera. We update this list by describing two new genera and species of field crickets i.e. Laureopsis nauta Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. and Perugryllus estiron Jaiswara gen. nov., sp. nov. from Peru.
November 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Steven van Andel, Michael H Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping
Locomotor pointing is a task that has been the focus of research in the context of sport (e.g. long jumping and cricket) as well as normal walking. Collectively, these studies have produced a broad understanding of locomotor pointing, but generalizability has been limited to laboratory type tasks and/or tasks with high spatial demands. The current study aimed to generalize previous findings in locomotor pointing to the common daily task of approaching and stepping on to a curb. Sixteen people completed 33 repetitions of a task that required them to walk up to and step onto a curb...
December 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
Billy Senington, Raymond Y Lee, Jonathan Mark Williams
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), hip shoulder separation (HSS) and three-dimensional spinal kinematics during fast bowling in cricket. Thirty five elite male fast bowlers were analysed using three-dimensional inertial sensors on the spine. Lumbar, thoracic and thoracolumbar kinematics were determined during the delivery stride. Spearman's pairwise correlations displayed significant associations between SCR, thoracic and thoracolumbar lateral flexion between the back foot impact and max contralateral rotation phase of the delivery stride (rs = -...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Natasha Mhatre, Robert Malkin, Rittik Deb, Rohini Balakrishnan, Daniel Robert
Object manufacture in insects is typically inherited, and believed to be highly stereotyped. Optimization, the ability to select the functionally best material and modify it appropriately for a specific function, implies flexibility and is usually thought to be incompatible with inherited behaviour. Here we show that tree-crickets optimize acoustic baffles, objects that are used to increase the effective loudness of mate-attraction calls. We quantified the acoustic efficiency of all baffles within the naturally feasible design space using finite-element modelling and found that design affects efficiency significantly...
December 11, 2017: ELife
Joshua M Adie, Derek H Arnold
Cricket is a popular but potentially dangerous sport. It is played with a hard ball that can travel at great speeds. Serious injuries, including fatalities, have occurred when balls have struck participants. The game is traditionally played during daylight with a dark red ball, but recent games have been played during the day and at night using a 'pink' ball. We have reported data that seemed to justify concerns raised regarding the visibility of these new pink balls, as they were revealed to have a very low luminance contrast against pertinent backgrounds during twilight...
November 2017: I-Perception
Alice B Nongonierma, Candice Lamoureux, Richard J FitzGerald
Tropical banded crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) were studied for their ability to yield hydrolysates with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory properties. A cricket protein isolate (CPI) was prepared following extraction of the water soluble proteins from G. sigillatus powder (CP). The extraction yield and purity were 20.90 ± 0.35% and 57.0 ± 2.23%, respectively. Endogenous proteinase activities were detected in the CP, which were linked to the significant protein breakdown seen in this sample. Fifteen CPI hydrolysates (H1-H15) were generated with Protamex™ using a design of experiments (DOE) approach combining three parameters, temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C), enzyme to substrate ratio (E : S, 0...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
Ryusuke Niwa, Takashi Nishimura
The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Il-Hwan Kim, Sudarshan K Aryal, Dariush T Aghai, Ángel M Casanova-Torres, Kai Hillman, Michael P Kozuch, Erin J Mans, Terra J Mauer, Jean-Claude Ogier, Jerald C Ensign, Sophie Gaudriault, Walter G Goodman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Adler R Dillman
BACKGROUND: Xenorhabdus innexi is a bacterial symbiont of Steinernema scapterisci nematodes, which is a cricket-specialist parasite and together the nematode and bacteria infect and kill crickets. Curiously, X. innexi expresses a potent extracellular mosquitocidal toxin activity in culture supernatants. We sequenced a draft genome of X. innexi and compared it to the genomes of related pathogens to elucidate the nature of specialization. RESULTS: Using green fluorescent protein-expressing X...
December 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
Benedict D Chivers, Thorin Jonsson, Carl D Soulsbury, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Bush-crickets (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) generate sound using tegminal stridulation. Signalling effectiveness is affected by the widely varying acoustic parameters of temporal pattern, frequency and spectral purity (tonality). During stridulation, frequency multiplication occurs as a scraper on one wing scrapes across a file of sclerotized teeth on the other. The frequency with which these tooth-scraper interactions occur, along with radiating wing cell resonant properties, dictates both frequency and tonality in the call...
November 2017: Biology Letters
Rochishnu Dutta, Tom Tregenza, Rohini Balakrishnan
Sympatric divergent populations of the same species provide an opportunity to study the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Male mating calls are important in sexual selection in acoustically communicating species, and they also have the potential to maintain isolation among species or incipient species. We studied divergent south Indian populations of the bush cricket Mecopoda elongata which are extremely difficult to distinguish morphologically, but which exhibit striking divergence in male acoustic signals...
2017: PloS One
Busayo Emmanuel Ibitoye, Lokman Hakim Idris, Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor, Goh Yong Meng, Md Zuki Abu Bakar, Akib Adekunle Jimoh
Chitin ranks next to cellulose as the most important bio-polysaccharide which is majorly extracted from crustaceous shell. However, emergence of new areas of application of chitin and its derivatives have been on the increase and there is a growing demand for new chitin sources. In this study therefore, attempt was made to extract chitin from house cricket (Brachytrupes portentosus) by chemical method. The physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan extracted from crickets were compared with the commercial chitin and chitosan extracted from shrimp, in term of proximate analysis, particularly, of their ash and moisture contents...
November 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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