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Bone grafting

Gregory S Antonarakis, Bryan D Tompson, David M Fisher
OBJECTIVE:   Maxillary growth in patients with cleft lip and palate is highly variable. The authors' aim was to investigate associations between preoperative cleft lip measurements and maxillary growth determined cephalometrically in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (cUCLP). DESIGN:   Retrospective cross-sectional study. PATIENTS:   Children with cUCLP. METHODS:   Preoperative cleft lip measurements were made at the time of primary cheiloplasty and available for each patient...
November 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Kaixuan Ren, Haitao Cui, Qinghua Xu, Chaoliang He, Gao Li, Xuesi Chen
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess vast potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, an injectable hydrogel comprising poly(L-glutamic acid)-graft-tyramine (PLG-g-TA) with tunable microenvironment was developed via enzyme-catalyzed crosslinking, and used as artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) to explore the behaviors of BMSCs during three dimensional (3D) culture. It was found that the mechanical property, porous structure as well as degradation process of the hydrogels could be tuned by changing the copolymer concentration...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Adnan Bashir Bhatti, Sunny Kim
A 79-year-old female presented with incapacitating chronic neck pain. The patient's pain which was greatest on the left side persisted for 18 months and was described as stabbing in nature (10/10 intensity). In addition to her neck pain, the patient described having frequent headaches. After six weeks of physical therapy and undergoing a rhizotomy procedure, she showed no prolonged improvement. An epidural steroid injection provided only temporary pain relief and was followed by a successful posterior fusion using the Harms technique with iliac crest autogenous bone grafting and placement of polyaxial screws in the C1 lateral masses and C2 pedicles...
September 21, 2016: Curēus
Bo Li, Zhongning Liu, Jingwen Yang, Zhongchao Yi, Wenqian Xiao, Xue Liu, Xiaoling Yang, Wenfeng Xu, Xiaoling Liao
In this study, β-tricalcium phosphate (Ca3PO4, β-TCP) microspheres with different diameters were fabricated via a solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion method. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), the fabricated β-TCP microspheres were fully covered with a new bone-like apatite layer; subsequent analysis suggested that the microspheres have excellent bioactivity properties, specifically in inducing apatite deposition. The calcium release profiles of the microspheres were tested in pH7.4 Tris-HCl buffer, and results demonstrated that the Ca(2+) continually released from microspheres during the two-week test period...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Paulo Roberto Camati, Allan Fernando Giovanini, Hugo Eduardo de Miranda Peixoto, Cassiana Majewski Schuanka, Maria Cecília Giacomel, Melissa Rodrigues de Araújo, João César Zielak, Rafaela Scariot, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to verify the likely influence of presurgical administration of low doses of alendronate sodium in craniofacial bone repair and correlate the histological frame found on reparative tissue to the immunohistochemical presence of IGF1, IGF2, and osteopontin (OP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 120 rats were randomly allocated into four groups: group C (control), group OA (autogenous bone), group B (bisphosphonates), and group OA-B (autogenous bone + bisphosphonates)...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Benoit Schaller, Yufeng Zhang, Umadevi Kandalam, Maria Hernandez, Richard J Miron
OBJECTIVES: Recently, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9) has been characterized as one of the most osteogenic growth factors among the 15 human BMPs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rhBMP9 in comparison to the clinically utilized rhBMP2 on in vitro cell behavior when combined with two bone graft materials including demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBAs) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The absorption and release kinetics of rhBMPs from DFDBA and BCP were investigated by ELISA...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Yuya Nakatani, Hideki Agata, Yoshinori Sumita, Takamitsu Koga, Izumi Asahina
OBJECTIVE: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is typically isolated and applied immediately after preparation, making it both a time- and labor-intensive addition to the operative procedure. Thus, it would be convenient if PRP could be preserved. We evaluated the efficacy of freeze-dried PRP (FD-PRP), as compared with freshly isolated PRP (f-PRP) for bone engineering. DESIGN: FD-PRP was prepared by lyophilization of f-PRP and was subsequently preserved at -20°C for one month...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Hossein E Jazayeri, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Mehdi Razavi, Kimia Khoshroo, Farahnaz Fahimipour, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Luis Almeida, Lobat Tayebi
Tissue regeneration is rapidly evolving to treat anomalies in the entire human body. The production of biodegradable, customizable scaffolds to achieve this clinical aim is dependent on the interdisciplinary collaboration among clinicians, bioengineers and materials scientists. While bone grafts and varying reconstructive procedures have been traditionally used for maxillofacial defects, the goal of this review is to provide insight on all materials involved in the progressing utilization of the tissue engineering approach to yield successful treatment outcomes for both hard and soft tissues...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Guang-Hui Zhu, Hai-Bo Mei, Rong-Guo He, Yao-Xi Liu, Kun Liu, Jin Tang, Jiang-Yan Wu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the initial union rate, refracture rate and residual deformities of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), using combined surgery including pseudarthrosis resection, intramedullary rodding, autogenous iliac bone grafting and Ilizarov's fixator, with a mean 5.2 years follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records and diagrams of patients with Crawford type IV congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia between February 2007 and March 2010...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiaodan Luo, Lihua Xu, Yangqiu Li, Huo Tan
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor-derived T cells remains the major limitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell-cell communication that is important in T cell development. Recently, Notch signaling pathway is reported to be involved in regulating GVHD. To investigate the role of Notch inhibition in modulating GVHD, we established MHC-mismatched murine allo-BMT model. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitor in vivo could reduce aGVHD, which was shown by the onset time of aGVHD, body weight, clinical aGVHD scores, pathology aGVHD scores, and survival...
October 21, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Ricarda Lechner, David Putzer, Michael Liebensteiner, Christian Bach, Martin Thaler
PURPOSE: Bone graft substitutes have been successfully used in posterolateral lumbar fusion, anterior cervical fusion and animal studies. This study has been conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure. METHODS: In a prospective clinical study, ALIF cages were prefilled with β-TCP and additionally fixated with posterior pedicle screw. Computed tomography (CT) and X-rays were performed one year after surgery...
October 21, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Min-Min Shi, Yuan Kong, Yang Song, Yu-Qian Sun, Yu Wang, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Lan-Ping Xu, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Murine studies suggest that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are preferential supporting cells for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our previous work found that a reduced number of BM EPCs was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of PGF after allo-HSCT. However, little is known about the functional role of BM EPCs and how to improve impaired BM EPCs in PGF...
October 21, 2016: Blood
M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Robert J Gillespie, Derrick M Knapik, Ozan Akkus
Rotator cuff injuries are common in both young and elderly patients. Despite improvements in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the failure rates following tendon reconstruction remain unacceptably high. To improve outcomes, graft patches have been developed to provide mechanical strength and to furnish a scaffold for biologic growth across the delicate tendon-bone junction. Although no patch effectively re-creates the structured, highly organized system of prenatal tendon development, augmenting rotator cuff repair may help restore native tendon-to-bone attachment while reproducing the mechanical and biologic properties of native tendon...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Mathieu Manassero, Adeline Decambron, Bui Truong Huu Thong, Véronique Viateau, Morad Bensidhoum, Hervé Petite
The use of tissue-engineered bone constructs is an appealing strategy to overcome drawbacks of autografts for the treatment of massive bone defects. As a model organism, the mouse has already been widely used in bone-related research. Large diaphyseal bone defect models in mice, however, are sparse and often use bone fixation which fills the bone marrow cavity and does not provide optimal mechanical stability. The objectives of the current study were to develop a critical-size, segmental, femoral defect in nude mice...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sridhar Sanyasi, Satish Kumar, Arijit Ghosh, Rakesh Kumar Majhi, Navneet Kaur, Priyanka Choudhury, Udai P Singh, Chandan Goswami, Luna Goswami
Bone related problems are increasing as a consequence of increased life expectancy, disorders in life style, and other medical conditions enforcing the need for functional bones prepared in vitro at affordable cost. Lack of suitable surface which promotes growth of both osteogenic and nonosteogenic cells is a major limitation. Here a novel biomaterial is reported that is synthesized from natural polysaccharide, namely, tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP), which is grafted with hydrophilic acrylic acid (AA) by radical polymerization...
October 21, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Sebastian Stefanski, Börje Svensson, Andreas Thor
PURPOSE: Various augmentation procedures involving the maxillary sinus, using bone substitutes or bone, have been used to enhance bone support for dental implants. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the status of implants in patients who had undergone a maxillary sinus lift and immediate implant placement without the addition of graft material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients who had required bone augmentation of their maxillary sinus floor were evaluated in this study...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Marko Bumbaširević, Tomislav Palibrk, Henry Dushan E Atkinson, Aleksandar Lešić
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Ilizarov fine-wire compression/distraction technique in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion (SNU), without the use of bone graft. DESIGN: This is a prospective study of 20 consecutive patients in one center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 20 patients (19 males) with a mean SNU duration of 14.5 months. Four patients had proximal pole, 15 had waist, and 1 had a distal SNU. Patients with carpal instability, humpback deformities, carpal collapse, avascular necrosis, and marked degenerative change were excluded...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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